Brother AACOOLDRE : When was the Book of Revelations written?

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  1. AACOOLDRE

    AACOOLDRE Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    WHEN WAS REVELATIONS ORIGINALLY WRITTEN?

    Kenneth Humphreys wrote Jesus Never Existed p.182-184

    Humphreys book is like an encyclopedia handbook for Atheists, Agnostics and those Alienated bible scholars to consult with. It’s a necessary book that you need on your book shelf because it’s a tool. I was so excited with this confirmation of the timeline of my own findings I had to take a nap to calm down so I could write this essay. Just thin, if I would have written this essay 500 years ago I would have been jailed and hung.

    I was elated with it because it confirmed my suspicions that Revelations was originally written in the late 40’s or 50’s. I felt this was because I saw some strange links, clues and typological connections with Paul’s famine relief in 45AD with Revelations chapter 6 lampooning him as the black and pale horses dealing with food shortages and famine. The book of acts provides a clue to the link along with the letters of James, Jude and 2nd letter of Peter. I will get into all of this again later on. But for now, in the spirit of that thesis I quote Kenneth Humphreys book first and then I will explore other documentations dealing with my thesis.

    Humphreys believes that the book of Revelations is written by a Jew attacking Rome.

    Nero (Reign 54-68AD) 666 vs Caligula (reign 37-41AD) 616?

    Despite internal evidence for an earlier dating, Christian scribes often choose to aggrandize their own suffering by dating Revelations to the persecutions of Domitian about 96AD. This tradition began with Irenaeus at the end of the second century. Correctly understood as a Jewish resistance tract Revelation has nothing to do with later Christian suffering at all. Its core elements-the several alternative apocalyptic endings-almost certainly were in circulation in Palestine (particularly Galilee) in the mid-years of the first century, where such literature was popular. When was it written? The book itself tells us the answer, enigmatically but more precisely than any other book of the bible:

    Revelation 13:18

    18 This calls for wisdom. Let the person who has insight calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man.[a] That number is 666.

    The person these two classic quotes point to is Nero. For over a century scholars have known that Jewish numerology or gematria resolves the name Nero Caesar, as it appears in Hebrew (without vowels), into 666. Unlike English, all letters of the Hebrew alphabet have a numerical equivalent, which opens the door to all sorts of esoteric or mystical use. Engels credits a fellow German with the resolution of the riddle:

    This solution was given by Fedinand Benary of Berlin. The name Nero. The number is based on (Hebrew) Nerinesar, the Hebrew spelling of the Greek Neron Kaisar, emperor Nero, authenticated by means of the Talmud and Palmyrian inscriptions. This inscription was found on coins of Nero’s time minted in the eastern half of the empire. And so-n (nun)=50; r (resh)=200; V (vau) for O=6; n (nun)=50; K (kaph)=100; s (samech)=60; r (resh)=200. Total 666. If we take as a basis the Latin spelling Nero Caesar. If we take as a basis the Latin spelling nero Caesar the second nun=50 disappears and we get 666-50=616, which is Irenaeus’s reading” (On the History of Early Christianity, III)…

    Many early Christians rejected the book outright, attributing authorship and the doctrine of an earthly kingdom to a late first century Jewish Egyptian heretic called Cerinthus. (No wonder why Christ mother clothed in the sun, with the moon at her feet wearing 12 stars of the Zodiac is a reasonable description of Isis see p.179)

    To the chagrin of many Christians ever since, Revelation nonetheless sneaked its way into the bible, tucked away at the back and-horror fiction apart-largely forgotten.

    Fragments from the book of Revelation, written in Greek and dating from the late 3rd century, are even now revealing their secrets. They are part of a hoard of previously unintelligible manuscripts discovered a century ago in dumps outside Oxyrhynchus in Egypt. New photographic techniques are finally deciphering the original writing.

    What do they reveal? Precisely what Benary said over a century ago. Could the Roman rascal be Caligula rather than Nero?

    This is an example of gematria, where numbers are based on the numerical values of letters in people’s names. Early Christians would use numbers to hide the identity of people who they were attacking: 616 refers to the Emperor Caligula” –David Parker, professor of New Testament Textual Criticism and Paleography at the university of Birmingham.”

    So what does this all have to do with my Thesis that Paul’s Famine relief in the 40’s was linked with the famine and food shortages talked about with the Black Horse and the pale horse in Revelations? Well it ties down the originally timeline to the 40’s famine rather than the 90’s famine.

    In my other essays I stated that the letters of James, Jude and 2nd Peter were lampooning Paul as a foolish Horse, donkey and mule using Psalm 32 and Proverbs 26. The Book of Revelations chapter 6 followed in harmony with his other three comrades by re-cycling Zechariah’s 9:9-17 donkey,Colt, foal and war-horses in part to enhance his 4 horsemen metaphor. These four Bible writers are all using the same mode of attack againsit Paul by equating him with a Horse. The letter of Jude outright rejects Paul food distribution stating he only share food among themselves.

    Both Josephus (The Antiquities of the Jews Book 20 chapter 5:96-102) and Luke, the writer of the Book of Acts chapter 9 I believe are both attempting to leave clues that Paul was the unnamed innuendo attack of Rev 6 4-horsemen metaphor. First Josephus talks about the Famine in conjunction with a troop of horses slaying and slaughtering many. 2nd Luke writes in Acts chapter 9 about Paul being knocked down from a horse, eyes being blinded, scales dropping from his eyes to hand then getting immediately hungry for food. The only other time scales & food are mentioned in the NT is with Acts chapter 9 and Rev chapter 6. Recall Paul was symbolic of Hermes acts 14:12 (called Mercury in Rome and Thoth in Egypt is associated with balance scales). The components that comprise the eye of Thoth were given a numerical value and used when writing fractions. The fractions of the eye were called the Hekat, which was also a unit of volume used when measuring grain. Thus, the Hekat and Thoth (Paul) both symbolized measurement. What a coincidence that in Rev chapter 6: “A voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure (Hekat) of wheat for a penny…three measures (Hekat) of barley for a penny”.

    The Late great D.M. Murdock equates these four horses also with the Zodiac constellations and horsemen were planets:

    White Horse is Venus (Paul is castrated and lampooned as Venus star in Acts 13 using Hesiod)

    Red Horse is Mars (Paul was an enemy to Jews killing James)

    Black horse is Saturn ( Paul’s famine relief, Saturn symbolic of crops disappearance in winter)

    Pale Horse is Mercury (Paul is a composite of Mercury) The Christ Conspiracy p.269

    Now if we turn to citing sources from Josephus and Tacitus we can get more into the context of Paul’s famine relief and Rev 6 allusion to food shortages and famine.

    Tacitus Annals Book 12:57:

    “Several prodigies occurred in that year. Birds of evil omen perched on the Capitol; houses were thrown down by frequent shocks of earthquake, and as the panic spread, all the weak were trodden down in the hurry and confusion of the crowd. Scanty crops too, and consequent famine were regarded as a token of calamity. Nor were there merely whispered complaints; while Claudius was administering justice, the populace crowded round him with a boisterous clamour and drove him to a corner of the forum, where they violently pressed on him till he broke through the furious mob with a body of soldiers. It was ascertained that Rome had provisions for no more than fifteen days, and it was through the signal bounty of heaven and the mildness of the winter that its desperate plight was relieved. And yet in past days Italy used to send supplies for the legions into distant provinces, and even now it is not a barren soil which causes distress. But we prefer to cultivate Africa and Egypt, and trust the life of the Roman people to ships and all their risks”.



    JOSEPHUS The Antiquities of the Jews Book 20 chapter 5:96-102:

    Josephus The Antiquities of the Jews Book 20 Chapter 5 on Emperor’s Claudius famine of 45-46AD

    CONCERNING THEUDAS AND THE SONS OF JUDAS THE GALILEAN; AS ALSO WHAT CALAMITY FELL UPON THE JEWS ON THE DAY OF THE PASSOVER


    1. NOW it came to pass, while Fadus was procurator of Judea, that a certain magician, whose name was Theudas, persuaded a great part of the people to take their effects with them, and follow him to the river Jordan; for he told them he was a prophet, and that he would, by his own command, divide the river, and afford them an easy passage over it; and many were deluded by his words. However, Fadus did not permit them to make any advantage of his wild attempt, but sent a troop of horsemen out against them; who, falling upon them unexpectedly, slew many of them, and took many of them alive. They also took Theudas alive, and cut off his head, and carried it to Jerusalem. This was what befell the Jews in the time of Cuspius Fadus's government.

    2. Then came Tiberius Alexander as successor to Fadus; he was the son of Alexander the alabarch of Alexandria, which Alexander was a principal person among all his contemporaries, both for his family and wealth: he was also more eminent for his piety than this his son Alexander, for he did not continue in the religion of his country. Under these procurators that great famine happened in Judea, in which queen Helena bought corn in Egypt at a great expense, and distributed it to those that were in want, as I have related already. And besides this, the sons of Judas of Galilee were now slain; I mean of that Judas who caused the people to revolt, when Cyrenius came to take an account of the estates of the Jews, as we have showed in a foregoing book. The names of those sons were James and Simon, whom Alexander commanded to be crucified. But now Herod, king of Chalcis, removed Joseph, the son of Camydus, from the high priesthood, and made Ananias, the son of Nebedeu, his successor. And now it was that Cumanus came as successor to Tiberius Alexander; as also that Herod, brother of Agrippa the great king, departed this life, in the eighth year of the reign of Claudius Caesar. He left behind him three sons; Aristobulus, whom he had by his first wife, with Bernicianus, and Hyrcanus, both whom he had by Bernice his brother's daughter. But Claudius Caesar bestowed his dominions on Agrippa, junior”.

    We see how this famine is talked about in conjunction with a troop of horsemen that go about massacring people like that in Rev: 6 where mass of people are cut down by sword, famine, plague and wild beast (Paul etal) of the earth.

    Acts 11:25-30

    25 Then Barnabas went to Tarsus to look for Saul, 26 and when he found him, he brought him to Antioch. So for a whole year Barnabas and Saul met with the church and taught great numbers of people. The disciples were called Christians first at Antioch.

    27 During this time some prophets came down from Jerusalem to Antioch. 28 One of them, named Agabus, stood up and through the Spirit predicted that a severe famine would spread over the entire Roman world. (This happened during the reign of Claudius 41AD-54AD.) 29 The disciples, as each one was able, decided to provide help for the brothers and sisters living in Judea. 30 This they did, sending their gift to the elders by Barnabas and Saul/Paul.


    Robert Eisenman Takes on Acts and Josephus

    According to Robert Eisenman

    Subject: Famine relief during Emperor Claudius reign (41-54AD) as cited in the book of Acts

    James the Brother of Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls Volume 1 p.353 & 366:

    “The fact of the matter is that this notice in the book of Acts connecting the famine to a prophet Agabus, which in Josephus (The Antiquities of the Jews Book 20 chapter 5), is connected to the real-life Queen Helen, proves as almost nothing else can show early all these materials are. The notice also raises questions as to just what Paul’s and Barnabas relation to Helen was and who this Barnabas really was.

    In our view, at least Paul-if not Ananias-was among Queen Helen’s grain buying agents in Egypt and Cyprus. The gateway to Egypt has always been Gaza, a fact that will loom large in acts later Overwriting of these materials”.

    Then on p.366 Eisenman dates this famine between 45-48AD. I was concerned with Eisenman use of the term overwriting. On radio interviews I heard him use this in his description of stating that Paul’s attack on Stephen’s was really James in the early 40’s. you can read about it on p.157-159.

    THE FAMIME under Emperor Claudius By Robin Lane Fox’ book The Unauthorized Version: Truth and fiction in the Bible pp.345-348

    I don’t agree with Fox’s insight on Revelations famine talk being in the 90’s but she does provide other good themes to look at. I found it odd that fox brought up the 40’s famine along- side the 90’s famine. Fox first starts out on p.345 talking about Paul and his famine mission in 45/46AD

    “ In autumn and early winter 45 we know from papyri in Egypt that the price of grain had soared: in 45/46 we know from Josephus of a severe famine in Jerusalem which the visiting Helena then tried to alleviate by buying food from Cyprus and Egypt… (skip to p.347-348)

    “John’s vision was placed in the 90’s, precisely in the year 95AD. The point has often been missed, but it is at exactly this date that we have good evidence of Christian’s persecution. We know from the histories of pagan senator (Bruttius, as quoted by the Christian Eusebius) that many Christians were persecuted in the year 95: Bruttius exact words do not survive, but the drift of his evidence is clear enough”. [Let me stop Fox right here. Christians were not persecuted on a grand scale. Its been estimated that between a 300 year period of time 2,000 Christians were put to death mainly targeting the aristocrat’s]. Now let Fox continue

    “In Christian tradition the reigning Emperor Domitian was soon remembered as a persecutor: it is probably to his reign in the 90’s that we should refer the pseudonymous Christian letter, First Clement, whose opening sentences also imply a persecution in Rome.

    Nero or Domitian: can we be more decisive? In chapter 6 John sees his famous vision of the four Horsemen (based on Zechariah’s chapter 9 imagery before him): the first two horsemen cause conquest and war, but the third, on a black horse carries a balance and proclaims a food crisis (a measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny). In 92/3 we have an inscribed copy of an edict from the Roman governor of Asia minor in which he sets a maximum price for wheat at a time of acute shortage round Pisidian Antioch (where Paul had preached in Acts 13): the horsemen price is eight times higher than the governor’s, although his ratio of barley prices to wheat prices is rather more generous. Food crises were frequent between regions, and the horseman’s cry of famine is only one of partial famine (see thou hurt not the oil and wine he continues), but it would fit very well with the crisis attested inland in Asia during Domitian’s reign.

    Behold a pale horse…: the next horseman then brings pestilence, a hazard which can also be diagnosed in Asia during the early 90’s. according to the Roman historian Dio, in the year 90 (and perhaps for a while afterwards) there were people who made it their business to smear needle with poison and ***** anyone they wished…many people died unnoticed…

    Neither of these links with the 90’s is conclusive, but the pale horse is followed by the opening of the fifth seal and the cry for vengeance of those who have been slain as martyrs in 95AD”. Fox believes the sequence of food crisis, then plague and trauma of martyrdom and earthquakes fit well with persecutions in the 90’s. But like I said before Domitian persecution of Christians and Stoic philosophers were targeting only the elite leadership and most were put in exile not killed. And her talk about earthquakes found in Revelation chapter 8, many say it’s a reference an earthquake in Asia Minor (Turkey in 61AD and Volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79AD before Domitian took power in 81AD.

    Notes:

    Please see my book Lukewarm: The Temperature of Justice, where I link the letters of James, Jude, and 2nd Peter with Paul as a horse, donkey and mule.

    In the four Gospels Jesus was a fulfillment of prophecy in part by use of Zech 9:9 & 14:21with Jesus in Mt chapter 21 but that was in the 30’s

    When we get to Revelations edits, updates and revisions from the 40’s -90’s Paul as Hermes the dishonest trader, liar is recast recycled in Zech prophecy. After all they considered Paul symbolic of the angel Christ Jesus (Galatians 4:14) and Paul said he had the marks of Jesus (Gal 6:17). However, the four comrades: James, Jude,2nd Peter and the Revelator casted Paul in a negative way by innuendo. The only way their writings could get on the stand and on stage in the official Bible canon.

    Fulgentius On Mercury/Hermes

    FABIUS PLANCIADES FULGENTIUS was a Latin writer of North Africa who flourished in the late C5th or early C6th AD. He was the author of a number of minor works including the Mythologies (or Mythologiarum libri), a collection of 75 short myths presented as allegories after the manner of the Stoic and Neoplatonist philosophers, with the use of fanciful name etymologies. His writings offer little in the way of any genuine classical mythology.

    I’m interested in Fulgentius writings because Paul was equated with Mercury/Hermes in Acts 14:12. The letter of Jude 12-14 accuses Paul of only dividing up food among themselves like the wolf tribe he’s from (Genesis 49:27) despite having gone to Egypt for famine relief (Acts 11:25-28). Basically he’s a Shepherds in sleep clothes. The key to link Jude letter with the symbol of Paul’ tribe Benjamin (Romans 11:1) the wolf is to detect that Paul is being equated with the foam of the Venus star=Evening/Morning.

    “Benjamin is a ravenous wolf;

    In the morning he devours the prey

    In the evening he divides the plunder (Genesis 49:27)

    Fulgentis equates Mercury/Hermes with a thief who plunders.

    Paul is also symbolic of the the 3rd Black horse with scales to measure food (Saturn). Saturn was symbolic of the disappearance of crops. The fourth Horse is Pale and its (Mercury) which kills by plague and famine. In Egypt Mercury/Hermes is called Thoth and he writes down the names of those in the book of life. Paul in the NT knows people who will be in the book of life (Titus Clement his spiritual sun) see Philippians 4:3.



    1.18 THE FABLE OF MERCURY (http://www.theoi.com/Text/FulgentiusMythologies1.html#18).
    FULGENTIUS, MYTHOLOGIES BOOK 1 - Theoi Classical Texts Library
    theoi.com


    If the gods took over thefts. There was no need of a judge for their crimes, since they had the heavenly author of wrongdoing. They say Mercury was in charge of trading, carrying a staff or caduceus wreathed with snakes, furnished with feathered heels, and the divine go-between and thief. Let me explain what his name and appearance mean. They chose Mercury for mercium-curum, for Mercury can be called the complete trader.

    Why Feathers
    His heels are feathered because the feet of businessmen are everywhere in a rush as if winged.

    Why a Staff
    They add a staff wreathed in snakes because commerce sometimes gives control and a scepter, sometimes a wound like that given by snakes.

    Why a Cap and a ****
    He is depicted with his head covered by a cap because any commerce is always concealed. They place the **** also under his protection, either because any businessman is always on the watch or because at his crowing they rise to transact their affairs.

    Why Hermes
    In Greek he is also called Hermes, that is, ermeneuse, which in Latin we call translating, for the reason that fluency in languages is needful to a trader. He is said to pass through both realms, the upper and the lower, because now he rushes aloft through the winds, now plunging down he seeks out the lower world through storms. (note: Paul speaking like Hermes isn’t a benefit for others but only for himself Acts 14:12)

    Why a Thief, Why called Swift
    They also choose this god as the patron of thieving because in trading there is no difference for a thief between pillage and perjury or between plunder and sacrilege. The star which is called Stilbos in Greek, and which the pagans associate with him, whereby they have also used his name for one of the days, pursues a more rapid course than all the planets in that it completes its cycle on the seventh day, something which Saturn can do only in twenty-eight years and Jupiter in twelve; whereby also Lucan says: “And Mercury is stayed from its swift motion.”

    Why He Slew Argus
    Then, too, he is said to have slain Argus, the one encircled with a host of eyes, when he had mown down with a single wound, at once blow from the curved blade of the scythe he carries, this vast crop of eyes in one body, gleaming as they were with lively alertness. What would such a fantastic notion of the Greeks signify except that, with a sly blow of the scythe, the cunning of someone both thief and trader got the better of even a hundred guardians and the same number of artful ones, yet ones useless without barter, whence Argus is the Greek for idle? This is the usual fashion in which Greece and its poetic gossiping, always decked in falsehood and yet lying with good intent, refers to such fabrications”

    Note: The last sentence of Fulgentius is also a perfect match with the composite and character of Paul as Mercury/Hermes. Paul says some affirm that we say let us do evil that good things may come in Romans 3:8. He denies it there but admits he becomes All things to all people to win people over to his side (1 Cor 9;22-23) and his use of craft and trickery (2 Cor 12:16). And bible scholars claim he didn’t go on a famine relief and failed in his attempt to buy an apostleship from the leadership of James in Jerusalem.

    According to Elaine Pagels book on Revelations, is in part an attack upon Paul or his followers in the same manner Jude 8 attacks Paul for eating food dedicated to idols and mixed sexual relationships. Jude stabs Paul as mercury even more calling him a Dreamer. Hermes was symbolic of sleep/dreams.

    Aristophanes,Thesmophoriazusae 970 ff (trans. O'Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B.C.) :
    "I also pray Hermes, the god of the shepherds, and Pan."

    In Jude in states “Shepherds who feed only themselves…they are wild waves of the sea, foaming up their shame; wandering stars” Jude 12-13

    Hesiod, Works and Days 80 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) :
    "And the Guide Argeiphontes [Hermes] contrived within her [Pandora, the first woman] lies and crafty words and a deceitful nature at the will of loud thundering Zeus, and the Herald of the gods put speech in her."

    See also Hermes God of Guard Dogs and Hermes Cult: Hermae
    For MYTHS of Hermes as the god of herders see:
    (1) Hermes' Theft of Apollo's Cattle (how Hermes became god of cattle-herding)
    (2) Hermes & the Birth of Pan (fathered the god disguised as a shepherd)
    (3) Hermes & Argus Panoptes
    (4) Hermes Agent of Zeus: Cattle-Herder
     
  2. AACOOLDRE

    AACOOLDRE Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    the letter of James attacks Paul.THIS LETTER WAS WRITTEN BY HIS FOLLOWERS
    In chapter 5 of James uses the metaphor of a farmer/harvester being denied wages by a person who
    killed Stephen/James (innocent men) the entire theme of James chapter 5 is incorporated by 2 peter chapter 2 especial the theme to leaving truth to error peter use the metaphor of a dog returning to vomit. Jude theme of a theif only diving food up among themselves.
    If you look at chapter 5 along side with Paul's 1 Cor 9:1-18 & 2 Cor 11:8-9 addmitance of Robbery you can see it clearly.
    Corinthians was written in 53AD just a few years after Paul went on a famine relieif (45-48AD). When people can see this context they should be able to understand why the book of revelations first edition written in the 50's lampoon Paul as the Black and pale horses dealing with food shortages and famine in a negative context.
     
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