The Origin and Names of the HEBREWS of Ancient GHANA I have found through extensive research that the original people of Ghana that started or founded the Ancient Kingdom of Songhai starting in 700 A.D were actually descendants of Biblical Hebrews who had migrated into west Africa from East and North Africa, to prove this statement I have found solid historical information by Arab writers and different Muslim Sultans that ruled the many different territories and kingdoms AND different races in ancient Medieval Africa. We learn by extracts from the Hausa records, of which the original has unfortunately been destroyed, that the people of Ghana were anciently known by the name Towrood or Taurud people and the Soninke people were called Sarankaly, both people claim to have come from the territory lying between the Nile river and the Euphrates.-----The Crisis Apr 1957 The Crisis, founded by W.E.B. Du Bois as the official publication of the NAACP The Towrood or Taurud and the Sarankaly or Soninke peoples original homeland where they migrated from was described by Muhammed Bello who was the second Sultan of Sokoto Empire and reigned from 1815 until 1837 and was an active writer of history, poetry, and Islamic studies. He was the son and primary aide to Usman dan Fodio, the founder of the Sokoto Caliphate and the first Sultan. This is a historical account given by Bello to Hugh Clapperton who visited the court of Bello in 1824 and wrote a lot about the generosity and intelligence of the Sultan. Clapperton was very impressed at the writing works by Bello Muhammed Bello told Hugh Clapperton in detail the history and migrations of the inhabitants of all of African from North, South, East and West Africa. The geographical account compiled by order of Sultan Bello, comprises not merely Sudan, but the whole of Central Africa, from Darfur to Banbara(Timbuktu) inclusive, under the appellation of Belled- el-Takroor According to Muhammed Bello and the Hausa records the people or tribes called the Towrood or Taurud and the Sarankaly or Soninke people migrated from the territory lying between the Nile river and the Euphrates. Muhammed Bello Quote: The Towrood or Taurud people, it is said, were originally Jews, others say Christians; that they came from the land between the two rivers, the Nile and the Euphrates, and established themselves next to the Jews who inhabited the island(Cape Verde islands) ; and that whenever they oppressed or encroached upon the Jews, the latter had always recourse to the protection of the officers of the Sehabat (the immediate friends or companions of Mohammed), who then ruled over them.- "This is what we found written in our books."---------Journal of a Second Expedition Into the Interior of Africa, from the Bight of Benin to Soccatoo, 1829. London: Forgotten Books. (Original work published 1829) Bello also gave the location and migration of the Sarankaly or Soninke people as well. He states their origins: "Near to Bambara(Timbuctu), there is the province of the Towrood , and that of Foota(Senegal River valley area traditionally known as Futa Tooro or The Foota). , which are extensive, and inhabited by their own people and by those of Sarankaly or Soninke or Persians. Notice that the translator used the word Persians, which actually is Ajam, which is originally used as a reference to denote those whom Arabs in the Arabian peninsula viewed as "alien" or outsiders. The early application of the term included all of the non-Arab peoples with whom the Arabs had contact including Jews, and Egyptians, Berbers etc. Muhammed Bello again stated on page 337 of the book entitled Journal of a Second Expedition Into the Interior of Africa, that the Towrood or Taurud and the Soninke people ruled and inhabited parts of the territory of Malee(Guinea) Muhammed Bello Quote p 337 "Traditional Account of different Nations of Africa: "The kingdom of Malee(Guinea) is an ancient and flourishing country, and comprises two other provinces : one is Banbara(Timbuktu), which contains rivers, woods, sands, a gold mine, and is occupied by the Soodan(Oyo, Mandingo, Akan people), who are still infidels, and possess great power; the other, on the west of it, is Foota(the region on the Senegal River), which is inhabited by the Towrood(Taurud), and the Soninkeor Persians.(Ajam)-----Journal of a Second Expedition Into the Interior of Africa So in other words the Soninke who still practice circumcision today and they call it birou and The Towrood Hebrew descendants migrated into West Africa from Israel or west of the the Arabian peninsula and settled in the fertile lands of the Niger river and started what is known today as GREAT GHANA EMPIRE Shalam!