Black Spirituality Religion : The Absolute Truth About Race And History

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Why hide the story of the Giants and tall creatures though?
What is the goal achieved from not wanting to put the info out and to mock it?

I think you've done your homework about the secret societies or hidden World Elite, didn't you? Then you have to know that those secret societies who dominate the whole planet will do EVERYTHING to keep their supremacy over this planet intact!!! So they use their education systems (brainwashing camps), their media (Hollywood) and their political influence to control your mind.

If people find out facts such as the Aliens, the giant skeletons, Atlantis, Lemuria etc., then people start realizing they have been heavily fooled and duped for a very long time, and will rise up against the World Elite ultimately. Then there will be a world war against the World Elite, and then their world supremacy is definitely OVER!!!

So do you now understand why they try to hide those facts so badly, and why they mock you if you find out the hidden facts?
4th, there are only three options for what you really are:

1. A typical, totally brainwashed slave of the New World Order.

2. A CIA-disinformation agent operating on Destee.

3. Or you simply hate me...

I'm not really sure what's going on this thread ... i'm just now looking at it (in a very hurried manner)

But I didn't miss the above ... which is a rule violation.

How you gonna call someone else these things ... when there is no evidence that you are not them?

Don't do that ... i'm already feel'n some kinda way krazee ... you really don't wanna add to it.

Dreya ... our apologies for not catching this earlier ... report violations if you're inclined.

Loving Us!


And here are more overwhelming, recent, scientific researches which confirm the scientific researches in my previous posts:

1-- Detailed modern cranial studies show Cro-magnon crania clustering
AWAY from today’s Europeans.
Brace 2005 testedthe “Cro-magnid”
claim and found it “folklore.” QUOTE: "When canonical variates are
plotted, neither sample ties in with Cro-Magnon as was once suggested. ..
If this analysis shows nothing else, it demonstrates that the oft-repeated
European feeling that the Cro-Magnons are “us” (46) is more a product of
anthropological folklore than the result of the metric data available from
the skeletal remains..."
--CL. Brace 2005. The Questionable contribution of the Neolithic to
European craniofacial form

----------------------------- Limb proportions confirm Brace's cranial analysis
"Upper Palaeolithic humans not only were taller and had more robust bones
in comparison with the Linear Band Pottery Culture Neolithic people; they also
had longer limbs, a shorter trunk and, similar to modern African people, very long
forearms and crural segments.
---Michael Hermanussen (2003) Stature of early Europeans. HORMONES 2003, 2(3):175-178

2–Africans possessing the highest phenotypical diversity on earth,
producing variants covering most features. Several Cro-Magnon
specimens are described as ‘negroid.’

“Both methods for estimating regional diversity show sub-Saharan
Africato have the highest levels of phenotypic variation consistent with
many genetic studies.“
[-- Relethford, John "Global Analysis of Regional Differences in
Craniometric Diversity .” Hum Bio v73, n5, -629-636])

---------------------- Three scholars (Arthur Keith, M Boule and HV
Valloid found ‘negroid’Cro-Magnon features
: QUOTE: "The ancient
Grimaldi woman and boy are of the mixed or negroid type."
--(Arthur Keith. Ancient Types of Man. p. 60)

View attachment 2970

3- Several Upper Paleolithic European specimens show high cural
indices in limb proportions- more akin to dark-skinned tropical Africans
than today’s Europeans, who show lower cural indices
"As with all the other limb/trunk indices, the recent Europeans evince
lower indices, reflective of shorter tibiae, and the recent sub-Saharan
Africans have higher indices, reflective of their long tibiae... The Dolno
Vestonice and Pavlov humans.. have body proportions similar to those of
other Gravettian specimens. Specifically, they are characterized by high
bracial and cural indices, indicative of distal limb segment elongation.."
--Trinkaus and Svoboda. 2005. Early Modern Human Evolution in Central

– AND--

-Body proportions of early European H. sapiens fossils suggest a tropical
adaptation and support an African origin (Holliday & Trinkaus, 1991;
Ruff, 1994; Pearson, 1997, 2000; Holliday, 1997, 1998, 2000).”
-–McBrearty and Brooks 2000. The Revolution that Wasn’t. Jrn Hu Evo
39, 453-563

AND --

Upper Paleolithic Europeans resembled modern Africans -2003 data

"Upper Palaeolithic humans not only were taller and had more robust bones
in comparison with the Linear Band Pottery Culture Neolithic people; they also
had longer limbs, a shorter trunk and, similar to modern African people, very long

forearms and crural segments.
---Michael Hermanussen (2003) Stature of early Europeans. HORMONES 2003, 2(3):175-178

4-- Traits like narrow noses occur naturally in African
".. low mean nasal indices (high, narrow noses) tend to [also] be found in
arid regions, such as the desert areas of east Africa.. -- Mays. S. (2010).
The Archaeology of Human Bones. Pg 100-101

5-- Several Upper Paleolithic European types- Predmost (Czech),
Combo Capelle (France) Grimaldi (Italy) and Teviec (France) show a
variant of “African” affinities like prognathism. Some scholars hold this to
be an ‘Eastern Cro-Magnon’ variant

------ "others like Predomost and to a lesser degree Grimaldi and Teviec,
are more prognathic like Skhul 5."
--Marta Mirazón Lahr. 2005. The Evolution of Modern Human Diversity:
A Study of Cranial Variation


---------- ".. on whose basis, many specialists define the eastern
Cro-Magnon variant in the Upper Paleolithic population of western
--S. De Laet (1994). History of Humanity, UNESCO

6– DNA provides clear evidence of tropical African types migrating to
Paleolithic era Europe, contradicting claims of “Caucasoid” evolution in
situ. Tropical limb evidence confirms DNA. The African tropical types
may have interbred with local Neanderthals, but in any event would have
adapted to the colder conditions of Europe over time.

"Early modern Europeans reflect both their predominant African early
modern human ancestry and a substantial degree of admixture between
those early modern humans and the indigenous Neandertals. Given the
tens of millennia since then and the limitations inherent in ancient DNA,
this process is largely invisible in the molecular record. It is readily
apparent in the paleontological record.“
--E. Trinkhaus (2004) European early modern humans and the fate of the
Neandertals. PNAS 2007 vol. 104 no. 18 7367-7372


"The so-called Old Man [Cro-Magnon 1] became the original model for
what was once termed the Cro-Magnon or Upper Paleolithic "race" of
Europe.. there's no such valid biological category, and Cro-Magnon 1 is
not typical of Upper Paleolithic western Europeans- and not even all that
similar to the other two make skulls found at the site. Most of the genetic
evidence, as well as the newest fossil evidence from Africa argue against
continuous local evolution producing modern groups directly from any
Eurasian pre-modern population.. there's no longer much debate that a
large genetic contribution from migrating early modern Africans infuenced
other groups throughout the Old World.“
--B. Lewis et al. 2008. Understanding Humans: Introduction to Physical
Anthropology and Archaeology. p 297

Credible mainstream scholars dismiss attempts at any "Caucasoid
race" labeling for the ancient remains of East Africa. Africans the most
diverse, making such labels inaccurate and irrelevant

“In other parts of Africa there is much more variation, disclosing a mosaic
of forms, some unrelated to recent groups (Lukenya Hill - Gramly and
Rightmire, 1973), others with possible Khoi-San affinities (Neolithic
crania associated with the Wilton tradition of Kenya), others with clear
Negro traits (Ishango, Congo - Ferembach, 1986c; Howells, 1959;
Rightmire, 1975b; Chad, Tamaya Mellet in Niger, and El Guettara in Mali
- Chamla, 1968; Asselar, Ibalaghen, Tin Lalou sites - Chamla, 1968), and
yet still others suggesting trans-Saharan movements (Wadi Halfa, Jebel
Sahaba - Anderson, 1968; Greene and Armelagos, 1972)..”

..These findings are very important, for they suggest that not only late
Pleistocene to early Holocene remains like Gamble's Cave and Elmenteita
should not be interpreted as Caucasoid immigrants, but that the great
levels of cranial variation observed today in sub-Saharan Africa were
probably even greater in the late Pleistocene. “

----Marta Lahr 1996. The Evolution of Modern Human
Diversity: A Study of Cranial Variation. pg 283


View attachment 2971

Parents of "Eurasian Adam" and "Eurasian Eve" came from
Africa modern DNA analysis shows

"The vast majority, perhaps all, men with European and Asian genetic
backgrounds can trace their Y-chromosome lineage back to a particular
male (named M168, after the marker that defines these chromosomes). M168
thus can be considered the Eurasian Adam. Although the Y-chromosome Adam
and mitrochondrial Eve did not meet, it is quite possible that the Eurasian "Adam"
M168 could have met his equivalent, the Eurasian Eve (known as L3). The
estimates of their dates overlap (around five thousand years ago) and they both
probably lived in northeast Africa. Africa? Yes, Africa. Although nearly all Eurasian
mtDNA and Y chromosomes currently existing can be traced back to L3 and M168
respectively, M168 and L3 also had African descendants."

---Norman Johnson (2007) Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of
Genes and Genomes. p. 100. [Norman A. Johnson, an evolutionary geneticist,
is the author of numerous research publications, mainly in the genetics and evolution
of reproductive isolation between nascent species. Johnson has taught at the University
of Chicago, University of Texas at Arlington, and the University of Massachusetts].


View attachment 2973

Advanced cognitive, technological and behavioral patterns derive from
Africa. Dubbed the "Human Revolution" by some researchers, they lead up to the
expansion of humans from Africa to other parts of the world, circa 60-40kya. Other
scholars argue for a more gradual continuum of advances deeply rooted in
Africa that spread worldwide. In either scenario, whether relatively rapid advance
or gradual accumulation, the cognitive, technological and behavioral advances
took place within Africa.

"Recent research has provided increasing support for the origins of anatomically
and genetically "modern" human populations in Africa between 150,000 and 200,000
years ago, followed by a major dispersal of these populations to both Asia and Europe
sometime after ca. 65,000 before present (B.P.). However, the central question of why it
took these populations {approx}100,000 years to disperse from Africa to other regions of
the world has never been clearly resolved. It is suggested here that the answer may lie
partly in the results of recent DNA studies of present-day African populations, combined
with a spate of new archaeological discoveries in Africa. Studies of both the mitochondrial
DNA (mtDNA) mismatch patterns in modern African populations and related mtDNA
lineage-analysis patterns point to a major demographic expansion centered broadly within
the time range from 80,000 to 60,000 B.P., probably deriving from a small geographical
region of Africa.

Recent archaeological discoveries in southern and eastern Africa suggest that, at approximately
the same time, there was a major increase in the complexity of the technological, economic, social,
and cognitive behavior of certain African groups
, which could have led to a major demographic
expansion of these groups in competition with other, adjacent groups. It is suggested that this
complex of behavioral changes (possibly triggered by the rapid environmental changes around
the transition from oxygen isotope stage 5 to stage 4) could have led not only to the expansion of
the L2 and L3 mitochondrial lineages over the whole of Africa but also to the ensuing dispersal of
these modern populations over most regions of Asia, Australasia, and Europe, and their replacement
(with or without interbreeding) of the preceding "archaic" populations in these regions."

---Mellars, Paul (2006) Why did modern human populations disperse from Africa ca. 60,000 years ago?
A new model. PNAS, 2006, 103(25), pp. 9381-9386

View attachment 2974

Advanced cognitive, artistic and behavioral patterns and technology like more refined tools
are found in Africa long before similar patterns arose in Europe. The migration of tropical
African types to Europe in the Cro-Magnon era brought these cognitive, cultural and behavioral
advances to Neanderthal Europe.

"A more gradual "revolution" position is now held [by Paul Mellars].. a period of
accelerated change in Africa between about 60,000 and 80,000 years ago, as shown
by the following developments recorded in South African cave sites: new and better-
techniques for producing long thin flakes of stone blades; specialized tools called end
scrapers and burins, which were probably used for working skins and bones, the
[production of tiny stone segments that must have mounted on handles of wood or
bone to make composite tools, complexly shaped stone tools such as 'leaf points',
relatively complex bone tools; marine shells perforated to make necklaces or bracelets,
red ochre (natural iron oxide) engraved with geometric designs suggesting early artwork,;
greater permanence and differentiated occupation areas in caves; new subsistence practices
such as the exploitation of marine fish as well as shellfish; and perhaps intentional burning
of undergrowth to encourage the growth of underground plant resources such as tubers.
Mellars suggests that a neurological switch to modernity in the brain alongside rapid
Climatic fluctuations, could have been the driving forces behind this period of heightened
cultural innovations.."

"The most impressive site for early evidence of symbolism however, is Blombos Cave in South
Africa, with a record stretching well beyond 70,000 years ago.. The stone tools in these levels
include Still Bay points, beautifully shaped thin lanceolate spear points, flaked on both sides.
They also show the earliest application of a refined stone tool-making technique known as
pressure flaking, some 55,000 years before its best-known manifestation in the Soultrean
industry of EUrope. Slabs of red ochre were excavated from various levels, including the
deepest ones, with wavy, fan or mesh-shaped patterns carefully engraved on them..
Hundreds [beads made from seashells] have now been excavated from Blombos,
and most show signs of piercing, with many holes also displaying signs of wear.. The
shells have a natural shiny luster, but the color seems to have been modified by rubbing
with hematite in some cases and by heating to darken the shells in other cases, so they
may have been strung in different-colored patterns.. "

--Chris Stringer (2012) Lone Survivors: How we came to be the only human on earth 150-155

View attachment 2975

Some archaeologists criticize notions of a "human revolution" suddenly
occurring after humans exited Africa for Asia and Europe. Instead they
argue, the supposed "revolutionary" changes in cognition, symbol
manipulation, advanced technology, trade etc were ALREADY occurring
WITHIN Africa, long before any migration out. There is no need for a
'eureka moment' of 'progress' upon leaving Africa. 'Progress' was already
well underway and long in place within Africa, without the need for
'eureka' moments.

"This is because by focusing on changes that occurred at the Middle
Paleolithic/Upper Paleolithic or Middle Stone Age/Later Stone Age
transitions (in Europe and Africa, respectively), there is a failure to
appreciate the depth and breadth of the African Middle Stone Age record
that preceded the time of the supposed revolution by at least 100,000
years. In their view, [McBrearty and Brooks 2000] 'modern' features such
as advanced technologies, increased geographic range, specialized hunting,
fishing and shell-fishing, long distance trade, and the symbolic use of
pigments had already developed in a broad range of Middle Stone Age
industries right across Africa, between 100,000 and 250,000 years ago.
This suggested to them that an early assembly of the package of modern
human behaviors occurred in Africa, followed by much later export to the
rest of the world. Thus the origin of our species, both behaviorally and
morphologically, was linked to early developments in Middle Stone Age
technology, and not to changes that occurred much later.. 'this quest for
this 'eureka moment' reveals a great deal about the needs, desired and
aspirations of archaeologists, but obscures rather than illuminates events in
the past.."

--Chris Stringer (2012) Lone Survivors: How we came to be the only
human on earth 128-29


The bogus "generalized Caucasoids" model. This involves defining away Africoid affinities or features as "generalized" but at the same time ot treating "European" features the same way. The double standard only runs one way- if a feature has African affinities-airbrush it away as "generalized" but otherwise call it "Caucasoid" or equivalent. This double-standard howevert is contradicted by Africa's diversity, and clear tropical body/limb proportion affinities of its migrating peoples.

For example, Jantz and Ousley 2003 assert that:
"Upper Paleolithic crania are, for the most part, larger and more generalized versions of recent Europeans."
(AJPA 121(2))

But their wording gives the game away. They achieve a "match" with "recent Europeans" because features deemed to have African affinities are defined away as "generalized." The African irritant thus eliminated, they can then go on to cluster all else with Europe. Two central points undermine this method:

Africa has the most diversity in crania in the world. It has almost any skull variation on earth. This diversity DECREASES the farther one goes from Africa. As one of the world's foremost palentologists Chris Stringer notes:

"Africa today has the greatest internal genetic variation of any inhabited continent and its skull shapes show the highest variation. This is usually attributed to its greater size, larger ancient populations and deepest timelines for humanity."
----Chris Stringer (2012) Lone Survivors: How we came to be the only
human on earth p260

"Erik Trinkhaus noted that the Cro-Magnons who livd in much the same environments as Neanderthals were more like recent African populations in body shape than Neanderthals. And the same thing now seems to apply to the earliest modern skeleton we have from the north of Ice Age China."
----Chris Stringer (2012) Lone Survivors: How we came to be the only
human on earth p105

Qafzeh/Skhul remains cluster more with tropical Africans and show similarities to Cro-Magnons. They are not identical, nor are they direct parents, but they show certain affinities- Cro-Magnons themselves also showing tropical affinities.

i]"The Qafzeh/Skhul sample is fundamentally modern, and in fact very similar to Cro-Magons.."
--Geoffrey A. Clark, Catherine M. Willermet. 1997.
Conceptual Issues in Modern Human Origins Research. p111

"Results indicate that the Qafzeh-Skhul hominids have African-like, or tropically adapted,
proportions, while those from Amud, Kebara, Tabun, and Shanidar (Iraq) have more
European-like, or cold-adapted, proportions. This suggests that there were in fact two distinct Western Asian populations and that the Qafzeh-Skhul hominids were likely African in origin - a result consistent with the "Replacement" model of modern human origins.

.. Thus, the discovery of tropically adapted hominids in the region would therefore
likely indicate population dispersal from the TROPICS, and the most logical geographic source for such an influx is Africa. In this regard, Trinkaus (1981, 1984, 1995) and Ruff (1994) have argued that the high brachial and crural indices, narrow biiliac breadths, and
small relative femoral head sizes of the Qafzeh-Skhul hominids suggest an influx of African genes associated with the emergence of modern humans in the region."
---Trenton Holliday (2000) Evolution at the
Crossroads: Modern Human Emergence in Western
Asia. American Anthropologist. New Series,
Vol. 102, No. 1, 54-68


View attachment 2976

In summary, Cro-Magnons were tropically adapted migrants to Europe that resembled tropical Africans. They were never IDENTICAL to tropical Africans for they adapted over time to colder European environments. However several specimens still show evidence of
African links. Africa in addition has the highest phenotypic diversity in the world. For example, skull shapes on African fossils for example are the most diverse. They cover most known variants in skull shape on earth- thru the ages. Everything else is a more limited subset of this diversity
. Its worth repeating:

"Africa today has the greatest internal genetic variation of any inhabited continent and its skull shapes show the highest variation. This is usually attributed to its greater size, larger ancient populations and deepest timelines for humanity."
----Chris Stringer (2012) Lone Survivors: How we came to be the only
human on earth p260

When it comes to Cro-Magnons, some dishonest writers play a hypocritical double game, defining away African features as "generalized", but not doing the same when it comes to the "European" fossils. Thus a dark-skinned, broad nosed, prognathous fossil with tropical limb proportions becomes "generalized[/img] features" but a narrow nose (common in Africa by the way) conveniently becomes "European". Can we all say hypocrisy?

Blombos- Africa: oldest pigment production operation on earth. Advanced cognitive, behavioral, technological and social features were already in place and ongoing before any migration out of Africa.

View attachment 2977

Assorted Multi-regionalists like Michael Wolpoff deny such diversity, but that denial is hollow in the face of substantial evidence of the Out OF Africa model. Four prominent multi-regionalists along with Wolpoff claimed in 1994 for example- QUOTE:

"The evolutionary patterns of three different regions show that the earliest "modern" humans are not Africans and do not have the complex of features that characterize the Africans of that time or any other... There is no evidence of specific admixture with Africans at any time, let alone replacement by them.. "
END WOLPOFF et all quote.

But, Wolpoff et al are comprehensively refuted by fossil and DNA evidence of the Out OF Africa model: Respected paleontologist Chris Stringer notes: (continued)

"This model gave Africa no special place in our evolution and claimed specific connections in individual features between Homo erectus fossils more than a million years old in each region and humans in the same regions today.. these particular views have been pretty comprehensively shown to be false."
----Chris Stringer (2012) Lone Survivors: How we came to be the only
human on earth p267human on earth p267

Other scholars attest to African affinities of Cro-Magnon via DNA quote:

"Molecular biology has traced the ancestry of the Cro-Magnons deep into tropical Africa, into the territory of the hypothetical African Eve"...
--Cro-Magnon:How the Ice Age Gave Birth to the First Modern Humans,
By Brian Fagan,pg 89 (2010).

"In modern humans, this elongation is a pattern characteristic of warm-adapted populations, and this physique may be an early Cro-Magnon retention from African
ancestors. Similar retentions may be observed in certain indices of facial shape ..."
--Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory. by Eric Delson

Full development of certain haplotypes would in time, come into being outside Africa, but core "root-types" were already in place within Africa, with variable indigenous expansion and differentiation within Africa, before any migration.

"These indicate that the root of L3 gives rise to a multifurcation from a single haplotype producing a number of distinct subclades... The simplest explanation for this geographical distribution [haplogroups Mand N], however, is an expansion of the root type within East Africa, where several independent L3 branches thrive, including a sister group to L3, christened L4 (Kivisild et al. 2004; Chap. 7), followed by divergence into haplogroups M and N somewhere between the Horn of Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Since neither the L3 root type nor any other descendants survive outside Africa, the root type itself must have become extinct during a period of genetic drift in the founder population as it diversified into haplogroups M and N, if the diversification was outside Africa. If on the other hand the diversification was indeed within East Africa, then Haplogroups M and N must have either been carried out of Africa in their entirety or subsequently have become extinct within Africa, with the singular
exception of the derived M1."

- Hans-Jürgen Bandelt et. 2006. EDS. Human Mitochondrial DNA and
the Evolution of Homo sapiens.

OK, let's go on with giving some information. I'm warning you that the next information won't be 100% correct. The scientist who wrote the article still calls the Neanderthal "Homo", while the Neanderthal wasn't a human, but a primate in reality. Be aware of that fact!

Proponents of a "fast track" human "revolution" in cognition, organization and technology locate the "revolution" as beginning in, and being sustained from Africa, not other parts of the globe. Other scholars argue for a more gradual evolution of the traits that brought about advances in Africa where anatomically modern humans first appeared, and their expansion to Europe and Asia circa 50kya. Whatever scenario is followed, it makes little difference. The "revo", gradual or "fast track", began in Africa and was sustained from thence. - QUOTE:

"..distance and small population size probably limited gene flow, and the composite fossil and archeological records indicate that the African lineage spread to replace or swamp the others beginning roughly 50 ky ago. It is thus reasonable to supply the lineages with biological species labels: Homo sapiens in Africa, H. neanderthalensis in Europe, and H. erectus in the Far East. The European lineage is the best documented, 73 and it is marked by the progressive accumulation of Neanderthal features, culminating in the classic Neanderthals by 130 ky ago. During the long interval when the Neanderthals were evolving, from at least 500 to 130 ky ago, Europe was generally much cooler than it has been historically, and some conspicuous Neanderthal distinctions, including massive trunks and short limbs, were probably physiological adaptations to cold. Other key distinctions— including, for example, the strong forward projection of the face along the midline, the unique configuration of the mastoid region and the occipital, and some peculiarities of the postcranium— may owe more to gene drift in populations that periodically crashed when climate became especially cold.

The pertinent African fossil record is much less complete, but it contains no specimens that anticipate the Neanderthals, and it shows that anatomically near-modern people were widespread in Africa by 130 ky ago,74 when only Neanderthals inhabited Europe. The Far Eastern record is the most sketchy,75 and it may actually comprise two distinct evolutionary trajectories: one in southeastern Asia that suggests continuity within Indonesian Homo erectus from before 500 ky ago until perhaps 50 ky ago,76 and a second in China that may indicate evolution from classic H. erectus before 500 ky ago to populations that by 100 ky ago, retained few distinctive H. erectus features and that approached H. sapiens in braincase size and form.77 The relevant archeology suggests that even as Europeans and Africans progressively diverged in morphology after 500 ky ago, they remained fundamentally similar in behavior.

View attachment 2980

Thus, both Europeans and Africans produced Acheulean artifacts before 250 ky ago, and they made very similar kinds of non-Acheulean artifacts afterwards. From a strictly artifactual perspective, a conspicuous difference between Africa and Europe arose only after 40 ky ago, and it then occurred in the absence of a morphological contrast, for the artifact makers on both continents were now H. sapiens of African origin. Archeological divergence was followed on each continent by a significant acceleration in artifactual (cultural) differentiation through time and space. This surely signals the existence of the historically familiar modern human ability to innovate. If as I suggest, the development of this ability depended on a biological (neural) change in Africa 50–40 ky ago, then the name H. sapiens should probably be restricted to fully modern humans after this time, and their preceding near-modern African ancestors should be assigned to another species, for which the name H. helmei is available.78

The more fundamental point, however, is that the sudden origin of the modern capacity for culture in Africa 50–40 ky ago could help explain both how and why fully modern Africans were then able to expand at the expense of their nonmodern Eurasian contemporaries... The issue is complicated by the realization that Middle Paleolithic people in Europe were Neanderthals, whereas MSA people in Africa more closely resembled living people. contexts.

Using this criterion, the most plausible evidence for modern human behavior before 50 ky ago comes from the Katanda sites in the Democratic Republic of the Congo121–124 and from Blombos Cave in South Africa.125–128 At Katanda, electron spin-resonance dates on hippopotamus teeth and luminescence dates on covering sands bracket mammal and fish bones, stone artifacts that could be either MSA or LSA, eight whole or partial barbed bone points, and four additional formal bone artifacts between 150 and 90 ky ago. At Blombos Cave, luminescence dates on enclosing sands suggest that mammal and fish bones, classic MSA stone artifacts, three whole or fragmentary polished bone points, and 17 less formal bone artifacts accumulated around 100 ky ago.129 At both Katanda and Blombos Cave, the most striking discoveries are the formal bone artifacts..

.. credible claims for art or other modern human behavioral markers before 50 ky ago must involve relatively large numbers of highly patterned objects from deeply stratified, sealed contexts would antedate other known examples, from LSA/Upper Paleolithic sites, by 50 to 40 ky. If the stratigraphic associations and age estimates at both sites are accepted, they could imply that modern human behavioral traits and modern morphology arose in Africa together, at or before 100 ky ago..."

--Richard Klein 1999. Archeology and the Evolution of Human Behavior.
Evolutionary Anthropology. 9(1) 17-36

Apollyon ... what are you doing ... posting excerpts of people's books??

What is all of this?! Some of this is frightening to even look at ... why is it here?

It seems like you need your own web site ... so you can post whatever you want. is not a dumping ground and you, this thread, is look'n like you think we are.

We're quite generous to everyone ... post what you will ... of your own property, your own words.

But I can't believe you own all that you've posted in this thread.

I'm feel'n some kinda way ... 'cause i've said all of this to you before.

Plus ... well ... me feel'n some kinda way is really enough to shut a thing down.

How about you build a web site and then just share your link with us.


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