Black People : West and West Central African contributions to the world

Ndongo and the Roots of Slavery in the US

Mendes de Vasconcelos' successors, João Correia de Sousa tried to make a peace with Ndongo, and in 1621, Ngola Mbandi sent his sister, Nzinga Mbandi to Luanda to negotiate on his behalf. She negotiated a peace treaty in which Portugal agreed to withdraw its advance fort of Ambaca on the Lukala, which had served as a base for the invasion of Ndongo, return a large number of captive ijiko to Ndongo, and force the Imbangala bands who were still ravaging Ndongo to leave. In exchange Ngola Mbandi would leave the island and reestablish himself at the capital and become a Portuguese vassal, paying 100 slaves per year as tribute.

From the same link above.

But our Ancestors did NOT first come as slaves.

European conquest of interior Angola began when Portugal attacked the Mbundu kingdom of Ndongo in the modern Malange district of Angola in a military campaign lasting from 1618-1620. At the time, England and its American colonies had no direct trade in African slaves. Nevertheless, during Portugal's war on Ndongo, Africans began appearing in British Virginia aboard Dutch and English privateers, which specialized in robbing Portuguese merchant-slavers leaving the Angolan port of Luanda.

The Stoney Creek mention of "Melungeons" reveals the name was a common word familiar to Virginians at least as early as the beginning of the 19th century. Free Melungeons of mixed red, white and black ancestry originated within one generation of the first Angolans who arrived in Virginia in 1619 and who continued coming to the southern tidewater colonies through 1720. These early Africans were Kimbundu-speaking Angolans who, like Angolans in Brazil, described themselves as "malungu". Within a decade of arriving in Virginia, after serving about 7-10 years of indentured servitude, these Angolan ancestors of the Melungeons were free to move from county to county. They were free as early as 1640 to own property and to name their community in their native Kimbundu language.

http://www.eclectica.org/v5n3/hashaw.html

The name "Melungeon" comes directly from the Kimbundu-Angolan word malungu, which originally meant "watercraft". Kimbundu was the language of the Mbundu nation, which included the Ndongo kingdom. The first Africans coming to Virginia in 1619 and for many years afterward were Mbundu. This Kimbundu word came to mean "shipmates from a common country" among Mbundu people in America. John Thornton of Millersville University of Pennsylvania, and Linda Heywood of Howard University have found evidence of the name elsewhere.


Final thoughts:

I am not sure if the author of the link I posted is correct concerning the etymology of the word "Malungu", but in many of the slave records which I have examined, there is a French word which has a similar connotation.

The term mélange in English language is a loan word from French, used to mean mixture of disparate components (what would be referred to in the sciences as a heterogeneous mixture). Its derivation, and therefore to some extent its connotation, is similar to Mêlée.[1][2] Mélange is the modern form of the Old French noun meslance, which comes from the infinitive mêler, meaning "to mix".

http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mélange

No doubt, Africans people,to a large degree are all "mixed up".

Have you researched what is known as the Asiento? Do you know that Angola and Brazil were slave trading partners and that many if not most Africans who ended up in the United States proper were PIRATED from Portuguese and Spanish merchant ships?

We can argue 24/7 about our supposed West or Central African heritage, but the cold truth about that is how do you really KNOW that your Ancestors were not kidnapped from another region and sold into slavery by contract between Angolans who converted to Catholocism or African Muslims who contracted with the Spanish or French?
 
Final thoughts:

I am not sure if the author of the link I posted is correct concerning the etymology of the word "Malungu", but in many of the slave records which I have examined, there is a French word which has a similar connotation.

The term mélange in English language is a loan word from French, used to mean mixture of disparate components (what would be referred to in the sciences as a heterogeneous mixture). Its derivation, and therefore to some extent its connotation, is similar to Mêlée.[1][2] Mélange is the modern form of the Old French noun meslance, which comes from the infinitive mêler, meaning "to mix".

http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mélange

No doubt, Africans people,to a large degree are all "mixed up".

Have you researched what is known as the Asiento? Do you know that Angola and Brazil were slave trading partners and that many if not most Africans who ended up in the United States proper were PIRATED from Portuguese and Spanish merchant ships?

We can argue 24/7 about our supposed West or Central African heritage, but the cold truth about that is how do you really KNOW that your Ancestors were not kidnapped from another region and sold into slavery by contract between Angolans who converted to Catholocism or African Muslims who contracted with the Spanish or French?


Here is where I rest.

There is a vast about of research concerning pastoralism in pre colonial Africa. A lot of studies indicate that many African slaves brought specifically to the united snakes were from agricultural societies. They were skilled in CATTLE RAISING and SHEEP HERDING.

I leave with this question: where in precolonial Africa was CATTLE RAISING most prevalent?


MOST African males were SKILLED workers used to replace other laborers, white and Indian, who who did not have the same expertise!
 
Here is where I rest.

There is a vast about of research concerning pastoralism in pre colonial Africa. A lot of studies indicate that many African slaves brought specifically to the united snakes were from agricultural societies. They were skilled in CATTLE RAISING and SHEEP HERDING.

I leave with this question: where in precolonial Africa was CATTLE RAISING most prevalent?


MOST African males were SKILLED workers used to replace other laborers, white and Indian, who who did not have the same expertise!

I would say that animal husbandry, in the form cattle farming, was most prevalent in the savanna and mixed grassland regions of Africa. It is true that East Africa contains a lot more cattle raising pastoralist groups, such the Masaai, Luo and other Nilotes, due to the extensive savanna located there; however, we must not discount the fact that, according to Philip Curtin, the planters in South Carolina showed a marked preference for people from the Senegambian region due to their high degree of skills in rice cultivation. South Carolina is also the state where Black people were used for cattle husbandry.

Let's see were there any pastoralists involved in cattle raising in Senegal and Gambia?
 

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