Omowale Jabali : The Libyan Origins of the Modern Jihad

Discussion in 'Omowale Jabali' started by Omowale Jabali, Mar 22, 2011.

  1. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Libya has turned to African fighters in the past. When a massive Italian army arrived on the Libyan coast in 1911 with the intention of seizing the Ottoman provinces of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica for a new Roman Empire, they were met by a small but determined force drawn from all quarters of the Ottoman Empire. [1]

    Though Ottoman soldiers were busy with wars in the Balkans and rebellion in Yemen, the defense of Libya became a popular cause in the army, with volunteers from across the empire crossing through the Italian blockade with the help of local people in neighboring Tunisia and Egypt. These volunteers, who included Enver Bey (a leading member of the “Young Turks”) and Mustafa Kemal (the founder of modern secular Turkey after the First World War), were largely motivated by patriotism or religion. To the surprise of the Turkish officers and the astonishment of the Italian generals, Libyan tribesmen suddenly began riding into the Turkish camps to offer their services. As the call for jihad spread south, fighters began to arrive from the Tubu tribes of Tibesti and the Tuareg tribes of the Fezzan. The dark-skinned Tubus would later be forced out of Libya into Chad by al-Qaddafi for being inconsistent with Qaddafi’s vision of a purely Arab nation after a member of Libya’s former royal family attempted to recruit Tubu mercenaries for use against Qaddafi in the early 1970s. [2] The Tuareg of Libya were ethnically “reclassified” from Berbers to Arabs.

    Many fighters from the African interior had few connections with the Ottomans, but arrived to repel the infidel invaders from a sense of religious obligation, thus setting an example for later jihadis who would travel to the battlegrounds of Chechnya, Afghanistan and Iraq under a similar sense of obligation.

    http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=37551
     
  2. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Chadian mercenaries have been active in the Central African Republic for many years. There are also a large number of anti-government Chadian guerrillas who have recently found themselves unemployed after a peace treaty between N'djamena and Khartoum resulted in their expulsion from bases in Darfur. Many of these gunmen refused offers of repatriation to Chad, leaving them without work. Tensions between Chad and Libya eased after the International Court of Justice awarded the disputed Aouzou Strip to Chad in 1994. Since then, Chad’s President Idriss Déby has cooperated with the Libyan leader on a number of initiatives and agreements. Déby has been away from Chad throughout most of the Libyan crisis, following a state visit to China with meetings in Nouakchott and Abidjan (AFP, February 21).
     
  3. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    The Khamis Brigade was supplied with the British-made Bowman tactical communications and data system in a $165 million deal with General Dynamics UK, though the equipment has been modified through the removal of U.S. technology in the system (Defense News, May 8, 2008). [5] The Khamis Brigade has also taken part in joint exercises with the Algerian military (JANA [Tripoli], December 1, 2007).
     
  4. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Besides the role of the Turks in this early history, Kadafi came into power after a long resistence by an Islamic "brotherhood" which was based in Libya.

    SANUSI
    or Senussiboth: sənooˈsĭ, Arabic Sanusiyya, a political-religious organization in Libya and Sudan founded in Mecca in 1837 by Muhammad bin Ali al-Sanusi (1791–1859), known as the Grand Sanusi. Sanusi was concerned with both the perceived decline of Islamic thought and the weakening of the Islamic world. His call for political activism was influenced by the Wahhabi movement in Arabia, to which he eclectically added some Sufi teachings from several different Sufi orders. The Sanusi unsuccessfully fought (1902–13) French expansion in the Sahara, and in 1911 the Italian invasion of Libya forced them to concentrate there. During World War I they attacked British-occupied Egypt. A grandson of the Grand Sanusi became King Idris I of Libya in 1951. In 1969, the king was overthrown by a coup led by Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi. A third of the population in Libya, and fewer in Sudan, are still affiliated with the Sanusi organization.
     
  5. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    The 32nd Brigade, which is estimated to have as many as 10,000 troops and is commanded by Qaddafi’s youngest son, Khamis, has the best equipment and is the “primary regime protection element,” according to a Pentagon statement.

    The brigade is a “premier force for Colonel Qaddafi” that “we have been watching closely,” U.S. Admiral Samuel Locklear told reporters at the Pentagon via telephone from his command ship in the Mediterranean Sea. Initially arrayed around Tripoli, the brigade has moved some of its elements around the country to reinforce other Libyan forces under attack, he said.

    Increased air-to-ground attacks, based on timely intelligence, will intensify soon, Locklear said. That’s because in spite of the coalition’s success in grounding Libya’s air force, “it’s my judgment Qaddafi and his forces are not yet in compliance with the UN Security Council resolution,” he said.


    http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-...i-s-premier-unit-to-attack-locklear-said.html
     
  6. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    A close look at the present crisis in Libya has some parallels to WW2.


    Look at the person who was overthrown by Kadafi, and the alignment of international powers:


    During World War II, Idris supported the United Kingdom and brought the Cyrenaican nationalists to fight alongside the Allies against the Axis. With the defeat of the German and Italian forces led by Erwin Rommel, he was finally able to return to his capital, Benghazi, as Emir of Cyrenaica and form an official government.

    With British backing, Idris as-Senussi proclaimed an independent Emirate of Cyrenaica in 1949. He was also invited to become Emir of Tripolitania, another of the three traditional regions that now constitute modern Libya (the third being Fezzan).[4] By accepting he began the process of uniting Libya under a single monarchy. A consitution was enacted in 1949 and adopted in October 1951. A National Congress elected Idris as King of Libya, and as Idris I he proclaimed the independence of the United Kingdom of Libya as a sovereign state on 24 December 1951.

    From Benghazi, Idris led the team negotiating with the United Kingdom and the United Nations over independence, which was achieved on 24 December 1951 with the proclamation of the federal United Libyan Kingdom with Idris as king. In 1963 the constitution was revised and the state became a unitary state as the Kingdom of Libya.


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idris_I_of_Libya


    Although the king died in exile and most Libyans were born after his reign, during the current 2011 Libyan uprising, many demonstrators opposing Colonel Gadaffi use the old tricolour flag of the monarchy and carry portraits of the king, especially in the traditional Sanussi stronghold of Cyrenaica.
     
  7. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Muhammad as-Senussi
    Pretender
    Born 20 October 1962 (1962-10-20) (age 48)
    Tripoli
    Title(s) Crown Prince
    Throne(s) claimed Libya
    Pretend from 28 April 1992 – present
    Monarchy abolished 1 September 1969
    Last monarch Idris I
    Connection with Great nephew
    Royal House Senussi
    Father Crown Prince Hasan
    Mother Crown Princess Fawzia bint Tahir
    Predecessor Crown Prince Hasan

    Sayyid Muhammad al-Rida bin Sayyid Hasan ar-Rida al-Mahdi as-Senussi (born 20 October 1962) is the son of Crown Prince Hasan as-Senussi of Libya, and of Crown Princess Fawzia bint Tahir Bakeer. Born in Tripoli, he is considered by Libyan royalists to be the legitimate heir to the Senussi Crown of Libya. A rival claim is advanced by his distant relative Idris al-Senussi.


    During the 2011 Libyan protests as-Senussi spoke publicly in support of the protesters. He sent his condolences “for the heroes who have laid down their lives, killed by the brutal forces of Qaddafi” and called on the international community “to halt all support for the dictator with immediate effect.”[2] On 24 February 2011 he gave an interview to Al Jazeera English in which he called upon the international community to help remove Gaddafi from power and stop the ongoing massacre.[3] He has dismissed talk of a civil war saying that “the Libyan people and the tribes have proven they are united”. Questioned about what shape a new government could take, and whether the 1951 royal constitution could be revived, he said that such questions are “premature and are issues that are decided by the Libyan people”, adding that for now the priority is to stop the “killing of innocent people”. On whether he desired to return to Libya: “the Senussi family considers itself as in the service of the Libyan people.”[4]

    On 3 March it was announced he planned to return to Libya.
     
  8. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    As-Senussi urged the international community to intervene against Qaddafi and said he is on good terms with opposition groups. He said it is too early to discuss what shape a new government may take or whether the 1951 constitution, which came into force after the country became independent from Italy, could be revived.

    “These matters are premature and are issues that are decided by the Libyan people,” as-Senussi said. “What’s more important now is the killing of innocent people.” Asked whether he wants to return to Libya, he said: “The Senussi family considers itself as in the service of the Libyan people.”

    Many Libyan protesters have displayed the flag -- red, green and black stripes with a crescent and star -- used by the country when it was a constitutional monarchy under the as- Senussis between 1951 and 1969.

    “‘The Libyan youth have raised the flag of freedom, independence, which has become a symbol of this revolt,” as- Senussi said

    http://www.businessweek.com/news/20...i-says-tribes-are-united-against-qaddafi.html
     
  9. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Asharq Al-Awsat talks to the heir apparent of Libya's overthrown monarchy

    In the first public statement about what has been happening in the country, and the Libyan protestors raising the flag of the old monarchist regime as a symbol of defiance, Muhammad al-Rida as-Senussi, the great-nephew of the last King, and heir apparent to his throne, said on 22 February 2011 that Gaddafi's "fight to stay in power will not last long, because of the desire for freedom by the Libyan people. This great revolution will be victorious in the end, because of the unity of the Libyan people." He added "the Libyan people have now chosen to challenge this regime peacefully until it is gone from Libya, and the people will not return to their homes until justice is delivered." He also stressed that "the Libyan people have raised their voices in Benghazi and Tripoli and all other cities across Libya. They have made the whole world listen to them."

    Asharq Al-Awsat spoke with the self-proclaimed Libyan Crown Prince Muhammad al-Rida al-Mahdi as-Senussi about what is happening in Libya.

    The following is the full text of the interview:

    http://www.aawsat.com/english/news.asp?section=3&id=24349
     
  10. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Prince Mahdi Al-Senussi H.R.H. Prince Mahdi Al-Senussi, member of the Al-Senussi Royal Family and leading financial advisor to the Middle East, is a co-founding member and manager of Washington Investment Capital and has a long and distinguished career in private and investment banking. He has structured and negotiated investments totaling over several million dollars and has been highly successful deploying investment capital yielding an above average annual rate of return.

    http://www.blogtalkradio.com/e3c/2008/08/28/conversation-with-hrh-prince-mahdi-al-senussi
     
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