Black People : What Exactly Where the Yoruba Slave Wars????

Discussion in 'Black People Open Forum' started by Ankhur, Mar 14, 2011.

  1. Ankhur

    Ankhur Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    What exactly where the Yoruba Slave wars

    when did they start and when did they end?

    Whre they wars to liberate Black folks from enslavement?

    or something else?
     
  2. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    How much do you already know of these conflicts?

    Obviously, you've been exposed to this history somewhere/somehow in order to ask for extrapolation.

    What is your present understanding of the "Yoruba Slave Wars?"
     
  3. Ankhur

    Ankhur Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    I do not respond to those who administration says have a tendency to be messy
     
  4. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    LOL

    Well, administration has said much about both of us.

    However, I asked those questions because you could share what you already know about the "Yoruba Wars" and those here more knowledgeable could fill-in or correct any errors in your understanding.

    This community is about "teaching and building."
     
  5. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    But since you won't "share," here you go....

    - the kingdom of Dahomey had its origins in the 17th C as Abomey,but the conquest of 2 coastal kingdoms in the 1720s (Allada in 1724 and Whydah in 1729) really established the kingdom (see map of Dahomey); however, Dahomey was subordinate to Yoruba Oyo in Nigeria until early in the 19th C. The small dotted line on the accompanying map indicates the approximate boundaries of the Kingdom of Dahomey at its maximum in the 19th C; as you can see,the kingdom was only a small part of the French colony created at the end of the 19th C.

    - Dahomey was built on the slave trade; kings used profits from the slave trade to acquire guns with which they were able to expand their kingdom by conquest and incorporation of smaller kingdoms.Dahomey deliberately isolated itself from European factors (the agents for European companies) who had to remain at the main port,Whydah, at the coast; only a very few privileged Europeans were allowed to journey inland to visit the capital and see the king.

    - most of the slaves were acquired either by trade into the interior or by raids to the north and west into Nigeria. During the Yoruba wars (this is when Dahomey ended its subordination to Oyo), many slaves were acquired by trade with one or other of the sides in that essentially civil war.

    - Dahomey was very reluctant to give up the slave trade in the 19th C and continued to carry on a clandestine trade past the mid-19th C.

    - Dahomey was probably the most highly centralised state in Africa;it was an almost perfect example of absolute monarchy—beyond France under Louis XIV.

    continued here: http://stmarys.ca/~wmills/course316/7Dahomey.html
     
  6. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    Oyo monarch laments loss of African children to Western culture
    By Ozolua Uhakheme Published 9/06/2010


    ...On the evolution of the Yoruba nation, which at the primordial time, had about 20 kingdoms with Ife as the centre of cultural and religious life until the emergence of Oyo as the new political power centre, the monarch said Portuguese explorers "discovered" the Yoruba cities and kingdoms in the 15th century. According to him, cities such as Ife and Benin, among others, had been standing at their present sites for at least 500 years before the Europeans came. Archaeological evidence, he said, indicates that technologically and artistically advanced proto-Yoruba (Nok) were thriving north of the Niger in the first millennium B.C., and they were then already working with iron.

    He explained that the Ifa corpus states that the creation of humankind arose in the sacred city of Ile-Ife where Oduduwa created dry land from water.

    "Ife was the first of all Yoruba cities. Oyo and Benin came later and expanded as a consequence of their strategic locations at a time when trading became prosperous. Ife, unlike Oyo, never developed into a true kingdom. However, though it remained a city-state, it is of paramount importance to the Yoruba as the original sacred city and the dispenser of basic religious thoughts.

    "Until recently, the Yoruba did not consider themselves a single people, but rather as citizens of Oyo, Benin, Yagba and other cities, regions or kingdoms. These cities regarded Lagos and Owo, for example, as foreign neighbours. The name Yoruba was applied to all these linguistically and culturally-related peoples by their northern neighbours, the Hausa," he added.

    He observed that slave wars launched by the kingdom of Dahomey against some Yoruba kingdoms, as well as slave wars between Yorubas made war casualty Africans available for transportation to the Americas. These, he said, provided opportunities for European slave hunters to violently capture and march untold millions of Africans to their demise on over-crowded slave ships bound for the Americas.

    "Yoruba slaves were sent to British, French, Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the New World, ....


    continued here: http://thenationonlineng.net/web2/a...frican-children-to-Western-culture/Page1.html
     
  7. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    DAHOMEY 1486 - 1960

    DAHOMEY Timeline

    1486 The Kingdom of Benin begins trading with Portugal.

    1538 The first recorded shipment of African slaves arrives in Brazil.

    ca. 1550 Dahomey, Yoruba, Hausa, and Bantu slaves are working sugar plantations in Brazil.

    17th century Dahomey is part of the Kingdom of Allada of which the capital is the town of Allada on the road from Whydah to Abomey. Allada is dismembered on the death of a reigning sovereign, and three separate kingdoms are constituted under his sons. One state is formed by around the old capital of Allada, another to the east known as Porto Novo and a third to the north as the Kingdom of Dahomey.

    1680 The Portuguese governor of São Tomé and Príncipe is authorized to erect a fort in the Whydah.

    1704 France is permitted to build a fort at Whydah.

    1721 The Portuguese return to Whydah after a prolonged absence and construct Fort São João Baptista de Ajudá.

    ca. 1724 - 1728 Dahomey, having become a powerful state, invades and conquers Allada and Whydah. The Whydahs make several unsuccessful attempts to recover their freedom. Dahomeyan expeditions against Grand Popo, a town founded by refugee Whydahs on a lagoon to the west, fail.

    1730 The Portuguese turn Fort São João Baptista de Ajudá over to the control of the Brazilian Companhia de Cacheu e Cabo Verde.

    1752 The Portuguese found Porto Novo which becomes a tributary to Dahomey at the beginning of the 19th century.

    ca. 1818 King Gezo begins a 40 years reign on the throne of Dahomey during which the kingdom reaches the height of its power, extending its borders far to north with a reorganized and strengthened force of women warriors.

    1842 The 17th century French fort at Whydah is turned over to a trading company. Great Britain, Portugal and Brazil also had forts at Whydah, all in a ruinous condition and ungarrisoned.

    1851 King Gezo attacks Abeokuta in the Yoruba country and the centre of the Egba power, but is beaten back.

    King Gezo signs a commercial treaty with France and agrees to preserve the territorial integrity of the French fort at Whydah.

    1852 The Royal Navy blockades the coast of Dahomey to halt the slave-trade. Portugal and France protest based on the existence of their forts at Whydah.

    1857 The French protectorate is extended to Grand Popo.

    1858 King Gezo dies. He had greatly reduced the custom of human sacrifice and left instructions that after his death there was to be no general sacrifice of the palace women.

    King Gezo is succeeded by his son Glele, whose attacks on neighboring states, persecution of native Christians and encouragement of the slave trade bring him into conflict with Great Britain and with France.

    The Brazilians abandon Fort São João Baptista de Ajudá at Whydah.

    1861 British Foreign Secretary, Earl Russell, arranges the annexation of Lagos Island to check the aggressive spirit of the King of Dahomey.

    Fort São João Baptista de Ajudá is given to French missionaries by the local ruler of Whydah.

    1862 King Glele captures Ishagga.

    1863 Commander Wilmot of the Royal Navy is sent to speak with King Glele in an effort to induce the Dahomeyans to give up human sacrifices, slave-trading and other practices found unsavory by the British but met with no success.

    February 23 France establishes a protectorate over the Kingdom of Porto Novo in an effort to counterbalance the British annexation of Lagos.

    1864 King Glele unsuccessfully attacks Abeokuta towns in the Lagos hinterland.

    Sir Richard Francis Burton is sent on a second British mission to induce King Glele to give up human sacrifices and slave-trading but has no more success than Commander Wilmot.

    An Anglo-French agreement establishes the boundaries of the Kingdom of Porto Novo.

    1865 January 2 Napoléon III quickly abandons the French protectorate over Dahomey.

    February 23 Portugal reclaims Fort São João Baptista de Ajudá and places it under the control of the governors of São Tomé and Príncipe.

    1868 May 19 France claims rights at Cotonu in virtue of a treaty with King Glele.

    1882 April 14 The French protectorate over the Kingdom of Porto Novo is re-established after German agents make their appearance on the Dahomey coast.

    1883 The French protectorates at Whydah, Grand Popo, Porto Novo and Cotonou are administratively merged under the title of Les Établissements Français du Golfe de Benin (French Settlements in the Gulf of Benin) and place under the authority of the Governor of Gabon.

    1885 The German protectorate in the Gulf of Guinea is confined to Togo and the town of Little Popo at the western end of the Grand Popo lagoon.

    August 5 Portugal announces that it has established a protectorate over the Dahomey coast, in virtue of her ancient rights at Whydah.

    1886 The French Settlements in the Gulf of Benin are transferred from the administration of Gabon to that of Senegal.

    1887 December 22 France induces Portugal to withdraw its protectorate over the Dahomey coast.

    1889 Cotonou is surrendered to France under an Anglo-French agreement. France claimed rights at Cotonou in virtue of treaties concluded with Glele in 1868 and 1878, but the chiefs of the town had placed themselves under the protection of the British at Lagos.

    King Glele claims the right to collect the customs at Cotonou, and to depose his brother, the King of Porto Novo.

    The Dahomeyans, well supplied with modern arms and by German and other merchants at Whydah, raid the territory of Porto Novo.

    December 26 A French mission sent to Abomey fails to come to an agreement with the Dahomeyans, who attribute the misunderstandings to the fact that there was no longer a king in France.

    December 28 King Glele dies and is succeeded by his son Behanzin. A French force lands at Cotonou, and severe fighting followed in which the Amazons played a conspicuous part.

    1890 October France secures Porto Novo and Cotonou under terms of a peace treaty signed with the King of Dahomey who in turn receives an annual pension.

    Fire destroys Cotonou, a small village which serves as the seaport of Porto Novo. It is rebuilt according to town plan laid out by Europeans.

    1892 September - October King Behanzin’s slave raids lead to renewed war with France. General A. A. Dodds is placed in command of a strong force of Europeans and Senegalese and after a sharp campaign completely defeats the Dahomeyans.General Dodds annexes Whydah and the adjacent territory to France. The rest of Dahomey is placed under a French protectorate.

    November 17 French troops enter Abomey shortly after King Behanzin set fire to his capital and fled north.

    December 3 Whydah is formally annexed by France.

    1893 June 22 Porto Novo is declared a French colony.

    1894 January 20 A French protectorate is declared over Dahomey.
    January 25 King Behanzin, pursued by the enemy and abandoned by his people, surrenders unconditionally, and is deported to Martinique.

    June 22 A decree establishes the "Colony of Dahomey and dependencies" which is granted autonomy.

    1898 An Anglo-French Convention prohibits the imposition of differential duties on goods of British origin for a period of thirty years. Dahomey’s trade is mainly with Germany and Great Britain, a large proportion of the cargo passing through the Nigerian port of Lagos. Only some 25% of the commerce is with France.

    1899 October 17 Dahomey absorbs the French Settlements in the Gulf of Benin and the French Sudanese districts of Koala and Say.

    1900 The King of Abomey is found intriguing against the French and exiled by them to the Congo.

    Construction begins on the Dahomey Railway from Cotonou to the Niger.
    The districts of Koala and Say ceded by French Sudan in 1899 are transferred to the new colony of the Upper Senegal and Niger.

    1902 The main line of the Dahomey Railway is completed to Toffo, a distance of 55 miles from Cotonou.

    1903 The adulteration of the palm kernels by the natives, which became a serious menace to trade, is partially checked by measures taken to ensure the inspection of the kernels before shipment.

    1904 October 18 Dahomey becomes part of French West Africa.

    1905 The Dahomey Railway is completed through Abomey to Pauignan, 120 miles from Cotonou.

    1906 King Behanzin is transferred from Martinique to Algeria.
    December 10 King Behanzin dies in Algeria.

    1907 The Dahomey Railway reaches Paraku and a branch line connects to Whydah and Segboru on Lake Ahm.

    1914 August 24 German forces in Togo surrender to a joint Allied force composed of French troops from Dahomey and British forces from the Gold Coast.

    1940 June The French administration in Dahomey remains loyal to Vichy following the Franco-German Armistice.

    1942 November 13 The French administration in Dahomey rallys to Free France along with the rest of French West Africa following the success of the Allied invasion of French North Africa.

    1947 Hubert Maga founds the Dahomeyan Democratic Movement and is elect to the French National Assembly.

    1958 December 4 Dahomey becomes an autonomous republic within the French Community.

    1959 May 18 Hubert Maga becomes Prime Minister of Dahomey.

    1960 August 1 Dahomey becomes an independent country.


    http://www.schudak.de/timelines/dahomey1486-1960.html
     
  8. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    This very history is an example of another post of mine

    This reminded me of a sermon by TD Jakes: "3 Types Of Friends."

    He defines 3 types of people:

    1. Confidants - These people are FOR YOU. They will rejoice with you, weep with you...They will tell you when you are wrong. They will keep your secrets. You can share your dreams with them....They are in for the long haul.


    2. Constituents - They are not into YOU...They are only "FOR" what you are "FOR." - They will only labor with you as long as YOU are beneficial to them....They are only "FOR" whatever "Cause" YOU are "FOR."

    3. Comrades - They are not for/into YOU. They are only AGAINST what YOU are AGAINST.....They are like "scaffolding on a building" - once their agenda is accomplished, they are GONE.




    Sadly, too many Black people are confusing "Constituents" and "Comrades" as those who are sincerely vested in the Black Experience and the Black Agenda.
     
  9. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    ^^^^Sadly, the Dahomey kingdom and the Yoruba peoples mistook those Europeans as either "Constituents" or "Comrades" to the detriment of them BOTH.....and to countless Africans since then.



    "Divide & Conquer" is one of the European's most favorite tactics.
     
  10. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    The Europeans had guns which the Dahomey Kingdom needed to fight/conquer the Yoruba kingdoms.

    And when the dust settled, the Yoruba people were on slave ships and Dahomey was under European rule for many years.
     
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