Black Spirituality Religion : THE APOCRYPHA...

Discussion in 'Black Spirituality / Religion - General Discussion' started by Aqil, Dec 30, 2004.

  1. Aqil

    Aqil Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    The Apocrypha are books or portions of books which appear in the Latin Vulgate, either as part of the Old Testament or as an appendix, but which are not in the Hebrew Bible. With the exception of 2 Esdras these books appear in the Greek Old Testament known as the “Septuagint.” The Deuterocanonical books consist of the Apocrypha, except for 1 and 2 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh.

    In view of the importance of the Apocrypha in the present edition it will be in place to say something here of their origin. These books were written mostly between the 2nd century BC and the 1st century AD, and, though a number of them were originally written in Hebrew, they seem to have circulated chiefly in the Greek version outside Palestine, especially in Egypt. The books were perhaps less acceptable to the Jerusalem Jews of the Pharisaic tradition, but they were certainly used in Palestine inasmuch as fragments have been found at Qumran among the Dead Sea Scrolls. A few other writings were sometimes included in the Greek manuscripts, such as Psalm 151, 3 and 4 Maccabees, and the Psalms of Solomon.

    The first Christians were Aramaic-speaking Jews of Palestine who were familiar with the Hebrew Scriptures, but very soon those of Greek speech - whether Jew or Gentile - far outnumbered those who spoke Aramaic, and the Bible they used was normally the Greek Septuagint translation with its extra books. This was in effect the Christian Old Testament and it remained their only text for the greater part of two centuries.

    Towards the end of the 1st century AD, at Jamnia, the Jews decided that only books written in Hebrew and not later than Ezra were to be considered as inspired and canonical. Though some of the books then included are now known to have been written after the time of Ezra, the criteria did serve to exclude the extra literature referred to above. The need for a decision was prompted in part by the growing controversies with the Christians and the use they made of the Scriptures.

    In the absence of any definition of the Canon by Christian authorities, the clearly defined Hebrew Canon was always liable to exert an influence on Christian thinking. In the 4th century, a number of prominent Fathers expressly declared that these extra books were non-canonical, and so less authoritative than the books of the Hebrew Canon, and were to be read only for edification. Nevertheless, side-by-side with the expression of these opinions, Christians continued to use Greek and Latin Bibles with the extra books, which moreover were distributed throughout the Old Testament and not gathered into a single group.

    The great controversy over the canonical character of these books towards the end of the 4th century, in which Augustine and Jerome were the champions respectively for and against, eventuated in the decision of the Councils of Africa, approved by Rome, that the Christian Canon of the Old Testament consisted of the books of the Hebrew Canon together with seven others, namely, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, Tobit, Judith, and 1 and 2 Maccabees, and parts of two others, namely, Daniel and Esther, which were included in the Greek Septuagint and Latin Vulgate.

    In addition to these books, three others, namely, 1 and 2 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh, though not included in the Canon by the Councils, were nevertheless regarded as enjoying a position of esteem in view of their widespread Christian usage, especially in the liturgy. For this reason, they were included in editions of the Vulgate. In spite of the decisions of the Councils, including that of the Council of Florence (1441 AD) in favor of the longer Canon, doubts about the extra books of the Greek and Latin Bibles continued to be expressed from time to time up to the Reformation.

    In the 16th century the Reformers rejected those books in the Vulgate that they did not find in the Hebrew Canon. Thus in Luther's German translation of the Bible (1534) the Apocrypha (with 1 and 2 Esdras omitted) stands between the Testaments with the title: "Apocrypha, that is, books which are not held equal to the sacred Scriptures, and nevertheless are useful and good to read." Coverdale's English translation of the Bible (1535) gave them the same position (except Baruch and the Prayer of Manasseh), with the title "Apocrypha." The books and treatises, which, among the fathers of old, are not reckoned to be authority with the other books of the Bible, neither are they found in the books of the Hebrew."

    The Apocrypha had a place in all the 16th century translations of the Bible. Matthew's Bible of 1537 was the first English version to place all of the Apocrypha in a separate group. In the King James Version of 1611 they stand between the Testaments and there are a few cross-references to passages in them. In the Catholic Rheims-Douay Version (1609), the Deuterocanonical Books are placed among the Old Testament writings, as in the Vulgate, with 1 and 2 Esdras printed as an appendix to the Old Testament as "not received into the Canon of Divine Scriptures by the Catholic Church." Article VI of the Thirty-Nine Articles Church of England says concerning the Apocrypha: "And the other books (as Hierome saith) the Church doth read for example of life and instruction of manners, but yet it doth not apply them to establish doctrine."

    It was during the Reformation period that the terms "Apocrypha" and "Deuterocanonical Books" came into general use. The word "Apocrypha" means, “hidden,” and was often applied to books that were withheld from circulation because the authorship was in doubt or the teaching had been questioned. Hence the "Apocryphal" came to be the equivalent of "spurious," generally with the implication that the books should be avoided; and the Jews applied it to the mass of literature excluded from their sacred books when they defined their Canon.

    Jerome applied it to the small number of books that now bear that title and – largely because of his great authority – the Reformers adopted the same title for these books, though maintaining that they were to be read for edification. The term "deuterocanonical" used by Catholics was apparently coined by Sixtus of Siena in the 16th century to indicate those books in the Septuagint and Vulgate Old Testament which are not contained in the Hebrew.

    The Puritans opposed every use of these books that would suggest they possessed any authority; and the Westminster Confession (1648) declares: "The books commonly called 'Apocrypha,' not being of divine inspiration, are no of the Canon of Scripture; and therefore are of no authority in the Church of God, nor to be otherwise approved, or made use of, than other human writings."

    The Greek Orthodox Church, which uses the Greek Septuagint Version's official text, has been accustomed to use the longer Canon of the Old Testament. The Ecumenical Council at Nicea in 787 AD, and the Council at Constantinople in 869 AD quote certain Apocrypha as authoritative. In the great Schism of 1054, the Apocrypha was not an issue. They became moreso at the time of the Protestant Reformation, and a short-lived attempt was made by Cyril Lukaris, Patriarch of Constantinople, to promote the adoption of the Hebrew Canon in the Greek Church. The question, however, was never regarded as quite so fundamental a doctrine as in the West.

    The basic Greek text of the books of the Apocrypha - from which the translation was made - is the edition of the Septuagint prepared by Alfred Rahlfs and published by the Wurttemberg Bible Society, Stuttgart, 1935. This text is based mainly upon the Codex Vaticanus (4th century AD), the Codex Sinaiticus (4th century), and the Codex Alexandrinus (5th century). For the book of Tobit the Greek text found in the codices Vaticanus and Alexandrinus was followed; and for the Additions to Daniel (namely, Susanna, the Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Young Men, and Bel and the Dragon) the translators used the Greek version of Theodotion.

    The basic text followed in the case of 2 Esdras is the Old Latin version edited by Robert L. Bensly. This was supplemented by consulting the Latin text edited by Bruno Violet, as well as the several Oriental versions of 2 Esdras, namely, the Syriac, Ethiopic, Arabic (two forms, referred to as "Arabic 1" and "Arabic 2"), Armenian, and Georgian versions. In addition, account was taken of a few verses of the 15th chapter of 2 Esdras, which have been preserved in Greek (Oxyrhynchus Papyrus No.1010).

    In the translation of Sirach, constant references were made to the medieval Hebrew fragments of a large part of this book, which were discovered at the end of the 19th century. Throughout the work of translating the books of the Apocrypha, consideration was given to variant readings, including those in the apparatus criticus of Rahlfs, as well as those in other editions of the Septuagint or of single books of the Apocrypha. Likewise, a search was made for all portions of the Apocrypha preserved in the Greek papyri from Egypt, and the text of these fragments was collated with that of Rahlfs.

    The quarrels over the authority of the Apocrypha are now largely matters of the past, although variant views still are sincerely and strongly held. Today, the problem is approached, both theologically and historically, with understanding. Thus, among many Christian bodies there is an increasing interest in the Apocrypha, and the Vatican Secretariat for Christian Unity - together with the United Bible Societies - has recently prepared guiding principles for interconfessional translation, containing a formula for the inclusion of the Apocrypha in certain editions published by the Bible Societies.

    Though agreement in principle on the Old Testament Canon is probably out of immediate reach, nevertheless there seems no reason why an attempt should not be made to arrange the Books in a way that would meet with general assent from all denominations. There are present editions that represent such an attempt. The Apocrypha are placed between the Testaments, as is done normally in Protestant Bibles, but 1 and 2 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh have been transferred to the end of the Deuterocanonical Books, separated from them by a blank page and accompanied by a note explaining that they are not regarded as canonical by Catholics. There is thus for the first time a clear distinction which will, it is expected, commend itself to the different Christian denominations.
     
  2. Aqil

    Aqil Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    The basic Greek text of the books of the Apocrypha - from which the translation was made - is the edition of the Septuagint prepared by Alfred Rahlfs and published by the Wurttemberg Bible Society. This text is based mainly upon the Codex Vaticanus and the Codex Sinaiticus (4th century), and the Codex Alexandrinus (5th century). For the book of Tobit, the Greek text found in the codices Vaticanus and Alexandrinus was followed; and for the Additions to Daniel (namely, Susanna, the Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Young Men, and Bel and the Dragon) the translators used the Greek version of Theodotion. Here is the book of Susanna, one of my favorite Biblical narratives:

    "There was a man living in Babylon whose name was Joakim. And he took a wife named Susanna, the daughter of Hilkiah, a very beautiful woman, and one who feared the Lord. Her parents were righteous, and had taught their daughter according to the law of Moses. Joakim was very rich, and had a spacious garden adjoining his house: and the Jews used to come to him because he was the most honored of them all.

    In that year two elders from the people were appointed as judges. Concerning them the Lord had said: 'Inquiry came forth from Babylon, from elders who were judges, who were supposed to govern the people.' These men were frequently at Joakim’s house, and all who had suits of law came to them.

    When the people departed at noon, Susanna would go into her husband’s garden to walk. The two elders used to see her every day, going in and walking about, and they began to desire her. And they perverted their minds and turned away their eyes from looking to Heaven or remembering righteous judgments. Both were overwhelmed with passion for her, but they did not tell each other of their distress, for they were ashamed to disclose their lustful desire to possess her. And they watched eagerly, day after day, to see her.

    They said to each other, 'Let us go home, for it is mealtime. And when they went out, they parted from each other. But turning back, they met again; and when each pressed the other for the reason, they confessed their lust. And then together they arranged for a time when they could find her alone.

    Once, while they were watching for an opportune day, she went in as before with only two maids, and wished to bathe in the garden, for it was very hot. And no one was there except the two elders, who had hid themselves and were watching her. She said to her maids, 'Bring me oil and ointments, and shut the garden doors so that I may bathe.' They did as she said, shut the garden doors, and went out by the side doors to bring what they had been commanded; and they did not see the elders, because they were hidden.

    When the maids had gone out, the two elders rose and ran to her, and said: 'Look, the garden doors are shut, no one sees us, and we are in love with you; so give us your consent, and lie with us. If you refuse, we will testify against you that a young man was with you, and this was why you sent your maids away.'

    Susanna sighed deeply, and said, 'I am hemmed in on every side. For if I do this thing, it is death for me; and if I do not, I shall not escape your hands. I choose not to do it and to fall into your hands, rather than to sin in the sight of the Lord.'

    Then Susanna cried out with a loud voice, and the two elders shouted against her. And one of them ran and opened the garden doors. When the household servants heard the shouting in the garden, they rushed in at the side door to see what had happened to her. And when the elders told their tale, the servants were greatly ashamed, for nothing like this had ever been said about Susanna.

    The next day, when the people gathered at the house of her husband Joakim, the two elders came, full of their wicked plot to have Susanna put to death. They said before the people, 'Send for Susanna, the daughter of Hilkiah, who is the wife of Joakim.' So they sent for her. And she came, with her parents, her children, and all her kindred.

    Now Susanna was a woman of great refinement, and beautiful in appearance. As she was veiled, the wicked men ordered her to be unveiled, that they may feast upon her beauty. But her family and friends and all who saw her wept.

    Then the two elders stood up in the midst of the people, and laid their hands upon her head. And she, weeping, looked up toward Heaven, for her heart trusted in the Lord. The elders said, 'As we were walking in the garden alone, this woman came in with two maids, shut the garden doors, and dismissed the maids. Then a young man, who had been hidden, came to her and lay with her. We were in a corner of the garden, and when we saw this wickedness we ran to them. We saw them embracing, but we could not hold the man, for he was too strong for us, and he opened the doors and dashed out. So we seized this woman and asked her who the young man was, but she did not tell us. These things we testify.' The assembly believed them, because they were elders of the people and judges; and they condemned her to death.

    Then Susanna cried out with a loud voice, and said, 'O eternal God, who dost discern what is secret; who art aware of all things before they come to me, thou knowest that these men have borne false witness against me. And now I am to die! Yet I have done none of the things that they have wickedly invented against me!'

    The Lord heard her cry. And as she was being led away to be put to death, God aroused the holy spirit of a young lad named Daniel; and he cried out with a loud voice, 'I AM INNOCENT OF THE BLOOD OF THIS WOMAN.'

    All the people turned to him, and said, 'What is this that you have said?' Taking his stand in the midst of them, he said, 'Are you such fools, you sons of Israel? Have you condemned a daughter of Israel without examination and without learning the facts? Return to the place of judgment. For these men have borne false witness against her.'

    Then all the people returned in haste. And the elders said to him, 'Come, sit among us and inform us, for God has given you that right.' And Daniel said to them, 'Separate them far from each other, and I will examine them.'

    When they were separated from each other, he summoned one of them and said to him, 'You old relic of wicked days, your sins have now come home, which you have committed in the past, pronouncing unjust judgments, condemning the innocent and letting the guilty go free, though the Lord said, ‘Do not put to death an innocent and righteous person.’

    Now then, if you really saw her, tell me this: Under what tree did you see them being intimate with each other?' He answered, 'Under a mastic tree.' And Daniel said, 'Very well! You have lied against your own head, for the angel of God has received the sentence from God and will immediately cut you in two.'

    Then he put him aside, and commanded them to bring the other. And he said to him, You offspring of Canaan and not of Judah, beauty has deceived you and lust has perverted your heart. This is how you both have been dealing with the daughters of Israel, and they were intimate with you through fear; but a daughter of Judah would not endure your wickedness.

    Now then, tell me: Under what tree did you catch them being intimate with each other?' He answered, 'Under an evergreen oak.' And Daniel said to him, 'Very well! You also have lied against your own head, for the angel of God is waiting with his sword to saw you in two, that he may destroy you both.'

    Then all the assembly shouted loudly and blessed God, who saves those with hope in Him. And they rose against the two elders, for out of their own mouths Daniel had convicted them of bearing false witness; and they did to them as they had wickedly planned to do to their neighbor; acting in accordance with the law of Moses, they put them to death. Thus innocent blood was saved that day.

    And Hilkiah and his wife praised God for their daughter Susanna, and so did Joakim her husband and all her kindred, because nothing shameful was found in her. And from that day onward Daniel had a great reputation among the people..."


    [Susanna, Books of the Apocrypha (aka Daniel, ch. 13)]
     
  3. Aqil

    Aqil Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    This profound scripture is a powerful lesson in morality, for it it a testament to the fact that there must be high people in high places...
     
  4. Akilah

    Akilah Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Amen.......
     
  5. Aqil

    Aqil Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    The Apocrypha had a place in all the 16th century translations of the Bible. Matthew's Bible of 1537 was the first English version to place all of the Apocrypha in a separate group. In the King James Version of 1611 they stand between the Testaments, and there are a few cross-references to passages in them. In the Catholic Rheims-Douay Version (1609), the Deuterocanonical Books are placed among the Old Testament writings, as in the Vulgate, with 1 and 2 Esdras printed as an appendix to the Old Testament as "not received into the Canon of Divine Scriptures by the Catholic Church." Article VI of the Thirty-Nine Articles Church of England says concerning the Apocrypha: "And the other books (as Jerome saith) the Church doth read for example of life and instruction of manners, but yet it doth not apply them to establish doctrine."

    It was during the Reformation period that the terms "Apocrypha" and "Deuterocanonical Books" came into general use. The word "Apocrypha" means, “hidden,” and was often applied to books that were withheld from circulation because the authorship was in doubt or the teaching had been questioned. Hence the "Apocryphal" came to be the equivalent of "spurious," generally with the implication that the books should be avoided; and the Jews applied it to the mass of literature excluded from their sacred books when they defined their Canon...
     
  6. Aqil

    Aqil Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Here is the chapter titled "Bel and the Dragon":

    When King Astyages was laid with his fathers, Cyrus the Persian received his kingdom. And Daniel was a companion of the king, and was the most honored of his friends. Now the Babylonians had an idol called Bel, and every day they spent on it twelve bushels of fine flour and forty sheep and fifty gallons of wine. The king revered it and went every day to worship it. But Daniel worshiped his own God.

    And the king said to him, "Why do you not worship Bel?" He answered, "Because I do not revere man-made idols, but the living God, who created heaven and earth and has dominion over all flesh." The king said to him, "Do you not think that Bel is a living God? Do you not see how much he eats and drinks every day?" Then Daniel laughed, and said, "Do not be deceived, O king; for this is but clay inside and brass outside, and it never ate or drank anything."

    Then the king was angry, and he called his priests and said to them, "If you do not tell me who is eating these provisions, you shall die. But if you prove that Bel is eating them, Daniel shall die, because he blasphemed against Bel." And Daniel said to the king, "Let it be done as you have said."

    Now there were seventy priests of Bel, besides their wives and children. And the king went with Daniel into the temple of Bel. And the priests of Bel said, "Behold, we are going outside; you yourself, O king, shall set forth the food and mix and place the wine, and shut the door and seal it with your signet. And when you return in the morning, if you do not find that Bel has eaten it all, we will die; or else Daniel will, who is telling lies about us."

    They were unconcerned, for beneath the table they had made a hidden entrance, through which they used to go in regularly and consume the provisions. When they had gone out, the king set forth the food for Bel. Then Daniel ordered his servants to bring ashes and they sifted them throughout the whole temple in the presence of the king alone. Then they went out, shut the door and sealed it with the king's signet, and departed.

    In the night the priests came with their wives and children, as they were accustomed to do, and ate and drank everything. Early in the morning the king rose and came, and Daniel with him. And the king said, "Are the seals unbroken, Daniel?" He answered, "They are unbroken, O king." As soon as the doors were opened, the king looked at the table, and shouted in a loud voice, "You are great, O Bel; and with you there is no deceit, none at all." Then Daniel laughed, and restrained the king from going in, and said, "Look at the floor, and notice whose footsteps these are." The king said, "I see the footsteps of men and women and children."

    Then the king was enraged, and he seized the priests and their wives and children; and they showed him the secret doors through which they were accustomed to enter and devour what was on the table. Therefore the king put them to death, and gave Bel over to Daniel, who destroyed it and its temple...

    :star:
     
  7. Aqil

    Aqil Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    The Dragon:

    There was also a great dragon that the Babylonians revered. And the king said to Daniel, "You cannot deny that this is a living god; so worship him." Daniel said, "I will worship the Lord my God, for he is the living God. But if you, O king, will give me permission, I will slay the dragon without sword or club." The king said, "I give you permission." Then Daniel took pitch, fat, and hair, and boiled them together and made cakes, which he fed to the dragon. The dragon ate them, and burst open. And Daniel said, "See what you have been worshiping!"

    When the Babylonians heard it, they were very indignant and conspired against the king, saying, "The king has become a Jew; he has destroyed Bel, and slain the dragon, and slaughtered the priests." Going to the king, they said, "Hand Daniel over to us, or else we will kill you and your household." The king saw that they were pressing him hard, and under compulsion he handed Daniel over to them. They threw Daniel into the lions' den, and he was there for six days. There were seven lions in the den, and every day they had been given two human bodies and two sheep; but these were not given to them now, so that they might devour Daniel.

    Now the prophet Habakkuk was in Judea. He had boiled pottage and had broken bread into a bowl, and was going into the field to take it to the reapers. But the angel of the Lord said to Habakkuk, "Take the dinner which you have to Babylon, to Daniel, in the lions' den." Habakkuk said, "Sir, I have never seen Babylon, and I know nothing about the den." Then the angel of the Lord took him by the crown of his head, and lifted him by his hair and set him down in Babylon, right over the den, with the rushing sound of the wind itself.

    Then Habakkuk shouted, "Daniel, Daniel! Take the dinner which God has sent you." And Daniel said, "Thou hast remembered me, O God, and hast not forsaken those who love thee." So Daniel arose and ate. And the angel of God immediately returned Habakkuk to his own place.

    On the seventh day the king came to mourn for Daniel. When he came to the den he looked in, and there sat Daniel. And the king shouted with a loud voice, "Thou art great, O Lord God of Daniel, and there is no other besides thee." And he pulled Daniel out, and threw into the den the men who had attempted his destruction, and they were devoured immediately before his eyes.
     
  8. Angela22

    Angela22 Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Informative. :)

    I do have great belief that if one sincerely searches in the Father, they'll find all they must as they dwell on this earth, and nothing lesser, yet nothing more either.

    Some of the "hidden" Doctrine needs to be looked at carefully as not all is inspired in the Word of the Father. We must always be watching, just as the Son has taught us during His come as a sacrifice for our sins, for there are forces seeking to overthrow the faithful and the Holy that there may be another casualty of this war for our spirits.

    So long as we remain faithful to our King and believing in all He has done in healing, teaching, proving, and confirming before all by His Resurrection from the dead, we need not worry about death, but can have hopeful thoughts of a life eternal with our KING. It's trusting in the Father and the Son that'll bring us to salvation, and open our eyes to wherever the truth be hid.
     
  9. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    Apocrypha means 'hidden things' in Greek. The Apocryphical books of the Bible fall into two categories: texts which were included in some canonical version of the Bible at some point, and other texts of a Biblical nature which have never been canonical.
    Deuterocanonical Apocrypha

    The Deuterocanonical Books of the Bible These are books which are included in some version of the canonical Bible, but which have been excluded at one time or another, for textual or doctrinal issues. These are called 'Deuterocanonical', which literally means 'the secondary canon.'
    Other Apocrypha

    These are other apocryphal texts which never made it into any official canon, which nevertheless shed light on the Bible and its history.
    [​IMG] The Forgotten Books of Eden [1926]
    A collection of OT pseudepigrapha, specifically:

    The First Book of Adam and Eve
    The Second Book of Adam and Eve
    The Book of the Secrets of Enoch
    The Psalms of Solomon
    The Odes of Solomon
    The Letter of Aristeas
    Fourth Book of Maccabees
    The Story of Ahikar
    The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs
    Testament of Reuben
    Testament of Simeon
    Testament of Levi
    The Testament of Judah
    The Testament of Issachar
    The Testament of Zebulun
    The Testament of Dan
    The Testament of Naphtali
    The Testament Of Gad
    The Testament of Asher
    The Testament of Joseph
    The Testament of Benjamin

    [​IMG] The Lost Books of the Bible
    edited by Rutherford H. Platt, Jr. [1926]
    A collection of NT apocrypha and pseudepigrapha.

    [​IMG] The Biblical Antiquities of Philo
    translated by M. R. James [1917]
    An alternative pseudepigraphal narrative of the Hebrew Bible from Genesis through 1 Samuel, written in the first century C.E.

    [​IMG] The Gospel of Thomas
    Reputedly the writings of the apostle 'Doubting Thomas'.
    This text purports to be a collection of the sayings of Jesus. Traditionally Thomas was Jesus' twin brother. This text shows strong Gnostic influence.

    [​IMG] The Didache
    by Charles H. Hoole [1894]
    A very early Christian apocryphal text.

    [​IMG] The Sibylline Oracles
    tr. by Milton S. Terry [1899].
    The Sibylline books were oracular Roman scrolls; these are the pseudo-Sibylline Oracles. There many similarities to early Christian writings, and they were quoted by the Church Fathers.

    [​IMG] The Book of Enoch
    Translated by R.H. Charles [1917]
    An etext of a critical edition of the Book of Enoch. Enoch introduced such concepts as fallen Angels, the Messiah, the Resurrection, and others.

    [​IMG] The Book of Enoch the Prophet
    Translated by Richard Laurence [1883]
    An earlier and very influential 19th century translation of 1 Enoch.

    [​IMG] The Book of Jubilees
    tr. by R.H. Charles [1917]
    A text from the 2nd century B.C.E. which covers much of the same ground as Genesis, with some interesting additional details.
    It may have been an intermediate form of Genesis which was incorporated into later versions.

    [​IMG] Slavonic Life of Adam and Eve
    [​IMG] The Books of Adam and Eve
    This is the translation of the Books of Adam and Eve from the Oxford University Press Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha.

    [​IMG] The Book of Jasher
    [​IMG] Excerpts from the Gospel of Mary
    This fragment, of disputed authenticity, puts the relationship between Mary Magdalen, Jesus and the Apostles in a radically different perspective than traditional beliefs.


    http://www.sacred-texts.com/chr/apo/



     
  10. Keita Kenyatta

    Keita Kenyatta going above and beyond PREMIUM MEMBER

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    I have always wanted to know "who was the decision maker" concerning what was or was not inspired? In other words, if a man came to you with 10 written sheets in his hand and said that "God told him to write those", just who on this earth is the decision maker to say if what the man had was God inspired or not? Who made that call? What human being sat back and read those sheets and said; These sheets are God inspired"!! While some others said, No they aren't!! I guess whoever has the biggest guns or the most political clout would be the winner....and 1000 years later some poor people in the future would be spitting the same nonsense about those sheets being God inspired without any understanding of what really happened a 1000 years earlier.

    Sounds exactly like what we're going through today!!! I really hope that doesn't happen again!!:thinking::lol::lol:
     
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