Black People : West and West Central African contributions to the world

Ndongo and the Roots of Slavery in the US

Mendes de Vasconcelos' successors, João Correia de Sousa tried to make a peace with Ndongo, and in 1621, Ngola Mbandi sent his sister, Nzinga Mbandi to Luanda to negotiate on his behalf. She negotiated a peace treaty in which Portugal agreed to withdraw its advance fort of Ambaca on the Lukala, which had served as a base for the invasion of Ndongo, return a large number of captive ijiko to Ndongo, and force the Imbangala bands who were still ravaging Ndongo to leave. In exchange Ngola Mbandi would leave the island and reestablish himself at the capital and become a Portuguese vassal, paying 100 slaves per year as tribute.

From the same link above.

But our Ancestors did NOT first come as slaves.

European conquest of interior Angola began when Portugal attacked the Mbundu kingdom of Ndongo in the modern Malange district of Angola in a military campaign lasting from 1618-1620. At the time, England and its American colonies had no direct trade in African slaves. Nevertheless, during Portugal's war on Ndongo, Africans began appearing in British Virginia aboard Dutch and English privateers, which specialized in robbing Portuguese merchant-slavers leaving the Angolan port of Luanda.

The Stoney Creek mention of "Melungeons" reveals the name was a common word familiar to Virginians at least as early as the beginning of the 19th century. Free Melungeons of mixed red, white and black ancestry originated within one generation of the first Angolans who arrived in Virginia in 1619 and who continued coming to the southern tidewater colonies through 1720. These early Africans were Kimbundu-speaking Angolans who, like Angolans in Brazil, described themselves as "malungu". Within a decade of arriving in Virginia, after serving about 7-10 years of indentured servitude, these Angolan ancestors of the Melungeons were free to move from county to county. They were free as early as 1640 to own property and to name their community in their native Kimbundu language.

The name "Melungeon" comes directly from the Kimbundu-Angolan word malungu, which originally meant "watercraft". Kimbundu was the language of the Mbundu nation, which included the Ndongo kingdom. The first Africans coming to Virginia in 1619 and for many years afterward were Mbundu. This Kimbundu word came to mean "shipmates from a common country" among Mbundu people in America. John Thornton of Millersville University of Pennsylvania, and Linda Heywood of Howard University have found evidence of the name elsewhere.
"In Brazil, which had a heavily Kimbundu-speaking African population, the term malungu was used to mean anyone who had traveled on the same ship together, and gradually extended (by definition) to other close companions or friends. Since the word derives from Kimbundu (the same word is also used in Kikongo) and not Portuguese, there is no reason that it can't also be used in areas outside Brazil where the Angolans went."

The original early-Bantu name for the creator God was probably Nyàmbé, possibly from the verb root -àmb-, "to begin".[3] With the diversification of Bantu cultures, other names came about, with "Mulungu" emerging in the ancient Southern-Kaskazi group (about 6000 BC). The etymology of the name is disputed.[6] One hypothesis is that the name is derived from a verb root -ng-, meaning "to be rectified", "to become right"; in this case, the original concept of Mulungu is that of a creator god that established the original, right order on the world.
From Kingdoms of the Savanna...

In addition to Luba principles of leadership, Lunda rulers also adopted elements of Luba courtly art. Lunda chiefs, wealthy from trade and tribute, commissioned skillful artists from client peoples such as the Chokwe to create these forms. Local rulers claiming allegiance to the Lunda empire embraced them as well, facilitating their further dissemination throughout the region. A chiefly scepter (1978.412.572) carved by an Ovimbundu artisan illustrates the wide distribution of Luba/Lunda artistic traditions. The elaborate body adornment, heavily lidded eyes, and pensive expression of the female half-figure at the top of the scepter recall the mwadi images so pervasive in Luba royal art. Other types of courtly objects from the Lunda empire, such as carved representations of the mythical ancestor Chibinda Ilunga (1988.157), had no Luba precedent; the Luba did not portray their kings and culture heroes in sculpture. The most elaborate and refined depictions of Chibinda Ilunga were created for rulers of the Chokwe chiefdoms that emerged as regional powers in the early nineteenth century.
Roots of the Luba people and the Lunda Kingdom...

The Lunda kingdom, founded by a member of the Luba royal house in the early 17th century, expanded rapidly and came to dominate the trade networks that traversed the northeast of Angola and the northwest of Zambia. The rapid growth of the kingdom was made possible by the adoption of indirect rule which eased the incorporation of subjugated peoples into the political framework of the emerging empire. The trade they sought to control was primarily in copper and salt initially, but trade in ivory and tropical products, and later slaves, with the Portuguese became more important. By the end of the 1600s they straddled routes to both the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean along which new crops introduced by the Portuguese from the New World were diffused into the interior (Library of Congress 1993, Bortolot undated, Lambert Undated).


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