What is the "culture" that shapes and fashions the hearts, minds, Souls, and spirits of black/African Americans? Is our culture African? Is our culture American? Or is our culture black/African American? Consider the Powerful Concept of Culture from Dr. Marimba Ani: "In all cultures there is the "taken-for-granted," assumed, and habitual aspect that though generally less visible than others, and rarely explicit - exerts the most profound effect on its members. It is precisely because these "hidden controls" functions on such a deep level, that they become habitual responses that are experienced "as though they were innate." Culture "teaches" its "logic" and "world-view" to the ordinary participants, who assimilate it, assume it, and push it BENEATH the SURFACE, from where it influences their COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR and response. Culture, as a "norm"-a-tive structure, concerns standards of desirability - values. "Norms" are rules of conduct, that, specify what should and should not be done. The "norm"-a-tive aspects of culture, combine to form a "set of guidelines" by which people regulate their own behavior and that of their fellows. "Values" and "norms" can only be supported or positively "sanctioned" within a culture in such a way that behavior that conforms to them is "rewarded" - meets with "success" and "approval." While behavior that contradicts them is "punished" - results in "failure" and is "put-down" by one's fellows, or is simply not rewarded in any way, is not recognized as "valued" behavior. "World-view" is that aspect of culture that, functions to replace presented chaos with perceived order, by supplying the members of a culture with definitions of reality, with which to make sense of their surroundings and experiences. It is the meaningful organization of experience, the "assumed structure of reality." This "deep structure" of culture, has a most powerful influence on the shape of the culture and the thought-patterns of its members. Then "special" members of the culture, regarded as "intellectuals, scholars, theorist," retrieve the assumptions of this world-view and re-present them as tenets of a universal system of thought, one that presents standards of logic, rationality, and truth to the world. These "intellectuals and scholars" are considered the "theorist" of the culture, when actually, their ideas, simply reflect the assumed reality of the mainstream culture. But the manner of their "presentation" is authoritative." From, "YURUGU: An African-Centered Critique of European Cultural Thought and Behavior." Out of 636 pages that's a brief excerpt.