The Republic of Zambia is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. The neighbouring countries are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west. The capital city is Lusaka, located in the southeast of the country. The population is concentrated mainly around the capital Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt to the northwest.
Zambia has been inhabited for thousands of years by hunter-gatherers and migrating tribes. After sporadic visits by European explorers starting in the 18th century, Zambia was gradually claimed and occupied by the British as protectorate of Northern Rhodesia towards the end of the nineteenth century.
On 24 October 1964, the protectorate gained independence with the new name of Zambia, derived from the Zambezi river which flows through the country. Zambia was governed the single-party rule of President Kenneth Kaunda whose 27 years of socialist policies are said to have hurt the economy. Kaunda acceded to opposition demands for multiparty elections, and in 1991 peacefully relinquished power. Zambia has been a multiparty democracy since 1991. Today the country still faces steep challenges from poverty and AIDS. An estimated one in five adults is infected with HIV. The average per capita income is US $1150 (World Bank, 2008). About 60 % of the population are reportedly living on less than 1.25 dollars per day.