Black People : West and West Central African contributions to the world

This is why I disagree with arguments to the effect that the slave trade was restricted to west and Central Africans. In the later period, the trade extended to what are presently known as Zambia and Mozambique. I mentioned before the ivory trade that stretched across this region over across to east Africa. As Africans in the Ngola and Cameroons escaped from slave traders they migrated south as far as to the eastern Cape near the Limpopo river. Some were not as fortunate.

"By the time the early Portuguese explorers penetrated the interior in the 18th century, what was to become Zambia was a patchwork of three large and extensive states and several small ones. The wealth of these states was founded on trade with, both the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean coasts, in products such as wax, copper and, increasingly, slaves. The Portuguese were followed by other peoples such as the Arabs and the Swahili in pursuit of ivory and slaves. In the east the increasingly aggressive and predatory activities of the Yao slave takers/traders placed strain on the Maravi Confederacy and contributed to its eventual disintegration (Holmes 2004, Columbia Encyclopedia 2005a). Increasingly, from east and west the peoples settled in what is now Zambia suffered from the terror and destruction wrought by slave raiders."

http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/zamoverview2.htm
 
My apologies if my previous post was somewhat incomprehensible. I was falling to sleep and had slow computer issues when I was typing that. However, the Mande and Bantu peoples of West Central Africa were very pivotal to the formation of our people, today's so-called African Americans. As you can tell we come from a fabulous legacy that many are unaware of that was centered in northwest Africa.

When we dig deeper than Dhar Tichit, we find that our ancestors were at one time located in the present-day Sahara. I am of the opinion that the core spiritual concepts common among a variety of African groups were developed there. Before 4000 BCE, the area known as the Sahara was a fertile land of green and present-day Lake Chad was much larger body of water - essentially a sea in the middle of the continent. Throughout this area, various groups of African people lived, hunted and fished. Many were experts at building sea-faring ships to travel the length of Lake Chad from east to west and north to south. This time period in African history is known by some as the African Holocene era and one anthropologist, Clyde S Winters, refers to the people as the "proto-Saharans." One of the most significant events to happen in this area during that time was the onset of a more complex ritualized burial, in terms of mummification, and other themes in African funerary traditions like the use of pyramidal tumuli, burial mounds. When the Earth experienced a shift on its axis and a subsequent climate change, the fertile green Sahara began to desiccate and the sea, which was to become known as Lake Chad, started to shrink, prompting the inhabitants to relocate elsewhere in the directions of west, south and east. The predecessors of the people of Kmt went East to the Nile River floodplains. The ancestors of many present-day West African people migrated mostly to the West, where they began to start settlements around Dhar Tichit. Some people did migrate south into the mountainous areas of the Nigeria and Cameroonian border. However, it should be noted that most of the places in West Africa, especially south of the Niger River, were uninhabitable at that time due to dense rainforests and swamplands.
 
This is why I disagree with arguments to the effect that the slave trade was restricted to west and Central Africans. In the later period, the trade extended to what are presently known as Zambia and Mozambique. I mentioned before the ivory trade that stretched across this region over across to east Africa. As Africans in the Ngola and Cameroons escaped from slave traders they migrated south as far as to the eastern Cape near the Limpopo river. Some were not as fortunate.

"By the time the early Portuguese explorers penetrated the interior in the 18th century, what was to become Zambia was a patchwork of three large and extensive states and several small ones. The wealth of these states was founded on trade with, both the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean coasts, in products such as wax, copper and, increasingly, slaves. The Portuguese were followed by other peoples such as the Arabs and the Swahili in pursuit of ivory and slaves. In the east the increasingly aggressive and predatory activities of the Yao slave takers/traders placed strain on the Maravi Confederacy and contributed to its eventual disintegration (Holmes 2004, Columbia Encyclopedia 2005a). Increasingly, from east and west the peoples settled in what is now Zambia suffered from the terror and destruction wrought by slave raiders."

http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/zamoverview2.htm

I can understand where you are coming from.... but I think the gist is that while African people from various regions of the continent fell victim to or were somehow affected by the Transatlantic Slave Trade, the overwhelming majority of those people were from West and West Central Africa, especially those that were brought to the United States. Indeed, Mozambique did figure in the slave trade due to Portuguese slavers there. Yet the vast majority of the people from there and other points in East Africa were sent mainly to Brasil. Relatively few East African people made their way into the United States when compared to the people of West Africa.

The Makua people were prominent among the East African ethnicities with the misfortune to be hemmed up and transported elsewhere away from home. I think the women of these people are astonishingly beautiful and would to think an ancestresses may have came from them; however, the likelihood that is true, while not impossible, is improbable.

On of the main things to assist is to notice the trends that took place during the Slave Trade. Various groups came in higher proportions to other groups at various times due to the socio-political climate, like in the case of the Fon, Yoruba and Hausa peoples.

When the Fon state of Dahomey was a vassal to the Yoruba Empire of Oyo, old Dahomey had to pay tribute to Oyo in form of slaves. Many of these slaves, who of course were not all of Fon extraction but included the related Aja, Ghedevi, Gbe, were in turn handed over to European slavers for the Americas. However, once old Dahomey began to rise as a more formidable state, mainly due to the internal strife than was occurring in Oyo as well as Dahomey's stronger trade relations with the French, the tide begin to shift and there was an increase in Yoruba peoples held as slaves. When the Fula people, after making the Hausa states submit, extended their jihad to the doors of a weakened Oyo state, more Yoruba people were being transported to the Americas. Also as a result of the jihad of dan Fodio, the Hausa people were increasingly falling victim to the clutches of slavery. The timeline that shows an influx of "slave traffic" from Mozambique was after the United States and the United Kingdom "abolished", basically stopped officially sanctioning, the transatlantic slave trade. Thus very few ships from that area docked in the United States, under fear of penalty and death, unless the captain falsified the ship's logs - which did occur but not as frequently as one would think.
 
The South Carolina plantation economy centered on rice production. The people of the Senegambia, such as the Mande, were routinely used to work these plantations due to their expertise in rice cultivation and harvest. Of course, the white folks knew nothing about growing rice and all that they did learn eventually came by of our West African ancestors like the Mande.
Corroboration in an excerpt from a conversation Tony Brown (Tony Brown's Journal) had with the author of "Complicity":

Tony: Well, their theory is that the European white is intellectually and perhaps morally superior to all non-whites. The African was sub-human. So therefore, they are the reason America ascended so quickly. But it seems that you're saying America ascended so quickly because of free labor, and because of very skilled labor, from East Africa. Is that your point?

Jennifer: Absolutely. There's just no question about that. Captive Africans helped build America in every way you can imagine. There was skilled labor, certainly in the South. As a matter of fact, a lot of Africans who worked on rice plantations came from Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone had a brilliant rice-growing culture. Africans from Sierra Leone cost more. They were more valuable.
=======================

Another African phenomenon generally associated with the American West is the cowboy. Some of our ancestors had been pastoralists and/or fine horsemen in Africa like the Fula and Songhai peoples. In infamous South Carolina, this time further away from the coast where the rice plantations were, some of our ancestors were used to herd cattle. They used the same method(s) they did in Africa to herd cattle in South Carolina. Those methods went on to be used, in turn, by white cattle herders in the American West called cowboys. Some historians are of the opinion that the term "cowboy" began in South Carolina as a reference to our cattle herding ancestors. "Oh, that's my cowboy."

Thank you! :bowdown: I've been saying this for the longest!

First off, quiet as its kept, even white historians acknowledge that at least 25%, i.e., 1 out of 4 cowboys were black, first as slaves, then as freedmen (good reference to this is the book "Deadeye D*ck," the autobiography of the black cowboy nicknamed Deadeye Di*k).

Secondly, whenever I've encountered objection or skepticism that the true American "cowboy" was black, I always ask: So who were the Trail Men? Who in the 19th century was always called "boy" and who was always called "man?" Why bother with 2 terms for the same occupation? :10500:

One of the most compelling details their cosmology which has some implications, symbolically, for African-Americans is the concept of Kalunga. Kalunga, according to Bakongo cosmology specifically, can be either the body of water one crosses over after dying before arriving at the abode of the ancestors or the actual abode of the ancestors. Imagine how some of the ancestors of that extraction might have perceived the journey across the Atlantic on boats of death navigated by the pale skinned harbingers of death. Quite terrifying to say the least.

Brilliant! :bowdown:
 
I can understand where you are coming from.... but I think the gist is that while African people from various regions of the continent fell victim to or were somehow affected by the Transatlantic Slave Trade, the overwhelming majority of those people were from West and West Central Africa, especially those that were brought to the United States. Indeed, Mozambique did figure in the slave trade due to Portuguese slavers there. Yet the vast majority of the people from there and other points in East Africa were sent mainly to Brasil. Relatively few East African people made their way into the United States when compared to the people of West Africa.

The Makua people were prominent among the East African ethnicities with the misfortune to be hemmed up and transported elsewhere away from home. I think the women of these people are astonishingly beautiful and would to think an ancestresses may have came from them; however, the likelihood that is true, while not impossible, is improbable.

On of the main things to assist is to notice the trends that took place during the Slave Trade. Various groups came in higher proportions to other groups at various times due to the socio-political climate, like in the case of the Fon, Yoruba and Hausa peoples.

When the Fon state of Dahomey was a vassal to the Yoruba Empire of Oyo, old Dahomey had to pay tribute to Oyo in form of slaves. Many of these slaves, who of course were not all of Fon extraction but included the related Aja, Ghedevi, Gbe, were in turn handed over to European slavers for the Americas. However, once old Dahomey began to rise as a more formidable state, mainly due to the internal strife than was occurring in Oyo as well as Dahomey's stronger trade relations with the French, the tide begin to shift and there was an increase in Yoruba peoples held as slaves. When the Fula people, after making the Hausa states submit, extended their jihad to the doors of a weakened Oyo state, more Yoruba people were being transported to the Americas. Also as a result of the jihad of dan Fodio, the Hausa people were increasingly falling victim to the clutches of slavery. The timeline that shows an influx of "slave traffic" from Mozambique was after the United States and the United Kingdom "abolished", basically stopped officially sanctioning, the transatlantic slave trade. Thus very few ships from that area docked in the United States, under fear of penalty and death, unless the captain falsified the ship's logs - which did occur but not as frequently as one would think.


All True, but my objection is in regards to the statement that NONE of our ancestors came from the South or East, and I will maintain that objection.

I also reject the argument that I refuse to mention the West or Central African region.

A quick search of this site using the key word Ndongo proves that I have provided more than a little information in this regards.

Certainly the vast majority of our ancestors were brought here from west and central, but not only or solely, and do keep in mind that those brought to The shores of the US or those who migrated represent ONLY 5%.

The vast MAJORITY ended up in Brazil, which was a Portuguese colony.

So, yes, very few in the early 1800s ended up here from areas such as Mozambique on ships "docked" in the US but they made their way from areas such as Martinique, Cuba, Santo Domingo, Trinidad, Barbados, etc, principally into the Louisiana territory.

This is proven in the slaveowners schedules of the British territories which provide an extensive record.
 

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