http://www.jstor.org/view/00435597/di976426/97p0641x/0 As a fool no way I identify as Creole, but ruthless "white" designated it as Blacks born in the New World. So I guess, it is really boils down to what you personally IDENTIFY as. It also note the slave trade gave rise to Europeans who served as replacements for enslaved Africans like fisherman, builders etc etc on the continent of Africa which contributed to Africa's natural resource being eaten by European exploiters who continue this process today. It's just horrible what ruthless "white" did to enslaved Africans in the mind body and environment. It's a good read otherwise.