Pert Em Heru / Kemetian Texts : THE VERSIONS OF THE BOOK OF THE DEAD

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    <H1 ALIGN="CENTER">INTRODUCTION.</H1>
    <H2 ALIGN="CENTER">THE VERSIONS OF THE BOOK OF THE DEAD.</H2>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">The four great Versions of the Book of the Dead.</P>
    </FONT><P>THE history of the great body of religious compositions which form the Book of Dead of the ancient Egyptians may conveniently be divided into four[1] of the periods, which are represented by four versions:--</P>
    <P>1. The version which was edited by the priests of the college of Annu (the On of the Bible, and the Heliopolis of the Greeks), and which was based upon a series of texts now lost, but which there is evidence to prove had passed through a series of revisions or editions as early as the period of the Vth dynasty. This version was, so far as we know, always written in hieroglyphics, and may be called the Heliopolitan version. It is known from five copies which are inscribed upon the walls of the chambers and passages in the pyramids[2] of kings of the Vth and VIth dynasties at Sakk&acirc;ra;[3] and sections of it are found inscribed upon tombs, sarcophagi, coffins, stel&aelig; and papyri from the XIth dynasty to about A.D. 200.[4]</P>

    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. See Naville, <I>Todtenbuch</I> (Einleitung), p. 39.</P>
    <P>2. Hence known as the "pyramid texts."</P>
    <P>3. <I>I.e.</I>, Un&acirc;s, Tet&acirc;, Pepi I., Mentu-em-sa-f, and Pepi II. Their pyramids were cleared out by MM. Mariette and Maspero during the years 1890-84, and the hieroglyphic texts were published, with a French translation, in <I>Recueil de Travaux</I>, t. iii-xiv., Paris, 1882-93.</P>
    <P>4. In the XIth, XIIth, and XIIIth dynasties many monuments are inscribed with sections of the Un&acirc;s text. Thus lines 206-69 are found in hieroglyphics upon the coffin of Amamu (British Museum, No. 6654. See Birch, <I>Egyptian Texts of the Earliest Period from the Coffin of Amamu</I>, 1886. Plates XVII.-XX.); Il. 206-14 and 268-84 on the coffin of Apa-ankh, from Sakk&acirc;ra (see Lepsius, <I>Denkm&auml;ler</I>, ii., Bl. 99 <I>b</I>; Maspero, <I>Recueil</I>, t. iii., pp. 200 and 214 ff.); Il. 206-10 {footnote page x.} and 268-89 on the coffin of Antef (see Lepsius, <I>Denkm&auml;ler</I>, ii., Bl. 145; Maspero, <I>Recueil</I>, t. iii., pp. 200, 214); line 206 on a coffin of Menthu-hetep at Berlin (see Lepsius, <I>Aelteste Texte</I>, Bl. 5); lines 269-94 on the sarcophagus of Heru-hetep (see Maspero, <I>M&eacute;moires</I>, t, i., p. 144). A section is found on the walls of the tomb of Queen Neferu (see Maspero, <I>Recueil</I>, t. iii., p. 201 ff.; <I>M&eacute;moires</I>, t. i., p. 134); other sections are found on the sarcophagus of Taka (see Lepsius, <I>Denkm&auml;ler</I>, ii., Bll. 147, 148; Maspero, <I>Guide au Visiteur</I>, p. 224, No. 1053; <I>M&eacute;moires</I>, t. i., p. 134); lines 5-8 occur on the stele of Apa (see Ledrain, <I>Monuments &Eacute;gyptiens de la Bibl. Nationale</I>, Paris, 1879, foll. 14, 15); lines 166 ff. are found on the stele of Nehi (see Mariette, <I>Notice des Mon. &agrave; Boulaq</I>, p. 190; Maspero, <I>Recueil</I>, t. iii., p. 195); and lines 576-83 on the coffin of Sebek-Aa (see Lepsius, <I>Aelteste Texte</I>, Bl. 37; Maspero, <I>Recueil</I>, t. iv., p. 68). In the XVIIIth dynasty line 169 was copied on a wall in the temple of Hatshepset at D&ecirc;r el-bahar&icirc; (see D&uuml;michen, <I>Hist. Inschriften</I>, Bll. 25-37; Maspero, <I>Recueil</I>, t. i., p. 195 ff.); and copies of lines 379-99 occur in the papyri of Mut-hetep (British Museum, No. 10,010) and Nefer-uten-f (Paris, No. 3092, See Naville, <I>Todtenbuch</I>, Bd. I., Bl. 197; <I>Aeg. Zeitschrift</I>, Bd. XXXII., p. 3; and Naville, Einleitung, pp. 39, 97). In the XXVIth dynasty we find texts of the Vth dynasty repeated on the walls of the tomb of Peta-Amen-apt, the chief <I>kher-heb</I> at Thebes (see D&uuml;michen, <I>Der Grabpalast des Patuamenap in der Thebanischen Nekropolis</I>, Leipzig, 1884-85); and also upon the papyrus written for the lady Sais ###, about A.D. 200 (see Dev&eacute;ria, <I>Catalogue des MSS. &Eacute;gyptiens</I>, Paris, 1874, p. 170 No. 3155). Signor Schiaparelli's words are:--"Esso &egrave; scritto in ieratico, di un tipo paleografico speciale: l' enorme abbondanza di segni espletivi, la frequenza di segni o quasi demotici o quasi geroglifici, la sottigliezza di tutti, e l'incertezza con cui sono tracciati, che rivela una mano pi&ugrave; abituata a scrivere in greco che in egiziano, sono altrettanti caratteri del tipo ieratico del periodo esclusivamente romano, a cui il nostro papiro appartiene senza alcun dubbio." <I>Il Libro dei Funerali</I>, p. 19. On Dev&eacute;ria's work in connection with this MS., see Maspero, <I>Le Rituel du sacrifice Fun&eacute;raire</I> (in <I>Revue de l'Histoire des Religions</I>, t. xv., p. 161).]</P>

    </FONT><P>{p. x}</P>
    <P>II. The Theban version, which was commonly written on papyri in hieroglyphics and was divided into sections or chapters, each of which had its distinct title but no definite place in the series. The version was much used from the XVIIIth to the XXth dynasty.</P>
    <P>III. A version closely allied to the preceding version, which is found written on papyri in the hieratic character and also in hieroglyphics. In this version, which came into use about the XXth dynasty, the chapters have no fixed order.</P>
    <P>IV. The so-called Sa&iuml;te version, in which, at some period anterior probably to the XXVIth dynasty, the chapters were arranged in a definite order. It is commonly written in hieroglyphics and in hieratic, and it was much used from the XXVIth dynasty to the end of the Ptolemaic period.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Early forms of the Book of the Dead.</P>
    <P ALIGN="CENTER">The Book of the Dead.</P>
    </FONT><P>The earliest inscribed monuments and human remains found in Egypt prove that the ancient Egyptians took the utmost care to preserve the bodies of their </P>
    <P>{p. xi}</P>

    <P>dead by various processes of embalming. The deposit of the body in the tomb was accompanied by ceremonies of a symbolic nature, in the course of which certain compositions comprising prayers, short litanies, etc., having reference to the future life, were recited or chanted by priests and relatives on behalf of the dead. The greatest importance was attached to such compositions, in the belief that their recital would secure for the dead an unhindered passage to God in the next world, would enable him to overcome the opposition of all ghostly foes, would endow his body in the tomb with power to resist corruption, and would ensure him a new life in a glorified body in heaven. At a very remote period certain groups of sections or chapters had already become associated with some of the ceremonies which preceded actual burial, and these eventually became a distinct ritual with clearly defined limits. Side by side, however, with this ritual there seems to have existed another and larger work, which was divided into an indefinite number of sections or chapters comprising chiefly prayers, and which dealt on a larger scale with the welfare of the departed in the next world, and described the state of existence therein and the dangers which must be passed successfully before it could be reached, and was founded generally on the religious dogmas and mythology of the Egyptians. The title of "Book of the Dead" is usually given by Egyptologists to the editions of the larger work which were made in the XVIIIth and following dynasties, but in this Introduction the term is intended to include the general body of texts which have reference to the burial of the dead and to the new life in the world beyond the grave, and which are known to have existed in revised editions and to have been in use among the Egyptians from about B.C. 4500, to the early centuries of the Christian era.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Uncertainty of the history of its source</P>
    </FONT><P>The home, origin, and early history of the collection of ancient religious texts which have descended to us are, at present, unknown, and all working theories regarding them, however strongly supported by apparently well-ascertained facts, must be carefully distinguished as theories only, so long as a single ancient necropolis in Egypt remains unexplored and its inscriptions are untranslated. Whether they were composed by the inhabitants of Egypt, who recorded them in hieroglyphic characters, and who have left the monuments which are the only trustworthy sources of information on the subject, or whether they were brought into Egypt by the early immigrants from the Asiatic continent whence they came, or whether they represent the religious books of the Egyptians incorporated with the funeral texts of some prehistoric dwellers on the banks of the Nile, are all questions which the possible discovery of inscriptions belonging to the first dynasties of the Early Empire can alone decide. The evidence derived from the</P>
    <P>{p. xii}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Its antiquity.</P>
    </FONT><P>enormous mass of new material which we owe to the all-important discoveries of <I>mastaba</I> tombs and pyramids by M. Maspero, and to his publication of the early religious texts, proves beyond all doubt that the greater part of the texts comprised in the Book of the Dead are far older than the period of Mena (Menes), the first historical king of Egypt.[1] Certain sections indeed appear to belong to an indefinitely remote and primeval time.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Internal evidence of its antiquity.</P>

    </FONT><P>The earliest texts bear within themselves proofs, not only of having been composed, but also of having been revised, or edited, long before the days of king Meni, and judging from many passages in the copies inscribed in hieroglyphics upon the pyramids of Unas (the last king of the Vth dynasty, about B.C. 3333), and Teta, Pepi I., Mer-en-Ra, and Pepi II. (kings of the VIth dynasty, about B.C. 3300-3166), it would seem that, even at that remote date, the scribes were perplexed and hardly understood the texts which they had before them.[2] The most moderate estimate makes certain sections of the Book of the Dead as known from these tombs older than three thousand years before Christ. We are in any case justified in estimating the earliest form of the work to be contemporaneous with the foundation of the civilization[3] which we call Egyptian in the valley of</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. "Les textes des Pyramides . . . . . . nous reportent si loin dans le pass&eacute; que je n'ai aucun moyen de les dater que de dire qu'elles &eacute;taient dej&agrave; vieilles cinq mille ans avant notre &egrave;re. Si extraordinaire que paraisse ce chiffre, il faudra bien nous habituer &agrave; le consid&eacute;rer comme repr&eacute;sentant une &eacute;valuation <I>&agrave; minima</I> toutes les fois qu'on voudra rechercher les origines de la religion &Eacute;gyptienne. La religion et les textes qui nous la font conna&icirc;tre &eacute;taient d&eacute;j&agrave; constitu&eacute;s avant la I<SUP>re</SUP> dynastie: c'est &agrave; nous de nous mettre, pour les comprendre, dans l'&eacute;tat d'esprit o&ugrave; &eacute;tait, il y a plus de sept mille ans, le peuple qui les a constitu&eacute;s. Bien entendu, je ne parle ici que des syst&egrave;mes th&eacute;ologiques: si nous voulions remonter jusqu'&agrave; l'origine des &eacute;1&eacute;ments qu'ils ont mis en œuvre, il nous faudrait reculer vers des ages encore plus lointains." Maspero, <I>La Mythologie &Eacute;gyptienne</I> (in <I>Revue de l'Histoire des Religions</I>, t. xix., p. 12; and in <I>&Eacute;tudes de Mythologie et d'Arch&eacute;ologie &Eacute;gyptiennes</I>, t. ii., p. 2 36). Compare also "dass die einzelnen Texte selbst damals schon einer alten heiligen Litteratur angeh&ouml;rten, unterliegt keinem Zweifel, sie sind in jeder Hinsicht alterth&uuml;mlicher als die &auml;ltesten uns erhaltenen Denkm&auml;ler. Sie geh&ouml;ren in eine f&uuml;r uns 'vorhistorische' Zeit und man wird ihnen gewiss kein Unrecht anthun, wenn man sie bis in das vierte Jahrtausend hinein versetzt." Erman, Das Verh&auml;ltniss des aegyptischen zu den semitischen Sprachen, in Z.D.M.G., Bd. XLVI., p. 94.</P>

    <P>2. "Le nombre des pri&egrave;res et des formules dirig&eacute;es contre les animaux venimeux montre quel effroi le serpent et le scorpion inspirait aux &Eacute;gyptiens. Beaucoup d'entre elles sont &eacute;crites dans une langue et avec des combinaisons de signes qui ne paraissent plus avoir &eacute;t&eacute; compl&egrave;tement comprises des scribes qui les copiaient sous Ounas et sous Pepi. Je crois, quant &agrave; moi, qu'elles appartiennent an plus vieux rituel et remontent an del&agrave; du r&egrave;gne de M&icirc;n&icirc;." Maspero, La Religion &Eacute;gyptienne (in <I>Revue de l'Histoire des Religions</I>, t. xii., p. 125). See also <I>Recueil de Travaux</I>, t. iv., p. 62.</P>

    <P>3. So sind wir gezwungen, wenigstens die ersten Grundlagen des Buches den Anf&auml;ngen den Aegyptischen Civilization beizumessen." See Naville, <I>Das Aegyptische Todtenbuch</I> (Einleitung), Berlin, 1886, p. 18.]</P>
    </FONT><P>{p. xiii}</P>
    <P>the Nile.[1] To fix a chronological limit for the arts and civilization of Egypt is absolutely impossible.[2]</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Evidence of the antiquity of certain chapters.</P>
    </FONT><P>The oldest form or edition of the Book of the Dead as we have received it supplies no information whatever as to the period when it was compiled; but a copy of the hieratic text inscribed upon a coffin of Menthu-hetep, a queen of the XIth dynasty,[3] about B.C. 2500, made by the late Sir J. G. Wilkinson,[4] informs us that the chapter which, according to the arrangement of Lepsius, bears the number LXIV.,[5] was discovered in the reign of Hesep-ti,[6] the fifth king of the Ist dynasty, about B.C. 4266. On this coffin are two copies of the chapter, the one immediately following the other. In the rubric to the first the name of the king during whose reign the chapter is said to have been "found" is given as Menthu-hetep, which, as Goodwin first pointed out,[7] is a mistake for Men-kau-Ra,[8] the fourth king of the IVth dynasty, about B.C. 3633;[9] but in the rubric to the second the king's name is given as Hesep-ti. Thus it appears that in the period of the XIth dynasty it was believed that the chapter might alternatively be as old as the time of the Ist dynasty. Further, it is given to Hesep-ti in papyri of the XXIst dynasty,[10] a period when particular attention was paid to the history of the Book of the Dead; and it thus appears that the Egyptians of the Middle Empire believed the chapter to date from the more</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. The date of Mena, the first king of Egypt, is variously given B.C. 5867 (Champollion), B.C. 5004 (Mariette), B.C. 5892 (Lepsius), B.C. 4455 (Brugsch).</P>
    <P>2 See Chabas, <I>Aeg. Zeitschrift</I>, 1865, p. 95. On the subject of the Antiquity of Egyptian Civilization generally, see Chabas, <I>&Eacute;tudes sur l'Antiquit&eacute; Historique d'apr&egrave;s les Sources &Eacute;gyptiennes</I>, Paris, 1873--Introduction, p. 9.</P>

    <P>3 The name of the queen and her titles are given on p. 7 (margin) thus:--</P>
    <P>###.</P>
    <P>4 It was presented to the British Museum in 1834, and is now in the Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities.</P>
    <I><P>Todtenbuch</I>, Bl. 23-25.</P>
    <P>6. the <I>Ou?safa&iuml;'s ui!o's</I> of Manetho.</P>
    <P>7 <I>Aeg. Zeitschrift</I>, 1866, p. 54.</P>

    <P>8. See Guieyesse, <I>Rituel Fun&eacute;raire &Eacute;gyptien</I>, chapitre 64<SUP>e</SUP>, Paris, 1876, p. 10, note 2.</P>
    <P>9. The late recension of the Book of the Dead published by Lepsius also gives the king's name as Men-kau-Ra (<I>Todtenbuch</I>, Bl. 25, l. 30. In the same recension the CXXXth Chapter is ascribed to the reign of Hesep-ti (131. 53, l. 28).</P>
    <P>10. Naville, <I>Todtenbuch</I> (Einleitung), pp. 33, 139]</P>

    </FONT><P>{p. xiv}</P>
    <P>remote period. To quote the words of Chabas, the chapter was regarded as being "very ancient, very mysterious, and very difficult to understand" already fourteen centuries before our era.[1]</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Antiquity of Chapter LXIV.</P>
    </FONT><P>The rubric on the coffin of Queen Menthu-hetep, which ascribes the chapter to Hesep-ti, states that "this chapter was found in the foundations beneath the <I>hennu</I> boat by the foreman of the builders in the time of the king of the North and South, Hesep-ti, triumphant";[2] the Nebseni papyrus says that this chapter was found in the city of Khemennu (Hermopolis) on a block of ironstone (?) written in letters of lapis-lazuli, under the feet of the god";[3] and the Turin papyrus (XXVIth dynasty or later) adds that the name of the finder was Heru-ta-ta-f, the son of Khufu or Cheops,[4] the second king of the IVth dynasty, about B.C. 3733, who was at the time making a tour of inspection of the temples. Birch[5] and Naville[6] consider the chapter one of</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. Chabas, <I>Voyage d'un &Eacute;gyptien</I>, p. 46. According to M. Naville (Einleitung, p. 138), who follows Chabas's opinion, this chapter is an abridgement of the whole Book of the Dead; and it had, even though it contained not all the religious doctrine of the Egyptians, a value which was equivalent to the whole.</P>
    <P>2. See Goodwin, <I>Aeg. Zeitschrift</I>, 1866, p. 55, and compare the reading from the Cairo papyrus of Mes-em-neter given by Naville (<I>Todtenbuch</I>, ii-, p. 139)</P>

    <P>3 Naville, <I>Todtenbuch</I>, Bd. I., B1. 76, L 52.</P>
    <P>4 Lepsius, <I>Todtenbuch</I>, Bl. 25, 1. 31.</P>
    <P>6 "The most remarkable chapter is the 64th . . . . . It is one of the oldest of all, and is attributed, as already stated, to the epoch of king Gaga-Makheru or Menkheres . . . . . This chapter enjoyed a high reputation till a late period, for it is found on a stone presented to General Perofski by the late Emperor Nicholas, which must have come from the tomb of Petemenophis,[*] in the El-Assasif[+] and was made during the XXVIth dynasty Some more recent compiler of the Hermetic books has evidently paraphrased it for the Ritual of Turin." Bunsen, <I>Egypt's Place in Universal History</I>, London, 1867, p. 1142. The block of stone to which Dr. Birch refers is described by Gol&eacute;nischeff, <I>Inventaire de la Ermitage Imp&eacute;rial, Collection &Eacute;gyptienne</I>, No. 1101, pp. 169, 170. M. Maspero thinks it was meant to be a "pr&eacute;tendu fac-simil&eacute;" of the original slab, which, according to the rubric, was found in the temple of Thoth, <I>Revue de l'Histoire des Religions</I>, t. XV., p. 299, and <I>&Eacute;tudes de Mythologie</I>, t i., p. 368.</P>

    <P>6 <I>Todtenbuch</I> (Einleitung), p. 139. Mr. Renouf also holds this opinion, Trans. See. Bibl. Arch., 1803, p. 6.</P>
    <P>* <I>I.e.</I>, the "chief reader." Many of the inscriptions on whose tomb have been published by D&uuml;michen, Der Grabpalast des Patuamenap; Leipzig, 1884, 1885.</P>
    <P>+ <I>I.e.</I>, Asas&icirc;f el-bahr&icirc;yeh, or Asasif of the north, behind D&ecirc;r el-bahar&icirc;, on the western bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes.]</P>

    </FONT><P>{p. xv}</P>
    <P>the oldest in the Book of the Dead; the former basing his opinion on the rubric' and the latter upon the evidence derived from the contents and character of the text; but Maspero, while admitting the great age of the chapter, does not attach any very great importance to the rubric as fixing any exact date for its composition.[1] Of Herutataf the finder of the block of stone, we know from later texts that he was considered to be a learned man, and that his speech was only with difficulty to be understood,[2] and we also know the prominent part which he took as a recognized man of letters in bringing to the court of his father Khufu the sage Tetteta.[3] It is then not improbable that Herutataf's character for learning may have suggested the connection of his name with the chapter, and possibly as its literary reviser; at all events as early as the period of the Middle Empire tradition associated him with it.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. "On explique d'ordinaire cette indication comme une marque d'antiquit&eacute; extr&ecirc;me; on part de ce principe que le <I>Livre des Morts</I> est de composition relativement moderne, et qu'un scribe &eacute;gyptien, nommant un roi des premi&egrave;res dynasties memphites, ne pouvait entendre par l&agrave; qu'un personnage d'&eacute;poque tr&egrave;s recul&eacute;e. Cette explication ne me para&icirc;t pas &ecirc;tre exacte. En premier lieu, le chapitre LXIV. se trouve d&eacute;j&agrave; sur des monuments contemporains de la X<SUP>e</SUP> et de la XI<SUP>e</SUP> dynastie, et n'&eacute;tait certainement pas nouveau au moment o&ugrave; on &eacute;crivait les copies les plus vieilles que nous en ayons aujourd'hui. Lorsqu'on le r&eacute;digea sous sa forme actuelle, le r&egrave;gne de Myk&eacute;rinos, et m&ecirc;me celui d'Housapaiti, ne devaient pas soulever dans l'esprit des indig&egrave;nes la sensation de l'archa&iuml;sme et du primitif: on avait pour rendre ces id&eacute;es des expressions plus fortes, qui renvoyaient le lecteur au si&egrave;cles des <I>Serviteurs d'Horus</I>, &agrave; la domination de Ra, aux &acirc;ges o&ugrave; les dieux r&eacute;gnaient sur l'&Eacute;gypte." <I>Revue de l'Histoire des Religions</I>, t. xv., p. 299.</P>

    <P>2 Chabas, Voyage, p. 46; Wiedemann, <I>Aegyptische Geschichte</I>, p. 191. In the Brit. Mus. papyrus No. 10,060 (Harris 500), Herutataf is mentioned together with I-em-hetep as a well known author, and the writer of the dirge says, "I have heard the words of I-em-hetep and of Herutataf, whose many and varied writings are said and sung; but now where are their places?" The hieratic text is published with a hieroglyphic transcript by Maspero in <I>Journal Asiatique</I>, S&eacute;r. VII<SUP>i&egrave;me</SUP>, t. xv., p. 404 ff., and <I>&Eacute;tudes &Eacute;gyptiennes</I>, t. i., p. 173; for English translations, see <I>Trans. Soc. Bibl. Arch.</I>, vol. iii., p. 386, and <I>Records of the Past</I>, 1st ed., vol. iv., p. 117.</P>

    <P>3 According to the Westcar papyrus, Herutataf informed his father Khufu of the existence of a man 110 years old who lived in the town of Tettet-Seneferu: he was able to join to its body again a head that had been cut off, and possessed influence over the lion, and was acquainted with the mysteries of Thoth. By Khufu's command Herutataf brought the sage to him by boat, and, on his arrival, the king ordered the head to be struck off from a prisoner that Tetteta might fasten it on again. Having excused himself from performing this act upon a man, a goose was brought and its head was cut off and laid on one side of the room and the body was placed on the other. The sage spake certain words of power whereupon the goose stood up and began to waddle, and the head also began to move towards it; when the head had joined itself again to the body the bird stood up and cackled. For the complete hieratic text, transcript and translation, see Erman, <I>Die M&auml;rchen des Papyrus Westcar</I>, Berlin, 1890, p. it, plate 6.]</P>
    </FONT><P>{p. xvi}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">The Book of the Dead in the IInd dynasty.</P>
    </FONT><P>Passing from the region of native Egyptian tradition, we touch firm ground with the evidence derived from the monuments of the IInd dynasty. A bas-relief preserved at Aix in Provence mentions &Acirc;asen and Ankef,[1] two of the priests of Sent or Senta, the fifth king of the IInd dynasty, about B.C. 4000; and a stele at Oxford[2] and another in the Egyptian Museum at Gizeh[3] record the name of a third priest, Shera or Sheri, a "royal relative" On the stele at Oxford we have represented the deceased and his wife seated, one on each side of an altar,[4] which is covered with funeral offerings of pious relatives; above, in perpendicular lines of hieroglyphics in relief, are the names of the objects offered,[5] and below is an inscription which reads,[6] "thousands of loaves of bread, thousands of vases of ale, thousands of linen garments, thousands of changes of wearing apparel, and thousands of oxen." Now from this monument it is evident that already in the IInd dynasty a priesthood existed in Egypt which numbered among its members relatives of the royal family, and that a religious system which prescribed as a duty the providing of meat and drink offerings for the dead was also in active operation. The offering of specific objects goes far to prove the existence of a ritual or service wherein their signification would be indicated; the coincidence of these words and the prayer for "thousands of loaves of bread, thousands of vases of ale," etc., with the promise, "Anpu-khent-Amenta shall give thee thy thousands of loaves of bread, thy thousands of vases of ale, thy thousands of vessels</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. Wiedemann, <I>Aegyptische Geschichte</I>, p. 170. In a mastaba at Sakkara we have a stele of Sheri, a superintendent of the priests of the <I>ka</I>, whereon the cartouches of Sent and Per-ab-sen both occur. See Mariette and Maspero, <I>Les Mastaba de l'ancien Empire</I>, Paris, 1882, p. 92.</P>

    <P>2. See Lepsius, <I>Auswahl</I>, Bl. 9.</P>
    <P>3. See Maspero, <I>Guide du Visiteur au Mus&eacute;e de Boulaq</I>, 1883, pp. 31, 32, and 213 (No. 1027).</P>
    <P>4 A discussion on the method of depicting this altar on Egyptian monuments by Borchardt may be found in <I>Aeg. Zeitschrift</I>, Bd. XXXI., p. i (Die Darstellung innen verzierter Schalen auf aeg. Denkm&auml;lern).</P>
    <P>6 Among others, (1) ###, (2) ###, (3) ###, (4) ###; the word incense is written twice, ###. Some of these appear in the lists of offerings made for Unas (l. 147) and for Teta (11. 125, 131, 133; see <I>Recueil de Travaux</I>, 1884, plate 2).</P>

    <P>6 ###.</P>
    <P>7 The sculptor had no room for the ### belonging to ###.]</P>
    </FONT><P>{p. xvii}</P>
    <P>of unguents, thy thousands of changes of apparel, thy thousands of oxen, and thy thousands of bullocks," enables us to recognise that ritual in the text inscribed upon the pyramid of Teta in the Vth dynasty, from which the above promise is taken.[1] Thus the traditional evidence of the text on the coffin of Menthu-hetep and the scene on the monument of Shera support one another, and together they prove beyond a doubt that a form of the Book of the Dead was in use at least in the period of the earliest dynasties, and that sepulchral ceremonies connected therewith were duly performed.[2]</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">The Book of the Dead in the IVth dynasty.</P>
    </FONT><P>With the IVth dynasty we have an increased number of monuments, chiefly sepulchral, which give details as to the Egyptian sacerdotal system and the funeral ceremonies which the priests performed.[3] The inscriptions upon the earlier</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. ###. Teta, II. 388, 389. (<I>Recueil</I>, ed. Maspero, t. v., p. 58.)</P>
    <P>2 The arguments brought forward here in proof of the great antiquity of a religious system in Egypt are supplemented in a remarkable manner by the inscriptions found in the mastaba of Seker-kha-baiu at Sakkara. Here we have a man who, like Shera, was a "royal relative" and a priest, but who, unlike him, exercised some of the highest functions of the Egyptian priesthood in virtue of his title <I>xerp hem</I>. (On the ###[*] see Max M&uuml;ller, <I>Recueil de Travaux</I>, t. ix., p. 166; Brugsch, <I>Aegyptologie</I>, p. 218; and Maspero, <I>Un Manuel de Hi&eacute;rarchie &Eacute;gyptienne</I>, p. 9.)</P>

    <P>Among the offerings named in the tomb are the substances ### and ### which are also mentioned on the stele of Shera of the IInd dynasty, and in the texts of the VIth dynasty. But the tomb of Seker-kha-baiu is different from any other known to us, both as regards the form and cutting of the hieroglyphics, which are in relief, and the way in which they are disposed and grouped. The style of the whole monument is rude and very primitive, and it cannot be attributed to any dynasty later than the second, or even to the second itself; it must, therefore, have been built during the first dynasty, or in the words of MM. Mariette and Maspero, "L'impression g&eacute;n&eacute;rale que l'on re&ccedil;oit au premier aspect du tombeau No. 5, est celle d'une extr&ecirc;me antiquit&eacute;. Rien en effet de ce que nous sommes habitu&eacute;s &agrave; voir dans les autres tombeaux ne se retrouve ici . . . Le monument . . . . est certainement le plus ancien de ceux que nous connaissons dans la plaine de Saqqarah, et il n'y a pas de raison pour qu'il ne soit pas de la I<SUP>re</SUP> Dynastie." <I>Les Mastaba de l'ancien Empire</I>; Paris, 1882, p. 73. Because there is no incontrovertible proof that this tomb belongs to the Ist dynasty, the texts on the stele of Shera, a monument of a later dynasty, have been adduced as the oldest evidences of the antiquity of a fixed religious system and literature in Egypt.</P>
    <P>3. Many of the monuments commonly attributed to this dynasty should more correctly be described as being the work of the IInd dynasty; see Maspero, Geschichte der <I>Morgenl&auml;nsdischen V&ouml;lker im Alterthum</I> (trans. Pietschmann), Leipzig, 1877, p. 56; Wiedemann, <I>Aegyptische Geschichte</I> p. 170.</P>

    <P>* Ptah-shepses bore this title; see Mariette and Maspero, <I>Les Mastaba</I>, p. 113.]</P>
    </FONT><P>{p. xviii}</P>
    <P>monuments prove that many of the priestly officials were still relatives of the royal family, and the tombs of feudal lords, scribes, and others, record a number of their official titles, together with the names of several of their religious festivals. The subsequent increase in the number of the monuments during this period may be due to the natural development of the religion of the time, but it is very probable that the greater security of life and property which had been assured by the vigorous wars of Seneferu,[1] the first king of this dynasty, about B.C. 3766, encouraged men to incur greater expense, and to build larger and better abodes for the dead, and to celebrate the full ritual at the prescribed festivals. In this dynasty the royal dead were honoured with sepulchral monuments of a greater size and magnificence than had ever before been contemplated, and the chapels attached to the pyramids were served by courses of priests whose sole duties consisted in celebrating the services. The fashion of building a pyramid instead of the rectangular flat-roofed mastaba for a royal tomb was revived by Seneferu,[2] who called his pyramid Kha; and his example was followed by his immediate successors, Khufu (Cheops), Khaf-Ra (Chephren), Men-kau-Ra (Mycerinus), and others.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Revision of certain chapters in the IVth dynasty.</P>
    </FONT><P>In the reign of Mycerinus some important work seems to have been under taken in connection with certain sections of the text of the Book of the Dead, for the rubrics of Chapters XXX<FONT SIZE=2>B.</FONT> and CXLVIII.[3] state that these compositions were found inscribed upon "a block of iron(?) of the south in letters of real lapis-lazuli under the feet of the majesty of the god in the time of the King it of the North and South Men-kau-Ra, by the royal son Herutataf, triumphant." That a new impulse should be given to religious observances, and that the revision of existing religious texts should take place in the reign of Mycerinus, was only to be expected if Greek tradition may be believed, for both Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus represent him as a just king, and one who was anxious to efface from the minds of the people the memory of the alleged cruelty of his</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. He conquered the peoples in the Sinaitic peninsula, and according to a text of a later date he built a wall to keep out the Aamu from Egypt. In the story of Saneha a "pool of Seneferu" is mentioned, which shows that his name was well known on the frontiers of Egypt. See Gol&eacute;nischeff, <I>Aeg. Zeitschrift</I>, p. 110; Maspero, <I>M&eacute;langes d'Arch&eacute;ologie</I>, t. iii., Paris, 1876, p. 71, 1. 2; Lepsius, <I>Denkm&auml;ler</I>, ii., 2a.</P>

    <P>2 The building of the pyramid of M&ecirc;d&ucirc;m has usually been attributed to Seneferu, but the excavations made there in 1882 did nothing to clear up the uncertainty which exists on this point; for recent excavations see Petrie, Medum, London, 1892, 40.</P>
    <P>3 For the text see Naville, <I>Todtenbuch</I>, Bd. II., Bl. 99; Bd. I., Bl. 167.]</P>
    </FONT><P>predecessor by re-opening the temples and by letting every man celebrate his own sacrifices and discharge his own religious duties.[1] His pyramid is the one now known as the "third pyramid of Gizeh," under which he was buried in a chamber vertically below the apex and 60 feet below the level of the ground. Whether the pyramid was finished or not[2] when the king died, his body was certainly laid in it, and notwithstanding all the attempts made by the Muhammadan rulers of Egypt[3] to destroy it at the end of the 12th century of our era, it has survived to yield up important facts for the history of the Book of the Dead.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Evidence of the Inscription on the coffin of Mycerinus.</P>
    </FONT><P>In 1837 Colonel Howard Vyse succeeded in forcing the entrance. On the 29th of July he commenced operations, and on the 1st of August he made his way into the sepulchral chamber, where, however, nothing was found but a rectangular stone sarcophagous[4] without the lid. The large stone slabs of the floor and the linings of the wall had been in many instances removed by thieves in search of treasure. In a lower chamber, connected by a passage with the sepulchral chamber, was found the greater part of the lid of the sarcophagus,[5] together with portions of a wooden coffin, and part of the body of a man, consisting of ribs and vertebrae and the bones of the legs and feet, enveloped</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. Herodotus, ii., 129, 1; Diodorus, i., 64, 9.</P>
    <P>2. According to Diodorus, he died before it was completed (i., 64, 7).</P>

    <P>3. According to 'Abd el-Latif the Khalif's name was M&acirc;m&ucirc;n, but M. de Sacy doubted that he was the first to attempt this work; the authorities on the subject are all given in his <I>Relation de l'&Eacute;gypte</I>, Paris, 1810, p. 215-221. Tradition, as represented in the "Arabian Nights," says that Al-M&acirc;m&ucirc;n was minded to pull down the Pyramids, and that he expended a mint of money in the attempt; he succeeded, however, only in opening up a small tunnel in one of them, wherein it is said he found treasure to the exact amount of the moneys which he had spent in the work, and neither more nor less. The Arabic writer Idr&icirc;s&icirc;, who wrote about A.H. 623 (A.D. 1226), states that a few years ago the "Red Pyramid," <I>i.e.</I>, that of Mycerinus, was opened on the north side. After passing through various passages a room was reached wherein was found a long blue vessel, quite empty. The opening into this pyramid was effected by people who were in search of treasure; they worked at it with axes for six months, and they were in great numbers. They found in this basin, after they had broken the covering of it, the decayed remains of a man, but no treasures, excepting some golden tablets inscribed with characters of a language which nobody could understand. Each man's share of these tablets amounted to one hundred dinars (about £50). Other legendary history says that the western pyramid contains thirty chambers of parti-coloured syenite full of precious gems and costly weapons anointed with unguents that they may not rust until the day of the Resurrection. See Howard Vyse, <I>The Pyramids of Gizeh</I>, vol. ii., pp. 71, 72; and Burton, <I>The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night</I>; 1885, vol. v., p. 105, and vol. x., p. 150.</P>

    <P>4 Vyse, The Pyramids of Gizeh, vol. ii., p. 84. A fragment of this sarcophagus is exhibited in the British Museum, First Egyptian Room, Case A, No. 6646.</P>
    <P>5 With considerable difficulty this interesting monument was brought out from the pyramid by Mr. Raven, and having been cased in strong timbers, was sent off to the British Museum. It was embarked at Alexandria in the autumn of 1838, on board a merchant ship, which was supposed to have been lost off Carthagena, as she never was heard of after her departure from Leghorn on the 12th of October in that year, and as some parts of the wreck were picked up near the former port. The sarcophagus is figured by Vyse, Pyramids, vol. ii., plate facing p. 84.]</P>
    </FONT><P>{p. xx}</P>
    <P>in a coarse woollen cloth of a yellow colour, to which a small quantity of resinous substance and gum adhered.[1] It would therefore seem that, as the sarcophagus could not be removed, the wooden case alone containing the body had been brought into the large apartment for examination. Now, whether the human remains' there found are those of Mycerinus or of some one else, as some have suggested, in no way affects the question of the ownership of the coffin, for we know by the hieroglyphic inscription upon it that it was made to hold the mummified body of the king. This inscription, which is arranged in two perpendicular lines down the front of the coffin reads:--[3]</P>
    <I><P>Ausar suten net[4] Men-kau-Ra anx t'etta mes en pet aur</P>
    </I><P>King of the North and South Men-kau-Ra, living for ever, born of heaven, conceived of</P>
    <I><P>Nut a a en Seb[5] mer-f peses-s mut-k Nut her-k</P>
    </I><P>Nut, heir of Seb, his beloved. Spreadeth she thy mother Nut over thee</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. As a considerable misapprehension about the finding of these remains has existed, the account of the circumstances under which they were discovered will be of interest. "Sir, by your request, I send you the particulars of the finding of the bones, mummy-cloth, and parts of the coffin in the Third Pyramid. In clearing the rubbish out of the large entrance-room, after the men had been employed there several days and had advanced some distance towards the south-eastern corner, some bones were first discovered at the bottom of the rubbish; and the remaining bones and parts of the coffin were immediately discovered all together. No other parts of the coffin or bones could be found in the room; I therefore had the rubbish which had been previously turned out of the same room carefully re-examined, when several pieces of the coffin and of the mummy-cloth were found; but in no other part of the pyramid were any parts of it to be discovered, although every place was most minutely examined, to make the coffin as complete as possible. There was about three feet of rubbish on the top of the same; and from the circumstance of the bones and part of the coffin being all found together, it appeared as if the coffin had been brought to that spot and there unpacked.--H. Raven." Vyse, <I>Pyramids</I>, vol. ii., p. 86.</P>

    <P>2. They are exhibited in the First Egyptian Room, Case A, and the fragments of the coffin in Wall Case No. 1 (No. 6647) in the same room.</P>
    <P>3. See Lepsius, <I>Auswahl</I>, Taf. 7.</P>
    <P>4. Or <I>suten bat</I>; see Sethe, <I>Aeg. Zeitschrift</I>, Bd. XXVIII., p. 125; and Bd. XXX, p. 113; Max M&uuml;ller, <I>Aeg. Zeitschrift</I>, Bd. XXX., p. 56; Renouf, <I>Proc. Son Bibl. Arch.</I>, 1893, pp. 219, 220; and Lef&eacute;bure, <I>Aeg. Zeitschrift</I>, Bd. XXXI., p. 114 ff.</P>

    <P>5. It seems that we should read this god's name Keb (see Lef&eacute;bure, <I>Aeg. Zeitschrift</I>, Bd. XXXI., p. 12 5); for the sake of uniformity the old name is here retained.]</P>
    </FONT><P>{p. xxi}</P>
    <I><P>em ren-s en seta pet ertat-nes un-k em neter</P>
    </I><P>in her name of "mystery of heaven," she granteth that thou mayest exist as a god</P>
    <I><P>an xeft-k suten net Men-kau-Ra anx t'etta</P>
    </I><P>without thy foes, O King of the North and South, Men-kau-Ra, living for ever!</P>
    <P>Now it is to be noted that the passage, "Thy mother Nut spreadeth herself over thee in her name of 'Mystery of Heaven,' she granteth that thou mayest be without enemies," occurs in the texts which are inscribed upon the pyramids built by the kings of the VIth dynasty,[1] and thus we have evidence of the use of the same version of one religious text both in the IVth and in the VIth dynasties.[2]</P>

    <P>Even if we were to admit that the coffin is a forgery of the XXVIth dynasty, and that the inscription upon it was taken from an edition of the text of the Book of the Dead, still the value of the monument as an evidence of the antiquity of the Book of the Dead is scarcely impaired, for those who added the inscription would certainly have chosen it from a text of the time of Mycerinus.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">The Book of the Dead in the Vth dynasty.</P>
    </FONT><P>In the Vth dynasty we have--in an increased number of mastabas and other monuments--evidence of the extension of religious ceremonials, including the</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. See the texts of Teta and Pepi I. in Maspero, <I>Recueil de Travaux</I>, t. V., pp. 20, 38 (ll. 175, 279), and pp. 165, T73 (ll. 60, 103), <I>etc.</P>
    </I><P>2. So far back as 1883, M. Maspero, in lamenting (Guide du Visiteur de Boulaq, p. 310) the fact that the B&ucirc;l&acirc;q Museum possessed only portions of wooden coffins of the Ancient Empire and no complete example, noticed that the coffin of Mycerinus, preserved in the British Museum, had been declared by certain Egyptologists to be a "restoration" of the XXVIth dynasty, rather than the work of the IVth dynasty, in accordance with the inscription upon it; but like Dr. Birch he was of opinion that the coffin certainly belonged to the IVth dynasty, and adduced in support of his views the fact of the existence of portions of a similar coffin of Seker-em-sa-f, a king of the VIth dynasty. Recently, however, an attempt has again been made (<I>Aeg. Zeitschrift</I>, Bd. XXX., p. 94 ff.) to prove by the agreement of the variants in the text on the coffin of Mycerinus with those of texts of the XXVIth dynasty, that the Mycerinus text is of this late period, or at all events not earlier than the time of Psammetichus. But it is admitted on all hands that in the XXVIth dynasty the Egyptians resuscitated texts of the first dynasties of the Early Empire, and that they copied the arts and literature of that period as far as possible, and, this being so, the texts on the monuments which have been made the standard of comparison for that on the coffin of Mycerinus may be themselves at fault in their variants. If the text on the cover could be proved to differ as much from an undisputed IVth dynasty text as it does from those even of the VIth dynasty, the philological argument might have some weight; but even this would not get rid of the fact that the cover itself is a genuine relic of the IVth dynasty.]</P>

    </FONT><P>{p. xxii}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Evidence of the texts of the pyramid of Unas.</P>
    </FONT><P>celebration of funeral rites; but a text forming the Book of the Dead as a whole does not occur until the reign of Unas (B.C. 3333), the last king of the dynasty, who according to the Turin papyrus reigned thirty years. This monarch built on the plain of Sakk&acirc;ra a stone pyramid about sixty-two feet high, each side measuring about two hundred feet at the base. In the time of Perring and Vyse it was surrounded by heaps of broken stone and rubbish, the result of repeated attempts to open it, and with the casing stones, which consisted of compact limestone from the quarries of Tura.[1] In February, 1881, M. Maspero began to clear the pyramid, and soon after he succeeded in making an entrance into the innermost chambers, the walls of which were covered with hieroglyphic inscriptions, arranged in perpendicular lines and painted in green.[2] The condition of the interior showed that at some time or other thieves had already succeeded in making an entrance, for the cover of the black basalt sarcophagus of Unas had been wrenched off and moved near the door of the sarcophagus chamber; the paving stones had been pulled up in the vain attempt to find buried treasure; the mummy had been broken to pieces, and nothing remained of it except the right arm, a tibia, and some fragments of the skull and body. The inscriptions which covered certain walls and corridors in the tomb were afterwards published by M. Maspero.[3] The appearance of the text of Unas[4] marks an era in the history of the Book of the Dead, and its translation must be regarded as one of the greatest triumphs of Egyptological decipherment, for the want of determinatives in many places in the text, and the archaic spelling of many of the words and passages presented difficulties which were not easily overcome.[6] Here, for the first time, it was shown that the Book of the Dead was no compilation of a comparatively late period in the history of Egyptian civilization, but a work belonging to a very remote antiquity; and it followed naturally that texts which were then known, and which were thought to be themselves original ancient texts, proved to be only versions which had passed through two or more successive revisions.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. Vyse, <I>Pyramids of Gizeh</I>, p. 51</P>
    <P>2. Maspero, <I>Recueil de Travaux</I>, t. iii., p. 78.</P>
    <P>3. See <I>Recueil de Travaux</I>, t. iii., pp. 177-224; t. iv., pp. 41-78.</P>

    <P>4. In 1881 Dr. Brugsch described two pyramids of the VIth dynasty inscribed with religious texts similar to those found in the pyramid of Unas, and translated certain passages (Aeg. Zeitschrift, Bd., xix., pp. 1-15); see also Birch in Trans. Son Bibl. Arch., 1881, p. iii ff.</P>
    <P>5 The pyramid which bore among the Arabs the name of <I>Mastabat el-Far'&ucirc;n</I>, or "Pharaoh's Bench," was excavated by Mariette in 1858, and, because he found the name of Unas painted on certain blocks of stone, he concluded that it was the tomb of Unas. M. Maspero's excavations have, as Dr. Lepsius observes (<I>Aeg. Zeitschrift</I>, Bd. XIX., p. 15), set the matter right.]</P>
    </FONT><P>{p. xxiii}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">The Book of the Dead in the VIth dynasty</P>
    <P ALIGN="CENTER">Evidence of the text of the pyramid of Teta;</P>
    </FONT><P>Continuing his excavations at Sakk&acirc;ra, M. Maspero opened the pyramid Of Teta,[1] king of Egypt about B.C. 3300, which Vyse thought[2] had never been entered, and of which, in his day, the masonry on one side only could be seen. Here again it was found that thieves had already been at work, and that they had smashed in pieces walls, floors, and many other parts of the chambers in their frantic search for treasure. As in the case of the pyramid of Unas, certain chambers, etc., of this tomb were found covered with inscriptions in hieroglyphics, but of a smaller size.[3] A brief examination of the text showed it to be formed of a series of extracts from the Book of the Dead, some of which were identical with those in the pyramid of Unas. Thus was brought to light a Book of the Dead of the time of the first king 4 of the VIth dynasty.</P>

    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">and of the pyramid of Pepi I., Mer-en-Ra, and Pepi II.</P>
    </FONT><P>The pyramid of Pepi I., king of Egypt about B.C. 3233, was next opened.[5] It is situated in the central group at Sakk&acirc;ra, and is commonly known as the pyramid of Sh&ecirc;kh Abu-Mans&ucirc;r.[6] Certain chambers and other parts of the tomb were found to be covered with hieroglyphic texts, which not only repeated in part those which had been found in the pyramids of Unas and Teta, but also contained a considerable number of additional sections of the Book of the Dead.[7] In the same neighbourhood M. Maspero, cleared out the pyramid of Mer-en-Ra, the fourth king of the VIth dynasty, about B.C. 3200;[8] and the pyramid of Pepi II., the fifth king of the VIth dynasty, about B.C. 3166.[9]</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. The mummy of the king had been taken out of the sarcophagus through a hole which the thieves had made in it; it was broken by them in pieces, and the only remains of it found by M. Maspero consisted of an arm and shoulder. Parts of the wooden coffin are preserved in the Gizeh Museum.</P>
    <P>2. <I>The Pyramids of Gizeh</I>, vol. iii., p. 39.</P>
    <P>3. They were copied in 1882, and published by M. Maspero in <I>Recueil de Travaux</I>, t. v., pp. 1-59.</P>

    <P>4. The broken mummy of this king, together with fragments of its bandages, was found lying on the floor.</P>
    <P>5. See Vyse, <I>Pyramids of Gizeh</I>, vol. iii., p. 5</P>
    <P>6. It had been partially opened by Mariette in May, 1880, but the clearance of sand was not effected until early in 1881.</P>
    <P>7. The full text is given by Maspero in <I>Recueil de Travaux</I>, t. v., pp. 157-58, Paris, 1884; t. vii., pp. 145-76, Paris, 1886; and t. viii., pp. 87-120, Paris, 1886.</P>
    <P>8. It was opened early in January, 1880, by Mariette, who seeing that the sarcophagus chamber was inscribed, abandoned his theory that pyramids never contained inscriptions, or that if they did they were not royal tombs. The hieroglyphic texts were published by Maspero in <I>Recueil de Travaux</I>, t. ix., pp. 177-91, Paris, 1887; t. X, pp. 1-29, Paris, 1388; and t. xi., pp. 1-31, Paris, 1889. The alabaster vase in the British Museum, NQ 4493, came from this pyramid.</P>
    <P>9. This pyramid is a little larger than the others of the period, and is built in steps of small stones; it is commonly called by the Arabs <I>Haram el Mastabat</I>, because it is near the building usually called <I>Mastabat el-Far'&ucirc;n</I>. See Vyse, <I>Pyramids</I>, vol. iii., p. 52. The hieroglyphic texts are published by Maspero in <I>Recueil de Travaux</I>, t. xii., pp. 53-95, and pp. 136-95, Paris, 1892; and t. xiv., pp. 125-52, Paris, 1892. There is little doubt that this pyramid was broken into more than once in Christian times, and that the early collectors of Egyptian antiquities obtained the beautiful alabaster vases inscribed with the cartouches and titles of Pepi II. from those who had access to the sarcophagus chamber. Among such objects in the British Museum collection, Nos. 4492, 22,559, 22,758 and 22,817 are fine examples.]</P>

    </FONT><P>{p. xxiv}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Summary of the monumental evidence.</P>
    </FONT><P>Thus we have before the close of the VIth dynasty five copies of a series of texts which formed the Book of the Dead of that period, and an extract from a well-known passage of that work on the wooden coffin of Mycerinus; we have also seen from a number of mastabas and stel&aelig; that the funeral ceremonies connected with the Book of the Dead were performed certainly in the IInd, and with almost equal certainty in the Ist dynasty. It is easy to show that certain sections of the Book of the Dead of this period were copied and used in the following dynasties down to a period about A.D. 200.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">The Book of the Dead a collection of separate works.</P>
    </FONT><P>The fact that not only in the pyramids of Unas and Teta, but also in those of Pepi I. and his immediate successors, we find selected passages, suggests that the Book of the Dead was, even in those early times, so extensive that even a king was fain to make from it a selection only of the passages which suited his individual taste or were considered sufficient to secure his welfare in the next world. In the pyramids of Teta, Pepi I., Mer-en-Ra and Pepi II. are found many texts which are identical with those employed by their predecessors, and an examination of the inscription of Pepi II. will show that about three-fourths of the whole may be found in the monuments of his ancestors. What principle guided each king in the selection of his texts, or whether the additions in each represent religious developments, it is impossible to say; but, as the Egyptian religion cannot have remained stationary in every particular, it is probable that some texts reflect the changes in the opinions of the priests upon matters of doctrine.[1] The "Pyramid Texts" prove that each section of the religious books of the Egyptians was originally a separate and independent composition, that it was written with a definite object, and that it might be arranged in any order in a series of similar texts. What preceded or what followed it was never taken into</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. A development has been observed in the plan of ornamenting the interiors of the pyramids of the Vth and VIth dynasties. In that of Unas about one-quarter of the sarcophagus chamber is covered with architectural decorations, and the hieroglyphics are large, well spaced, and enclosed in broad lines. But as we advance in the VIth dynasty, the space set apart for decorative purposes becomes less, the hieroglyphics are smaller, the lines are crowded, and the inscriptions overflow into the chambers and corridors, which in the Vth dynasty were left blank. See Maspero in <I>Revue des Religions</I>, t. xi., p. 124.]</P>
    </FONT><P>{p. xxv}</P>

    <P>consideration by the scribe, although it seems, at times, as if traditions had assigned a sequence to certain texts.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Historical reference.</P>
    </FONT><P>That events of contemporary history were sometimes reflected in the Book of the Dead of the early dynasties is proved by the following. We learn from the inscription upon the tomb of Heru-khuf at Asw&acirc;n,[l] that this governor of Elephantine was ordered to bring for king Pepi II.[2] a pigmy,[3] from the interior of Africa, to dance before the king and amuse him; and he was promised that, if he succeeded in bringing the pigmy alive and in good health, his majesty would confer upon him a higher rank and dignity than that which king Assa conferred upon his minister Ba-ur-Tettet, who performed this much appreciated service for his master.[4] Now Assa was the eighth king of the Vth dynasty, and Pepi II. was the fifth king of the VIth dynasty, and between the reigns of these kings there was, according to M. Maspero, an interval of at least sixty-four, but more probably eighty, years. But in the text in the pyramid of Pepi I., which must have been drafted at some period between the reigns of these kings, we have the passage, "Hail thou who [at thy will] makest to pass over to the Field of Aaru the soul that is right and true, or dost make shipwreck of it. Ra-meri (<I>i.e.</I>, Pepi I.) is right and true in respect of heaven and in respect of earth, Pepi is right and true in respect of the island of the earth whither he swimmeth and where he arriveth. He who is between the thighs of Nut (<I>i.e.</I>, Pepi) is the pigmy who danceth [like] the god, and who pleaseth the heart</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. The full text from this tomb and a discussion on its contents are given by Schiaparelli, <I>Una tomba egiziana inedita della VI<SUP>a</SUP> dinastia con inscrizioni storiche e geografiche</I>, in <I>Atti della R. Accademia dei Lincei</I>, anno CCLXXXIX., Ser. 4<SUP>a</SUP>, Classe di Scienze Morali, etc., t. x., Rome, 1893, pp. 22-53. This text has been treated by Erman (<I>Z.D.M.G.</I>, Bd. XLVI., 1892, p. 574 ff.), who first pointed out the reference to the pigmy in the pyramid texts, and by Maspero in Revue Critique, Paris, 1892, p. 366.</P>

    <P>2 See Erman in <I>Aeg. Zeitschrift</I>, Bd. XXXI., p. 65 ff.</P>
    <P>3 On the pigmy see Stanley, <I>Darkest Africa</I>, vol. i., p. 198; vol. ii., p. 40f; Schweinfurth, <I>Im Herzen von Africa</I>, Bd. II., Kap. 16, p. 131 ff. That the pigmies paid tribute to the Egyptians is certain from the passage "The pigmies came to him from the lands of the south having things of service for his palace"; see D&uuml;michen, <I>Geschichte des alten Aegyptens</I>, Berlin, 1887, p. 7.</P>
    <P>4. ###.]</P>
    </FONT><P>{p. xxvi}</P>

    <P>of the god [Osiris] before his great throne. . . . The two beings who are over the throne of the great god proclaim Pepi to be sound and healthy, [therefore] Pepi shall sail in the boat to the beautiful field of the great god, and he shall do therein that which is done by those to whom veneration is due."[1] Here clearly we have a reference to the historical fact of the importation of a pigmy from the regions south of Nubia; and the idea which seems to have been uppermost in the mind of him that drafted the text was that as the pigmy pleased the king for whom he was brought in this world, even so might the dead Pepi please the god Osiris[2] in the next world. As the pigmy was brought by boat to the king, so might Pepi be brought by boat to the island wherein the god dwelt; as the conditions made by the king were fulfilled by him that brought the pigmy, even so might the conditions made by Osiris concerning the dead be fulfilled by him that transported Pepi to his presence. The wording of the passage amply justifies the assumption that this addition was made to the text after the mission of Assa, and during the VIth dynasty.[3]</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Authorship of the Book of the Dead.</P>
    </FONT><P>Like other works of a similar nature, however, the pyramid texts afford us no information as to their authorship. In the later versions of the Book of the Dead certain chapters[4] are stated to be the work of the god Thoth. They certainly belong to that class of literature which the Greeks called "Hermetic,"[5] and it is pretty certain that under some group they were included in the list of the forty-two works which, according to Clement of Alexandria,[6] constituted the sacred books of the Egyptians.[7] As Thoth, whom the Greeks called Hermes, is in Egyptian texts styled "lord of divine books,"[8] "scribe of the company of the gods,"[9] and "lord of divine speech,"[10] this ascription is well founded. The</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. For the hieroglyphic text see Maspero, <I>Recueil de Travaux</I>, t. vii., pp. 162, 163; and t. xi., p. ii.</P>
    <P>2 Pietschmann thinks (<I>Aeg. Zeitschrift</I>, Bd. XXXI., p. 73 f) that the Satyrs, who are referred to by Diodorus (i., XVIII) as the companions and associates of Osiris in Ethiopia, have their origin in the pigmies.</P>
    <P>3. The whole question of the pigmy in the text of Pepi I. has been discussed by Maspero in <I>Recueil de Travaux</I>, t. xiv., p. 186 ff.</P>

    <P>4. Chapp. 30B, 164, 37B and 148. Although these chapters were found at Hermopolis, the city of Thoth, it does not follow that they were drawn up there.</P>
    <P>5. See Birch, in Bunsen, <I>Egypt's Place in Universal History</I>, vol. V., p. 125; Naville, <I>Todtenbuch </I>(Einleitung), p. 26.</P>
    <P>6. <I>Stromata</I>, VI., 4, 35, ed. Dindorff, t. iii., p. 155.</P>
    <P>7. On the sacred books of the Egyptians see also Iamblichus, <I>De Mysteriis</I>, ed. Parthey, Berlin 1857, pp. 260, 261; Lepsius, <I>Chronologie</I>, p. 45 ff.; and Brugsch, <I>Aegyptologie</I>, p. 149.</P>

    <P>8. ###.</P>
    <P>9. ###.</P>
    <P>10. ###.]</P>
    </FONT><P>{p. xxvii}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Influence of the priests of Annu on its compilation.</P>
    </FONT><P>pyramid texts are versions of ancient religious compositions which the priests of the college or school of Annu[1] succeeded in establishing as the authorized version of the Book of the Dead in the first six dynasties. Ra, the local form of the Sun-god, usurps the place occupied by the more ancient form Tmu; and it would seem that when a dogma had been promulgated by the college of Annu, it was accepted by the priesthood of all the great cities throughout Egypt. The great influence of the Annu school of priests even in the time of Unas is proved by the following passage from the text in his pyramid: "O God, thy Annu is Unas; O God, thy Annu is Unas. O Ra, Annu is Unas, thy Annu is Unas, O Ra. The mother of Unas is Annu, the father of Unas is Annu; Unas himself is Annu, and was born in Annu."[2] Elsewhere we are told that Unas "cometh to the great bull which cometh forth from Annu,[3] and that he uttereth words of magical import in Annu."[4] In Annu the god Tmu produced the gods Shu and Tefnut,[5] and in Annu dwelt the great and oldest company of the gods, Tmu, Shu, Tefnut, Seb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Set and Nephthys.[6] The abode of the blessed in heaven was called[7] Annu, and it was asserted that the souls of</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1 <I>Annu</I>, the metropolis of the thirteenth nome of Lower Egypt; see Brugsch, <I>Dict. G&eacute;og.</I>, p. 41; de Roug&eacute;, <I>G&eacute;ographie Ancienne de la Basse-&Eacute;gypte</I>, p. 81; and Am&eacute;lineau, <I>La G&eacute;ographie de &Eacute;gypte a l'&Eacute;poque Copte</I>, p. 287. Annu is ###, Genesis xli., 45; ###, Genesis xli., 50; ### Ezekiel xxx., 17; and Beth Shemesh, ### 4:11 Jeremiah xliii., 13; and the Heliopolis of the Greek writers (<I>H?liou'polis</I>, Strabo, XVII., 1., §§ 27, 28; Herodotus, II., 3; Diodorus, I., 57, 4).</P>

    <P>2. ###. Maspero, Unas, II. 591, 592; and compare Pepi I., II. 690, 691.</P>
    <P>3. See line 596.</P>
    <P>4. ###.</P>
    <P>5. ###. Maspero, <I>Pepi I.</I>, 1. 465, 466.</P>
    <P>6. <I>The Pyramid of Pepi II.</I>, 1. 665.</P>
    <P>7. In reading Egyptian religious texts, the existence of the heavenly Annu, which was to the Egyptians what Jerusalem was to the Jews, and what Mecca still is to the Mubammadans, must be remembered. The heavenly Annu was the capital of the mythological world (see Naville, <I>Todtenbuch</I> (Einleitung), p. 27), and was, to the spirits of men, what the earthly Annu was to their bodies, <I>i.e.</I>, the abode of the gods and the centre and source of all divine instruction. Like many other mythological cities, such as Abtu, Tattu, Pe, Tep, Khemennu, <I>etc.</I>, the heavenly Annu had no geographical position.]</P>

    </FONT><P>{p. xxviii}</P>
    <P>the just were there united to their spiritual or glorified bodies, and that they lived there face to face with the deity for all eternity.[1] judging from the fact that the texts in the tombs of Heru-hetep and Neferu, and those inscribed upon the sarcophagus of Taka, all of the XIth and XIIth dynasties, differ in extent only and not in character or contents from those of the royal pyramids of Sakk&acirc;ra of the Vth and VIth dynasties, it has been declared that the religion as well as the art of the first Theban empire are nothing but a slavish copy of those of northern Egypt.[2]</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">The Theban version.</P>
    </FONT><P>The Theban version, which was much used in Upper Egypt from the XVIIIth to the XXth dynasty, was commonly written on papyri in the hieroglyphic character. The text is written in black ink in perpendicular rows of hieroglyphics, which are separated from each other by black lines; the titles of the chapters or sections, and certain parts of the chapters and the rubrics belonging thereto, are written in red ink. A steady development in the illumination of the vignettes is observable in the papyri of this period. At the beginning of the XVIIIth dynasty the vignettes are in black outline, but we see from the papyrus of Hunefer (Brit. Mus. No. 9901), who was an overseer of cattle of Seti I., king of Egypt about B.C. 1370, that the vignettes are painted in reds, greens, yellows, white, and other colours, and that the whole of the text and</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. The importance of Annu and its gods in the VIth dynasty is well indicated by a prayer from the pyramid of Pepi II. (for the texts see Maspero, <I>Recueil</I>, t. x., p. 8, and t. xii., p. 146), which reads:</P>
    <P>"Hail, ye great nine gods who dwell in Annu, grant ye that Pepi may flourish, and grant ye that this pyramid of Pepi, this building built for eternity, may flourish, even as the name of the god Tmu, the chief of the great company of the nine gods, doth flourish. If the name of Shu, the lord of the celestial shrine in Annu flourisheth, then Pepi shall flourish, and this his pyramid shall flourish, and this his work shall endure to all eternity. If the name of Tefnut, the lady of the terrestrial shrine in Annu endureth, the name of Pepi shall endure, and this pyramid shall endure to all eternity. If the name of Seb . . . . . flourisheth the name of Pepi shall flourish, and this pyramid shall flourish, and this his work shall endure to all eternity. If the name of Nut flourisheth in the temple of Shenth in Annu, the name of Pepi shall flourish, and this pyramid shall flourish, and this his work shall endure to all eternity. If the name of Osiris flourisheth in This, the name of Pepi shall flourish, and this pyramid shall flourish, and this his work shall endure to all eternity. If the name of Osiris Khent-Amenta flourisheth, the name of Pepi shall flourish, and this pyramid shall flourish, and this his work shall endure to all eternity. If the name of Set flourisheth in Nubt, the name of Pepi shall flourish, and this pyramid shall flourish, and this his work shall endure to all eternity."</P>
    <P>2. Maspero, <I>la Religion &Eacute;gyptienne d'apr&egrave;s les Pyramides de la VI<SUP>e</SUP> et de la VII<SUP>e</SUP> dynastie</I>, (In Revue des Religions, t. xii., pp. 138, 139.)]</P>

    </FONT><P>{p. xxix}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Pal&aelig;ography of the version.</P>
    </FONT><P>vignettes are enclosed in a red and yellow border. Originally the text was the most important part of the work, and both it and its vignettes were the work of the scribe; gradually, however, the brilliantly illuminated vignettes were more and more cared for, and when the skill of the scribe failed, the artist was called in. In many fine papyri of the Theban period it is altar that the whole plan of the vignettes of a papyrus was set out by artists, who often failed to leave sufficient space for the texts to which they belonged; in consequence many lines of chapters are often omitted, and the last few lines of some texts are so much crowded as to be almost illegible. The frequent clerical errors also show that while an artist of the greatest skill might be employed on the vignettes, the execution of the text was left to an ignorant or careless scribe. Again, the artist at times arranged his vignettes in wrong order, and it is occasionally evident that neither artist nor scribe understood the matter upon which he was engaged. According to M. Maspero[1] the scribes of the VIth dynasty did not understand the texts which they were drafting, and in the XIXth dynasty the scribe of a papyrus now preserved at Berlin knew or cared so little about the text which he was copying that he transcribed the LXXVIIth Chapter from the wrong end, and apparently never discovered his error although he concluded the chapter with its title.[2] Originally each copy of the Book of the Dead was written to order, but soon the custom obtained of preparing copies with blank spaces in which the name of the purchaser might be inserted; and many of the errors in spelling and most of the omissions of words are no doubt due to the haste with which such "stock" copies were written by the members of the priestly caste, whose profession it was to copy them.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Theban papyri.</P>
    </FONT><P>The papyri upon which copies of the Theban version were written vary in length from about 20 to go feet, and in width from 14 to 18 inches; in the XVIIIth dynasty the layers of the papyrus are of a thicker texture and of a darker colour than in the succeeding dynasties. The art of making great lengths of papyrus of light colour and fine texture attained its highest perfection in the XIXth dynasty. An examination of Theban papyri shows that the work of writing and illuminating a fine copy of the Book of the Dead was frequently distributed between two or more groups of artists and scribes, and that the sections were afterwards joined up into a whole. Occasionally by error two groups of men would transcribe the same chapter; hence in the papyrus of Ani, Chapter XVIII. occurs twice (see within, p. cxlviii.).</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. <I>Recueil de Travaux</I>, t. iv., p. 62.</P>
    <P>2. Naville, <I>Todtenbuch</I> (Einleitung), pp. 41-43.]</P>

    </FONT><P>{p. xxx}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Selection and arrangement of chapters.</P>
    </FONT><P>The sections or chapters of the Theban version are a series of separate and distinct compositions, which, like the sections of the pyramid texts, had no fixed order either on coffins or in papyri. Unlike these texts, however, with very few exceptions each composition had a special title and vignette which indicate its purpose. The general selection of the chapters for a papyrus seems to have been left to the individual fancy of the purchaser or scribe, but certain of them were no doubt absolutely necessary for the preservation of the body of the deceased in the tomb, and for the welfare of his soul in its new state of existence. Traditional selections would probably be respected, and recent selections approved by any dominant school of religious thought in Egypt were without doubt accepted.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Change in forms.</P>
    </FONT><P>While in the period of the pyramid texts the various sections were said or sung by priests, probably assisted by some members of the family of the deceased, the welfare of his soul and body being proclaimed for him as an established fact in the Theban version the hymns and prayers to the gods were put into the mouth of the deceased. As none but the great and wealthy could afford the ceremonies which were performed in the early dynasties, economy was probably the chief cause of this change, which had come about at Thebes as early as the XIIth dynasty. Little by little the ritual portions of the Book of the Dead disappeared, until finally, in the Theban version, the only chapters of this class which remain are the XXIInd, XXIIIrd, CVth, and CLIst.[1] Every chapter and prayer of this version was to be said in the next world, where the words, properly uttered, enabled the deceased to overcome every foe and to attain to the life of the perfected soul which dwelt in a spiritual body in the abode of the blessed.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Theban title of the Book of the Dead.</P>
    </FONT><P>The common name for the Book of the Dead in the Theban period, and probably also before this date, is <I>per em hru</I>, which words have been variously translated manifested in the light," "coming forth from the day," coming forth by day," "la manifestation au jour," "la manifestation &agrave; la lumi&egrave;re," [Kapitel von] der Erscheinung im Lichte," "Erscheinen am Tage," "[Caput] egrediendi in lucem,"<I> etc.</I> This name, however, had probably a meaning for the Egyptians which has not yet been rendered in a modern language, and one important idea in connection with the whole work is expressed by another title[2] which calls it "the chapter of making strong (or perfect) the Khu."</P>

    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. See Naville, <I>Todtenbuch</I> (Einleitung), p. 20. On the titles "Book of the Dead" and "Ritual Fun&eacute;raire" which have been given to these texts, see Lepsius, <I>Todtenbuch</I>, p. 3; De Roug&eacute;, <I>Revue Arch&eacute;ologique</I>, N.S., t. i., 1860, pp. 69-100.</P>
    <P>2. See Naville, Einleitung, p. 24.]</P>
    </FONT><P>{p. xxxi}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Continuity of doctrine</P>

    </FONT><P>In the Theban version the main principles of the Egyptian religion which were held in the times when the pyramid texts were written are maintained, and the views concerning the eternal existence of the soul remain unaltered. Many passages in the work, however, show that modifications and developments in details have taken place, and much that is not met with in the early dynasties appears, so far as we know, for the first time. The vignettes too are additions to the work; but, although they depict scenes in the life beyond the grave, they do not seem to form a connected series, and it is doubtful if they are arranged on any definite plan. A general idea of the contents of this version may be gathered from the following list of chapters[1]:--</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Theban version: list of chapters.</P>
    </FONT><P>Chapter I. Here begin the Chapters of "Coming forth by day," and of the songs of praise and glorifying,[2] and of coming forth from, and going into, the underworld.[3]</P>
    <P>Vignette: The funeral procession from the house of the dead to the tomb.</P>
    <P>Chapter I<FONT SIZE=2>B</FONT>. The Chapter of making the mummy to go into the <I>tuat</I>[4] on the day of the burial.[5]</P>
    <P>Vignette: Anubis standing by the bier upon which the mummy of the deceased is laid.</P>
    <P>Chapter II. [The Chapter of] coming forth by day and of living after death.</P>

    <P>Vignette: A man standing, holding a staff.</P>
    <P>Chapter III.* Another Chapter like unto it (<I>i.e.</I>, like Chapter II).[6]</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter IV.* Another Chapter of passing along the way over the earth.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. The various chapters of the Book of the Dead were numbered by Lepsius in his edition of tile Turin papyrus in 1842. This papyrus, however, is a product of the Ptolemaic period, and contains a number of chapters which are wanting in the Theban version. For convenience, Lepsius' numbers are retained, and the chapters which belong to the Sa&iuml;te version are indicated by an asterisk. For the hieroglyphic text see Naville, Einleitung, p. 193 ff.</P>
    <P>2. Another title reads:--"The Chapter of going in to the divine chiefs of Osiris on the day of the burial, and of going in after coming forth." This chapter had to be recited on the day of the burial.</P>

    <P>3. <I>neter xert</I>, the commonest name for the tomb.</P>
    <P>4. The Egyptian underworld.</P>
    <P>5. <I>sam ta</I>, "the union with the earth."</P>
    <P>6. In some papyri Chapters II. and III. are united and have only one title; see Naville, <I>Todtenbuch</I>, Bd. I., B1. 6.]</P>
    </FONT><P>{p. xxxii}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Theban version: list of chapters.</P>

    </FONT><P>Chapter V. The Chapter of not allowing the deceased to do work in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased kneeling on one knee.</P>
    <P>Chapter VI. The Chapter of making <I>ushabtiu</I> figures do work for a man in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: An <I>ushabti</I> figure</P>
    <P>Chapter VII. The Chapter of passing over the back of Apep, the evil one.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased spearing a serpent.</P>

    <P>Chapter VIII. Another Chapter of the <I>tuat</I>, and of coming forth by day.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased kneeling before a ram.</P>
    <P>Chapter IX. The Chapter of passing through the tuat.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased kneeling before a ram.</P>
    <P>Chapter X. (This Chapter is now known as Chapter XLVIII.)</P>
    <P>Chapter XI.* The Chapter of coming forth against his enemies in the underworld.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter XII. Another Chapter of going into, and coming forth from, the underworld.</P>

    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter XIII. The Chapter of going into, and of coming forth, from Amentet. This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter XIV. The Chapter of driving away shame from the heart of the deceased.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter XV. A Hymn of praise to Ra when he riseth in the eastern horizon of heaven.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring Ra.</P>
    <P>Chapter XV<FONT SIZE=2>B</FONT>. <FONT SIZE=2>1.</FONT> A Hymn of praise to Ra when he setteth in the land of life. Vignette: The deceased adoring Ra.</P>

    <P>Chapter XV<FONT SIZE=2>B</FONT>. <FONT SIZE=2>2.</FONT> A Hymn of praise to Ra-Harmachis when he setteth in the western horizon of heaven.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring Ra.</P>
    <P>Chapter XV<FONT SIZE=2>B</FONT>. <FONT SIZE=2>3.</FONT> Another hidden Chapter of the <I>tuat</I>, and of passing through the secret places of the underworld, and of seeing the Disk when he setteth in Amentet.</P>

    <P>Vignette: The god or the deceased spearing a serpent.</P>
    <P>Chapter XVI<FONT SIZE=2>A</FONT>. [No text: being only a vignette.]</P>
    <P>{p. xxxiii}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Theban version: list of chapters.</P>
    </FONT><P>Scene of the worship of the rising sun by mythological beings.</P>
    <P>Chapter XVI<FONT SIZE=2>B</FONT>. Without title or text.</P>
    <P>Vignette: Scene of the worship of the setting sun by mythological beings.</P>

    <P>Chapter XVII. Here begin the praises and glorifyings of coming out from, and going into, the underworld in the beautiful Amenta; of coming out by day, and of making transformations and of changing into any form which he pleaseth; of playing at draughts in the seh chamber; and of coming forth in the form of a living soul: to be said by the deceased after his death.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased playing at draughts; the deceased adoring the lion-gods of yesterday and to-day; the bier of Osiris with Isis and Nephthys at the foot and head respectively; and a number of mythological beings referred to in the text.</P>
    <P>Chapter XVIII. Without title.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring the groups of gods belonging to various cities.</P>
    <P>Chapter XIX.* The Chapter of the crown(?) of victory.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter XX. Without title.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter XXI.* The Chapter of giving a mouth to a man in the underworld.</P>

    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter XXII. The Chapter of giving a mouth to the deceased in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The guardian of the scales touching the mouth of the deceased.</P>
    <P>Chapter XXIII. The Chapter of opening the mouth of the deceased in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The sem priest touching the mouth of the deceased with the instrument ###.</P>
    <P>Chapter XXIV. The Chapter of bringing words of magical power to the deceased in the underworld.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter XXV. The Chapter of causing a man to remember his name in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A priest holding up ### before the deceased.</P>

    <P>Chapter XXVI. The Chapter of giving a heart to the deceased in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: Anubis holding out a heart to the deceased in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Chapter XXVII. The Chapter of not allowing the heart of a man to be taken from him in the underworld.</P>
    <P>{p. xxxiv}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Theban version: list of chapters.</P>
    </FONT><P>Vignette: A man tying a heart to the statue of the deceased.[1]</P>
    <P>Chapter XXVIII. [The Chapter of] not allowing the heart of a man to be taken from him in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased with his left hand touching the heart upon his breast, kneeling before a demon holding a knife.</P>
    <P>Chapter XXIX<FONT SIZE=2>A</FONT>. The Chapter of not carrying away the heart of a man in the underworld.</P>

    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter XXIX<FONT SIZE=2>B</FONT>. Another Chapter of a heart of carnelian.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased sitting on a chair before his heart, which rests on a stand.</P>
    <P>Chapter XXX<FONT SIZE=2>A</FONT>. The Chapter of not allowing the heart of a man to be driven away from him in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A heart.[2]</P>
    <P>Chapter XXX<FONT SIZE=2>B</FONT>. The Chapter of not allowing the heart of a man to be driven away from him in the underworld.</P>

    <P>Vignette: The deceased being weighed against his heart in the balance in the presence of Osiris, "the great god, the prince of eternity."</P>
    <P>Chapter XXXI. The Chapter of repulsing the crocodile which cometh to carry the magical words ### from a man in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased spearing a crocodile.</P>
    <P>Chapter XXXII. [The Chapter of] coming to carry the magical words from a man in the underworld.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter XXXIII. The Chapter of repulsing reptiles of all kinds.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased attacking four snakes with a knife in each hand.</P>
    <P>Chapter XXXIV. The Chapter of a man not being bitten by a serpent in the hall of the tomb.[3]</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>

    <P>Chapter XXXV. The Chapter of not being eaten by worms in the underworld.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. Two variants (Naville, <I>Todtenbuch</I>, Bd. I., Bl. 38) show the deceased sitting before his heart, and the deceased presenting his heart to a triad of gods.</P>
    <P>2. Or the deceased adoring his heart; see also Naville, <I>Todtenbuch</I>, Bd. I., Bl. 42.</P>
    <P>3 ### <I>amihat</I>.]</P>
    </FONT><P>{p. xxxv}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Theban version: list of chapters.</P>

    </FONT><P>Vignette: Three serpents.</P>
    <P>Chapter XXXVI. The Chapter of repulsing the tortoise. (<I>apsai</I>).</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased spearing a beetle.[1]</P>
    <P>Chapter XXXVII. The Chapter of repulsing the two <I>merti</I>.</P>
    <P>Vignette: Two ur&aelig;i, which represent the two eyes of Ra.</P>
    <P>Chapter XXXVIII<FONT SIZE=2>A</FONT>. The Chapter of living upon the air which is in the underworld.</P>

    <P>Vignette: The deceased holding a sail, emblematic of air.</P>
    <P>Chapter XXXVIII<FONT SIZE=2>B</FONT>. The Chapter of living upon air and of repulsing the two <I>merti</I>.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased attacking three serpents, a knife in his right hand and a sail in his left.</P>
    <P>Chapter XXXIX. The Chapter of repulsing the serpent in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased spearing a serpent.</P>
    <P>Chapter XL. The Chapter of repulsing the eater of the ***.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased spearing a serpent which is biting the neck of all ***.</P>

    <P>Chapter XLI. The Chapter of doing away with the wounding of the eyes in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased holding a knife in the right hand and a roll in the left.</P>
    <P>Chapter XLII. [The Chapter] of doing away with slaughter in Suten-henen. Vignette: A man holding a serpent.[2]</P>
    <P>Chapter XLIII. The Chapter of not allowing the head of a man to be cut off from him in the underworld.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter XLIV. The Chapter of not dying a second time.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter XLV. The Chapter of not seeing corruption.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>

    <P>Chapter XLVI. The Chapter of not decaying, and of living in the underworld.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter XLVII. The Chapter of not carrying off the place (or seat) of the throne from a man in the underworld.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. Or the deceased holding a knife and staff and standing before ###.</P>
    <P>2. For the variant vignettes see Naville, <I>Todtenbuch</I>, Bd. I., III. 57.]</P>
    </FONT><P>{p. xxxvi}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Theban version: list of chapters.</P>
    </FONT><P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>

    <P>Chapter XLVIII. [The Chapter of a man coming against] his enemies.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter XLIX.* The Chapter of a man coming forth against his enemies in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A man standing with a staff in his hand.</P>
    <P>Chapter L. The Chapter of not going in to the divine block a second time.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A man standing with his back to the block.[1]</P>
    <P>Chapter LI. The Chapter of not walking upside down in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A man standing.</P>
    <P>Chapter LII.* The Chapter of not eating filth in the underworld.</P>

    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter LIII. The Chapter of not allowing a man to eat filth and to drink polluted water in the underworld.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter LIV. The Chapter of giving air in the underworld.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter LV. Another Chapter of giving air.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased holding a sail in each hand.[2]</P>
    <P>Chapter LVI. The Chapter of snuffing the air in the earth.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased kneeling, and holding a sail to his nose.</P>

    <P>Chapter LVII. The Chapter of snuffing the air and of gaining the mastery over the waters in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A man holding a sail, and standing in a running stream.</P>
    <P>Chapter LVIII.* The Chapter of snuffing the air and of gaining power over</P>
    <P>the water which is in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased holding a sail.</P>
    <P>Chapter LIX. The Chapter of snuffing the air and of gaining power over</P>
    <P>the water which is in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased standing with his hands extended.</P>
    <P>Chapters LX., LXI., LXII. The Chapters of drinking water in the under</P>

    <P>world.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. Lepsius, <I>Todtenbuch</I>, Bl. 21.</P>
    <P>2. A variant vignette of Chapters LV. and XXXVIII. represents the deceased being led into the presence of Osiris by Anubis; see Naville, <I>Todtenbuch</I>, Bd. I., Bl. 68.]</P>
    </FONT><P>{p. xxxvii}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Theban version: list of chapters.</P>
    </FONT><P>Vignettes: The deceased holding a lotus; the deceased holding his soul in his arms; and the deceased scooping water into his mouth from a pool.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXIII<FONT SIZE=2>A</FONT>. The Chapter of drinking water, and of not being burnt with fire.</P>

    <P>Vignette: The deceased drinking water from a stream.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXIII<FONT SIZE=2>B</FONT>. The Chapter of not being boiled (or scalded) in the water.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased standing by the side of two flames.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXIV. The Chapter of coming forth by day in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring the disk, which stands on the top of a tree.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXV. [The Chapter of] coming forth by day, and of gaining the mastery over foes.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring Ra.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXVI. [The Chapter of] coming forth by day.</P>

    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXVII. The Chapter of opening the doors of the <I>tuat</I> and of coming forth by day.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXVIII. The Chapter of coming forth by day.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased kneeling by the side of a tree before a goddess.[1]</P>
    <P>Chapter LXIX. Another Chapter.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXX. Another Chapter.</P>

    <P>Chapter LXXI. The Chapter of coming forth by day.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased with both hands raised in adoration kneeling before the goddess Meh-urt.[2]</P>
    <P>Chapter LXXII. The Chapter of coming forth by day and of passing through the hall of the tomb.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring three gods.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXXIII. (This Chapter is now known as Chapter IX.)</P>
    <P>Chapter LXXIV. The Chapter of lifting up the legs and coming forth upon earth.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased standing upright.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXXV. The Chapter of travelling to Annu (On), and of receiving an abode there.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. For the variant vignettes see Naville, <I>Todtenbuch</I>, Bd. L, Bl. 8o.</P>

    <P>2. One of the two variant vignettes shows the deceased in the act of adoring Ra, and in the other the deceased kneels before Ra, Thoth, and Osiris; see Naville, <I>Todtenbuch</I>, Bd. I., B1. 83.]</P>
    </FONT><P>{p. xxxviii}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Theban version: list of chapters.</P>
    </FONT><P>Vignette: The deceased standing before the door of a tomb.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXXVI. The Chapter of [a man] changing into whatsoever form he pleaseth.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXXVII. The Chapter of changing into a golden hawk.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A golden hawk</P>

    <P>Chapter LXXVIII. The Chapter of changing into a divine hawk.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A hawk.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXXIX. The Chapter of being among the company of the gods, and of becoming a prince among the divine powers.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring three gods.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXXX. The Chapter of changing into a god, and of sending forth light into darkness.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A god.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXXXI<FONT SIZE=2>A</FONT>. The Chapter of changing into a lily.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A lily.</P>

    <P>Chapter LXXXI<FONT SIZE=2>B</FONT>. The Chapter of changing into a lily.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The head of the deceased rising out of a lily.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXXXII. The Chapter of changing into Ptah, of eating cakes, of drinking ale, of unloosing the body, and of living in Annu (On).</P>
    <P>Vignette: The God Ptah in a shrine.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXXXIII. The Chapter of changing into a phœnix.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A phoenix.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXXXIV. The Chapter of changing into a heron.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A heron.</P>

    <P>Chapter LXXXV. The Chapter of changing into a soul, of not going into</P>
    <P>the place of punishment: whosoever knoweth it will never perish.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXXXVI. The Chapter of changing into a swallow.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A swallow.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXXXVII. The Chapter of changing into the serpent Sa-ta.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A serpent.</P>
    <P>Chapter LXXXVIII. The Chapter of changing into a crocodile.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A crocodile.</P>

    <P>Chapter LXXXIX. The Chapter of making the soul to be united to its body.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The soul visiting the body, which lies on a bier.</P>
    <P>{p. xxxix}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Theban version: list of chapters.</P>
    </FONT><P>Chapter XC. The Chapter of giving memory to a man.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A jackal.</P>
    <P>Chapter XCI. 'The Chapter of not allowing the soul of a man to be shut in.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A soul standing on a pedestal.</P>
    <P>Chapter XCII. The Chapter of opening the tomb to the soul and shadow of a man, so that he may come forth and may gain power over his legs.</P>

    <P>Vignette: The soul of the deceased flying through the door of the tomb.</P>
    <P>Chapter XCIII. The Chapter of not sailing to the east in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The hands of a buckle grasping the deceased by his left arm.</P>
    <P>Chapter XCIV. The Chapter of praying for an ink jar and palette.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased sitting before a stand, upon which are an ink jar and palette.</P>
    <P>Chapter XCV. The Chapter of being near Thoth.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased standing before Thoth.</P>
    <P>Chapters XCVI., XCVII. The Chapter of being near Thoth, and of giving . . . . . . .</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased standing near Thoth.</P>

    <P>Chapter XCVIII. [The title of this chapter is incomplete.]</P>
    <P>Chapter XCIX. The Chapter of bringing a boat in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A boat.</P>
    <P>Chapter C. The Chapter of making perfect the <I>khu</I>, and of making it to enter into the boat of Ra, together with his divine followers.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A boat containing a company of gods.</P>
    <P>Chapter CL.* The Chapter of protecting the boat of Ra.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased in the boat with Ra.</P>
    <P>Chapter CII. The Chapter of going into the boat of Ra.</P>

    <P>Vignette: The deceased in the boat with Ra.</P>
    <P>Chapter CIII. The Chapter of being in the following of Hathor.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased standing behind Hathor.</P>
    <P>Chapter CIV. The Chapter of sitting among the great gods.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased seated between two gods.</P>
    <P>Chapter CV. The Chapter of satisfying the <I>ka</I>.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased burning incense before his <I>ka</I>.</P>

    <P>Chapter CVI. The Chapter of causing joy each day to a man in Het-ka-Ptah (Memphis).</P>
    <P>Vignette: An altar with meat and drink offerings.</P>
    <P>Chapter CVII.* The Chapter of going into, and of coming forth from, the</P>
    <P>{p. xl}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Theban version: list of chapters.</P>
    </FONT><P>gate of the gods of the west among the followers of the god, and of knowing the souls of Amentet.</P>
    <P>Vignette: Three deities: Ra, Sebek, and Hathor.</P>
    <P>Chapter CVIII. The Chapter of knowing the souls of the West.</P>
    <P>Vignette: Three deities: Tmu, Sebek, and Hathor.</P>

    <P>Chapter CIX. The Chapter of knowing the souls of the East.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased making adoration before Ra-Heru-khuti.</P>
    <P>Chapter CX. The beginning of the Chapters of the Fields of Peace, and of the Chapters of coming forth by day, and of going into, and of coming forth from, the underworld, and of attaining unto the Fields of Reeds, and of being in the Fields of Peace.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The Fields of Peace.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXI. (This Chapter is now known as Chapter CVIII.)</P>
    <P>Chapter CXII. The Chapter of knowing the souls of Pe.</P>
    <P>Vignette: Horus, Mesthi, and Ha-pi.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXIII. The Chapter of knowing the souls of Nekhen.</P>
    <P>Vignette: Horus, Tuamautef, and Qebhsennuf.</P>

    <P>Chapter CXIV. The Chapter of knowing the souls of Khemennu (Hermopolis).</P>
    <P>Vignette: Three ibis-headed gods.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXV.* The Chapter of coming forth to heaven, of passing through the hall of the tomb, and of knowing the souls of Annu.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring Thoth, Sau and Tmu.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXVI. [The Chapter of] knowing the souls of Annu.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring three ibis-headed gods.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXVII. The Chapter of taking a way in Re-stau.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased, holding a staff in his hand, ascending the western hills.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXVIII. The Chapter of coming forth from Re-stau.</P>

    <P>Vignette: The deceased holding a staff in his left hand.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXIX. The Chapter of knowing the name of Osiris, and of going into, and of coming forth from, Re-stau.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring Osiris.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXX. (This Chapter is now known as Chapter XII.)</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXI. (This Chapter is now known as Chapter XIII.)</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXII.* The Chapter of the deceased going in after coming forth from the underworld.</P>
    <P>{p. xli}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Theban version: list of chapters.</P>
    </FONT><P>Vignette: The deceased bowing before his tomb, which is on a hill.</P>

    <P>Chapter CXXIII. The Chapter of going into the great house (<I>i.e.</I>, tomb). </P>
    <P>Vignette: The soul of the deceased standing before a tomb.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXIV. The Chapter of going in to the princes of Osiris.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring Mestha, Hapi, Tuamautef and Qebbsennuf.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXV. The words which are to be uttered by the deceased when he cometh to the hall of Maati, which separateth him from his sins, and which maketh him to see God, the Lord of mankind.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The hall of Maati, in which the heart of the deceased is being weighed in a balance in the presence of the great gods.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXVI. [Without title.]</P>
    <P>Vignette: A lake of fire, at each corner of which sits an ape.</P>

    <P>Chapter CXXVII<FONT SIZE=2>A</FONT>. The book of the praise of the gods of the <I>qerti</I>.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXVII<FONT SIZE=2>B</FONT>. The Chapter of the words to be spoken on going to the chiefs of Osiris, and of the praise of the gods who are leaders in the <I>tuat</I>.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXVIII.* The Chapter of praising Osiris.</P>

    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring three deities.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXIX. (This Chapter in now known as Chapter C.)</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXX. The Chapter of making perfect the <I>khu</I>.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased standing between two boats.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXXI.* The Chapter of making a man go into heaven to the side of Ra.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXXII. The Chapter of making a man to go round about to see his house.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A man standing before a house or tomb.</P>

    <P>Chapter CXXXIII. The Chapter of making perfect the <I>khu</I> in the under world in the presence of the great company of the gods.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring Ra, seated in a boat.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXXIV. The Chapter of entering into the boat of Ra, and of being among those who are in his train.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring Shu, Tefnut, Seb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Horus, Hathor.</P>
    <P>{p. xlii}</P>
    <P>Theban version: list of chapters.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXXV.* Another Chapter, which is to be recited at the waxing of the moon [each] month.</P>

    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXXVI<FONT SIZE=2>A</FONT>. The Chapter of sailing in the boat of Ra.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased standing with hands raised in adoration.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXXVI<FONT SIZE=2>B</FONT>. The Chapter of sailing in the great boat of Ra, to pass round the fiery orbit of the sun.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXXVII<FONT SIZE=2>A</FONT>. The Chapter of kindling the fire which is to be made in the underworld.</P>

    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXXVII<FONT SIZE=2>B</FONT>. The Chapter of the deceased kindling the fire.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased seated, kindling a flame.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXXVIII. The Chapter of making the deceased to enter into Abydos.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring the standard ###.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXXXIX. (This Chapter is now known as Chapter CXXIII.)</P>
    <P>Chapter CXL.* The Book which is to be recited in the second month of <I>pert</I>, when the <I>utchat</I> is full in the second month of <I>pert</I>.</P>

    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring Anpu, the <I>utchat</I>, and Ra.</P>
    <P>Chapters CXLI-CXLIII. The Book which is to be recited by a man for his father and for his son at the festivals of Amentet. It will make him perfect before Ra and before the gods, and he shall dwell with them. It shall be recited on the ninth day of the festival.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased making offerings before a god.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXLIV. The Chapter of going in.</P>
    <P>Vignette: Seven pylons.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXLV<FONT SIZE=2>A</FONT>. [Without title.]</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>

    <P>Chapter CXLV<FONT SIZE=2>B</FONT>. [The Chapter] of coming forth to the hidden pylons.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXLVI. [The Chapter of] knowing the pylons in the house of Osiris in the Field of Aaru.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A series of pylons guarded each by a god.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXLVII. [A Chapter] to be recited by the deceased when he cometh to the first hall of Amentet.</P>
    <P>{p. xliii}</P>
    <P>Theban version: list of chapters.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A series of doors, each guarded by a god.</P>

    <P>Chapter CXLVIII. [The Chapter] of nourishing the <I>khu</I> in the underworld, and of removing him from every evil thing.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter CXLIX. [Without title.]</P>
    <P>Vignette: The divisions of the other world.</P>
    <P>Chapter CL. [Without title.]</P>
    <P>Vignette: Certain divisions of the other world.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLI. [Without title.]</P>

    <P>Vignette: Scene of the mummy chamber.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLI<FONT SIZE=2>A</FONT>. [Chapter] of the hands of Anpu, the dweller in the sepulchral chamber, being upon the lord of life (<I>i.e.</I>, the mummy).</P>
    <P>Vignette: Anubis standing by the bier of the deceased.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLI<FONT SIZE=2>B</FONT>. The Chapter of the chief of hidden things.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A human head.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLII. The Chapter of building a house in the earth.</P>

    <P>Vignette: The deceased standing by the foundations of his house.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLIII<FONT SIZE=2>A</FONT>. The Chapter of coming forth from the net.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A net being drawn by a number of men.</P>
    <P>CLIII<FONT SIZE=2>B</FONT>. The Chapter of coming forth from the fishing net.</P>
    <P>Vignette: Three apes drawing a fishing net.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLIV. The Chapter of not allowing the body of a man to decay in the tomb.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>

    <P>Chapter CLV. The Chapter of a Tet of gold to be placed on the neck of the <I>khu</I>.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A Tet.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLVI. The Chapter of a buckle of amethyst to be placed on the neck of the khu.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A Buckle.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLVII*. The Chapter of a vulture of gold to be placed on the neck of the <I>khu</I>.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A vulture.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLVIII.* The Chapter of a collar of gold to be placed on the neck of the <I>khu</I>.</P>

    <P>Vignette: A collar.</P>
    <P>{p. xliv}</P>
    <P>Theban version: list of chapters.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLIX.* The Chapter of a sceptre of mother-of-emerald to be placed on the neck of the <I>khu</I>.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A sceptre.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLX. [The Chapter] of placing a plaque of mother-of-emerald.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A plaque.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXI. The Chapter of the opening of the doors of heaven by Thoth, etc.</P>

    <P>Vignette: Thoth opening four doors.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXII.* The Chapter of causing heat to exist under the head of the <I>khu</I>.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A cow.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXIII.* The Chapter of not allowing the body of a man to decay in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: Two <I>utchats</I>, and a serpent on legs.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXIV.* Another Chapter.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A three-headed goddess, winged, standing between two pigmies.</P>

    <P>Chapter CLXV.* The Chapter of arriving in port, of not becoming unseen, and of making the body to germinate, and of satisfying it with the water of heaven.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The god Min or Amsu with beetle's body, <I>etc.</P>
    </I><P>Chapter CLXVI. The Chapter of the pillow.</P>
    <P>Vignette: A pillow.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXVII. The Chapter of bringing the <I>utchat</I>.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXVIII<FONT SIZE=2>A</FONT>. [Without title.]</P>

    <P>Vignette: The boats of the sun, etc.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXVIII<FONT SIZE=2>B</FONT>. [Without title.]</P>
    <P>Vignette: Men pouring libations, gods, <I>etc.</P>
    </I><P>Chapter CLXIX. The Chapter of setting up the offering chamber.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXX. The Chapter of the roof of the offering chamber.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>

    <P>Chapter CLXXI. The Chapter of tying the <I>abu</I>.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXXII. Here begin the praises which are to be recited in the underworld.</P>
    <P>{p. xlv}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Theban version: list of chapters.</P>
    </FONT><P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXXIII. Addresses by Horus to his father.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring Osiris.</P>

    <P>Chapter CLXXIV. The Chapter of causing the khu to come forth from the great gate of heaven.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased coming forth from a door.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXXV. The Chapter of not dying a second time in the underworld.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring an ibis-headed god.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXXVI. The Chapter of not dying a second time in the underworld.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXXVII. The Chapter of raising up the <I>khu</I>, and of making the soul to live in the underworld.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>

    <P>Chapter CLXXVIII. The Chapter of raising up the body, of making the eyes to see, of making the ears to hear, of setting firm the head and of giving it its powers.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no Vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXXIX. The Chapter of coming forth from yesterday, of coming forth by day, and of praying with the hands.</P>
    <P>This Chapter has no vignette.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXXX. The Chapter of coming forth by day, of praising Ra in Amentet, and of ascribing praise unto those who are in the tuat.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring Ra.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXXXI. The Chapter of going in to the divine chiefs of Osiris who are the leaders in the <I>tuat</I>.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased adoring Osiris, etc.</P>

    <P>Chapter CLXXXII. The Book of stablishing the backbone of Osiris, of giving breath to him whose heart is still, and of the repulse of the enemies of Osiris by Thoth.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased lying on a bier in a funeral chest, surrounded by various gods.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXXXIII. A hymn of praise to Osiris; ascribing to him glory, and to Un-nefer adoration.</P>
    <P>Vignettes: The deceased, with hands raised in adoration, and the god Thoth.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXXXIV. The Chapter of being with Osiris.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased standing by the side of Osiris.</P>
    <P>{p. xlvi}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">Theban version: list of chapters.</P>
    </FONT><P>Chapter CLXXXV. The ascription of praise to Osiris, and of adoration to the everlasting lord.</P>

    <P>Vignette: The deceased making adoration to Osiris.</P>
    <P>Chapter CLXXXVI. A hymn of praise to Hathor, mistress of Amentet, and to Meh-urt.</P>
    <P>Vignette: The deceased approaching the mountain of the dead, from which appears the goddess Hathor.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">The version akin to the Theban.</P>
    <P ALIGN="CENTER">Pal&aelig;ography.</P>
    </FONT><P>The version akin to was in vogue from the XXth to the XXVIth dynasty, <I>i.e.</I>, about B.C. 1200-550, and was, like the Theban, usually written upon papyrus. The chapters have no fixed order, and are written in lines in the hieratic character; the rubrics, catchwords, and certain names, like that of Apep, are in red. The vignettes are roughly traced in black outline, and are without ornament; but at the ends of the best papyri well-painted scenes, in which the deceased is depicted making adoration to Ra or Horus, are frequently found. The names and titles of the deceased are written in perpendicular rows of hieroglyphics. The character of the handwriting changes in different periods: in the papyrus of the Princess Nesi-Khonsu (about B.C. 1000) it is bold and clear, and much resembles the handsome style of that found in the great Harris papyrus;[1] but within a hundred years, apparently, the fine flowing style disappears, and the writing becomes much smaller and is somewhat cramped; the process of reduction in size continues until the XXVIth dynasty, about B.C. 550, when the small and coarsely written characters are frequently difficult to decipher. The papyri upon which such texts are written vary in length from three to about thirty feet, and in width from nine to eighteen inches; as we approach the period of the XXVIth dynasty the texture becomes coarser and the material is darker in colour. The Theban papyri of this period are lighter in colour than those found in the north of Egypt and are less brittle; they certainly suffer less in unrolling.</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P>[1. The Books of the Dead written in the hieroglyphic and hieratic characters which belong to the period of the rule of the priest-kings of the brotherhood of Amen form a class by themselves, and have relatively little in common with the older versions. A remarkable example of this class is the papyrus of Nesi-Khonsu which M. Maspero published (<I>Les Momies Royales de D&eacute;ir el-bahar&icirc;</I>, p. 600 f.). The text is divided into paragraphs, which contain neither prayers nor hymns but a veritable contract between the god Amen-Ra and the princess Nesi-Khonsu. After the list of the names and titles of Amen-Ra with which it begins follow eleven sections wherein the god declares in legal phraseology that he hath deified the princess in Amenta and in Neter-khert; that he hath deified her soul and her body in order that neither may be destroyed; that he hath made her divine like every god and goddess; and that he hath decreed that whatever is necessary for her in her new existence shall be done for her, even as it is done for every other god and goddess.]</P>

    </FONT><P>{p. xlvii}</P>
    <FONT SIZE=2><P ALIGN="CENTER">The Sa&iuml;te and Ptolemaic version.</P>
    <P ALIGN="CENTER">Pal&aelig;ography.</P>
    </FONT><P>The Sa&iuml;te and Ptolemaic version was in vogue from the period of the XXVIth dynasty, about B.C. 550, to probably the end of the rule of the Ptolemies over Egypt. The chapters have a fixed and definite order, and it seems that a careful revision of the whole work was carried out, and that several alterations of an important nature were made in it. A number of chapters which are not found in older papyri appear during this period; but these are not necessarily new inventions, for, as the kings of the XXVIth dynasty are renowned for having revived the arts and sciences and literature of the earliest dynasties, it is quite possible that many or most of the additional chapters are nothing more than new editions of extracts from older works. Many copies of this version were written by scribes who did not understand what they were copying, and omissions of signs, words, and even whole passages are very common; in papyri of the Ptolemaic period it is impossible to read many passages without the help of texts of earlier periods. The papyri of this period vary in colour from a light to a dark brown, and consist usually of layers composed of strips of the plant measuring about 2 inches in width and 14½ to 16 inches in length. Fine examples of Books of the Dead of this version vary in length from about 24½ feet (B.M. No. 10,479, written for the <I>utcheb</I> Heru, the son of the <I>utcheb</I> Tchehra) to 60 feet. Hieroglyphic texts are written in black, in perpendicular rows between rules, and hieratic texts in horizontal lines; both the hieroglyphics and the hieratic characters lack the boldness of the writing of the Theban period, and exhibit the characteristics of a conventional hand. The titles of the chapters, catchwords, the words ### which introduce a variant reading, <I>etc.</I>, are sometimes written in red. The vignettes are usually traced in black outline, and form a kind of continuous border above the text. In good papyri, however, the scene forming the XVIth Chapter, the scene of the Fields of Peace (Chapter CX.), the judgment scene (Chapter CXXV.), the vignette of Chapter CXLVIII., the scene forming Chapter CLI. (the sepulchral chamber), and the vignette of Chapter CLXI., fill the whole width of the inscribed portion of the papyrus, and are painted in somewhat crude colours. In some papyri the disk on the head of the hawk of Horus is covered with gold leaf, instead of being painted red as is usual in older papyri. In the Gr&aelig;co-Roman period both texts and vignettes are very carelessly executed, and it is evident that they were written and drawn by ignorant workmen in the quickest and most careless way possible. In this period also certain passages of the text were copied in hieratic and Demotic upon small pieces of papyri which were buried with portions of the bodies of the dead, and upon narrow bandages of coarse linen in which they were swathed.</P>

    <P>{p. xlviii}</P>


    Obtained From: http://www.sacred-texts.com/egy/ebod/ebod3.htm
    With Permission: http://www.sacred-texts.com/cnote.htm
     
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