Beginning at around the Vth century BC, the Preaxumite stage of Ethiopian civilization intimates a communication of cultural fixtures between the Sabaeans of Yemen and the Ethiopians of the highlands. The Preaxumite cultural locus was a site called Yeha. This Sabaean culture was later translated to site of Axum, where it acquired a separate identity from the Marib region of Arabia. About Marib itself, it was annexed to the northern Arabians who had established themselves at the margins of Qahtanite (original Arabian) society, after an earlier subjection following a contest of northern and southern powers in Arabia Felix. Keeping in mind the deracination of southern Arabians, the Qahtanites (who claim chronological priority in the Arabian peninsula) by their Jectanide usurpers in that land, we come to the time period in question: the Vth century B.C., and the rudiments of advanced society recovered from Yeha, which are exclusive to that area of the Ethiopian highlands but proliferate throughout the Marib region of Arabia. 1. What conclusions can we draw about the modern stratification of ancient and modern Ethiopian society, based on the provocative Axumite origins proffered by archaeological probes? 2. Do we assign a priority to Ethiopians or to South Arabians in the civilizing process? How might the greater antiquity of the civilized aspects in one or the other region bear upon our conclusion? 3. Is it irresponsible to galvanize the Kerma culture of Ta-Seti, the "later" Ku****e kingdom of the 1st millenium BC, and the "Abyssinians" into a discussion of "ancient Ethiopian" or "Nubian" civilization? Why, or why not? Hetep.