Black People : Schizophrenia-Psychotic Disorders...and then some

Discussion in 'Black People Open Forum' started by Goddess Auset333, Apr 14, 2007.

  1. Goddess Auset333

    Goddess Auset333 Banned MEMBER

    Feb 9, 2007
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    Beloved Once Divine people of the Perfect Black Night, children of the SUN-Stars:

    Below is what many of our people suffers from. It is the mentally ill mind-set that has been transferred to our people, the mind -set that came from the Human being (oppressors), causing many of us to behave as they do, killing, stealing, and destroying each other, never directing our anger at the ones who implanted and lobotomized our people mind-set.

    Our people must get free of this mind-set so we can see clearly our way back to our Divine First way, Harmony, Balance and Order.

    goddess Isis

    Schizophrenia Overview

    By Dr. Cheryl Lane, PhD Schizophrenia is one of the most devastating and debilitating forms of mental illness. Classif



    Inducing Schizophrenia Type Symptoms
    Psychotic Disorders
    Treatment ( Psychotherapy )
    Treatment ( Pharmacotherapy )
    Schizophrenia Subtypes
    Schizophrenia Diagnosis Flow Chart
    Test for Schizophrenia CHN-E
    Test for Schizophrenia v3.0
    Schizophrenia Drug Checklist


    Schizophrenia (in Greek, “split mind") is a severe mental illness characterized by a variety of symptoms including but not limited to:loss of contact with reality

    bizarre behavior
    disorganized thinking
    disorganized speech
    decreased emotional expressiveness
    diminished or loss of contact with reality
    diminished to total social withdrawal.
    Schizophrenia afflicts approximately one percent of the world's population, making it the most common psychosis. Schizophrenia is characterized by positive and negative symptoms. Fundamental symptoms include thought disturbance, withdrawal, and difficulties managing effect. Secondary symptoms include perception disorders such as hallucinations and grandiosity. Symptoms may also be non-schizophrenic in nature, including anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic symptoms.

    NOTE: A second opinion is a good idea in a diagnosis of schizophrenia, "Schizophrenia is probably the most misused psychological term in existence" ( Carlson, 1995 ). See case studies.

    Diagnostic Criteria ( DSM-IV™ ) made easy.

    1. During one month or more, a significant portion of time is taken up by bizarre delusions that are hallucinations consisting of two or more voices conversing with each other or of a voice that affects a person's behaviors or thoughts or at least two of the following:

    grossly disorganized behavior
    catatonic behavior
    negative symptoms
    2. For a significant portion of time, due to the disturbance, marked impairment is noticed in academics, interpersonal relationships, self-care, work or any other major area of functioning.

    3. Symptoms are continuous and persist for at least six months.

    4. The disturbance is not due to a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, substance abuse, general medical condition or another mental disorder.

    Diagnostic Criteria ( Bleuler's )

    Fundamental symptoms: thought disorders, blunted effect, indifference, withdrawal, retardation, autistic behavior and mannerisms.

    Secondary symptoms - mechanisms patients may develop to cope with fundamental symptoms : hallucinations, paranoid ideation, grandiosity.

    Non-schizophrenic symptoms - emotional disturbances not uniquely associated with schizophrenia: thought disorders, blunted effect, indifference, withdrawal, retardation, autistic behavior and mannerisms.

    Schizophrenia Subtypes

    Paranoid Type
    Disorganized Type ( Hebephrenic )
    Catatonic Type
    Undifferentiated Type
    Residual Type.

    Psychotic Disorders

    Brief Psychotic Disorder
    Delusional Disorder
    Psychotic Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition
    Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified
    Schizoeffective Disorder
    Schizophreniform Disorder
    Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder

    Treatment ( Psychotherapy )

    Adlerian Therapy
    Behavior Therapy
    Existential Therapy
    Gestalt Therapy
    Person-centered Therapy
    Rational-emotive Therapy
    Reality Therapy
    Transactional Analysis
    schizophrenia - Bing

    Symptoms and Signs of Schizophrenia

    Schizophrenia is the term for a group of serious psychiatric conditions called the schizophrenic disorders. Learn about the causes, symptoms and treatments.


    Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder (or group of disorders) marked by severely impaired thinking, emotions, and behaviors. The term schizophrenia comes from two Greek words that mean "split mind." It was coined around 1908 by a Swiss doctor named Eugen Bleuler to describe the splitting apart of mental functions that he regarded as the central characteristic of schizophrenia. (Note that the splitting apart of mental functions in schizophrenia differs from the split personality of people with multiple personality disorder.) Schizophrenic patients are typically unable to filter sensory stimuli and may have enhanced perceptions of sounds, colors, and other features of their environment. Most schizophrenics, if untreated, gradually withdraw from interactions with other people, and lose their ability to take care of personal needs and grooming.

    Although schizophrenia was described by doctors as far back as Hippocrates (500 B.C.), it is difficult to classify. Many writers prefer the plural terms schizophrenias or schizophrenic disorders to the singular schizophrenia because of the lack of agreement in classification, as well as the possibility that different subtypes may eventually be shown to have different causes.


    The schizophrenic disorders are a major social tragedy because of the large number of persons affected and the severity of their impairment. It is estimated that people who suffer from schizophrenia fill 50% of the hospital beds in psychiatric units and 25% of all hospital beds. A number of studies indicate that about 1% of the world's population is affected by schizophrenia, without regard to race, social class, level of education, or cultural influences. (However, outcome may vary from culture to culture, depending on the familial support of the patient.) Most patients are diagnosed in their late teens or early 20s, but the symptoms of schizophrenia can emerge at any point in the life cycle. The male/female ratio in adults is about 1.2:1. Males typically have their first acute episode in their late teens or early 20s, while females are usually well into their 20s when diagnosed.

    Schizophrenia is rarely diagnosed in preadolescent children, although patients as young as five or six have been reported. Childhood schizophrenia is at the upper end of the spectrum of severity and shows a greater gender disparity. It affects one or two children in every 10,000; the male/female ratio is 2:1.

    The course of schizophrenia in adults can be divided into three phases or stages. In the acute phase, the patient has an overt loss of contact with reality (psychotic episode) that requires intervention and treatment. In the second or stabilization phase, the initial psychotic symptoms have been brought under control but the patient is at risk for relapse if treatment is interrupted. In the third or maintenance phase, the patient is relatively stable and can be kept indefinitely on antipsychotic medications. Even in the maintenance phase, however, relapses are not unusual and patients do not always return to full functioning.

    Recently, some psychiatrists have begun to use a classification of schizophrenia based on two main types. People with Type I, or positive schizophrenia, have a rapid (acute) onset of symptoms and tend to respond well to drugs. They also tend to suffer more from the positive symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations. People with Type II, or negative schizophrenia, are usually described as poorly adjusted before their schizophrenia slowly overtakes them. They have predominantly negative symptoms, such as withdrawal from others and a slowing of mental and physical reactions (psychomotor retardation).

    The fourth revised (2000) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) specifies five subtypes of schizophrenia:


    The key feature of this subtype of schizophrenia is the combination of false beliefs (delusions) and hearing voices (auditory hallucinations), with more nearly normal emotions and cognitive functioning. (Cognitive functions include reasoning, judgment, and memory.) The delusions of paranoid schizophrenics usually involve thoughts of being persecuted or harmed by others or exaggerated opinions of their own importance, but may also reflect feelings of jealousy or excessive religiosity. The delusions are typically organized into a coherent framework. Paranoid schizophrenics function at a higher level than other subtypes, but are at risk for suicidal or violent behavior under the influence of their delusions.


    Disorganized schizophrenia (formerly called hebephrenic schizophrenia) is marked by disorganized speech, thinking, and behavior on the patient's part, coupled with flat or inappropriate emotional responses to a situation (affect). The patient may act silly or withdraw socially to an extreme extent. Most patients in this category have weak personality structures prior to their initial acute psychotic episode.

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    Psychotic Disorders

    What is a psychotic disorder?

    Psychotic disorders are mental disorders in which the personality is seriously disorganized and a person's contact with reality is impaired. During a psychotic episode a person is confused about reality and often experiences delusions and/or hallucinations.

    The following is a brief description of some of the types of psychotic disorders:

    Schizophrenia - psychotic symptoms which continue for at least six months coupled with the deterioration of occupational and social functioning

    Schizoaffective Disorder - psychotic and mood disturbances.

    Schizophreniform Disorder - same criteria as Schizophrenia but the episode lasts from 1 - 6 months and there is no deterioration of social status.

    Brief Psychotic Disorder - psychotic symptoms that last between 1 and 30 days.
    What characteristics are associated with psychotic disorder?

    Some of the characteristics associated with psychotic disorders include delusions, hallucinations, bizarre behavior, incoherent or disorganized speech, and/or disorganized behavior.

    Delusions are described as false, inaccurate beliefs the person holds onto even when he/she is presented with accurate information.

    Examples of delusions include:

    Grandiose delusion: This occurs when a person’s belief about his/her own importance or station in life is grossly out of proportion to what is really true. For instance, a person might believe that he/she is Jesus Christ.

    Persecutory delusion: This occurs when a person believes that there is a conspiracy to harass, punish, or attack him/her. The person also might believe that the group to which he/she belongs is being harassed or punished.
    Hallucinations are internal sensory perceptions, such as sights or sounds, that are not actually present.

    Common hallucinations include:

    Visual hallucinations: People who have visual hallucinations see the image of something that is not real, such as another person.

    Auditory hallucinations: People who have auditory hallucinations hear something that is not really present, such as someone’s voice.
    Are there genetic factors associated with psychotic disorder?

    Some psychotic disorders, like Schizophrenia, tend to run in families. If someone has a psychotic disorder, it is quite likely that another member of his/her immediate or extended family also has had a psychotic disorder.

    Do psychotic disorders affect males, females, or both?

    Most psychotic disorders tend to affect males and females in equal numbers.

    At what age do psychotic disorders appear?

    Generally, the first signs of most psychotic disorders appear when a person is in his/her late teens, twenties, or thirties.

    How common are psychotic disorders in society?

    Psychotic disorders are actually quite common worldwide. About one percent (1%) of the population is thought to have some form of psychotic disorder.

    How is a psychotic disorder diagnosed?

    A mental health professional arrives at the diagnosis of a psychotic disorder by conducting a mental status examination and by taking a very careful personal history from the patient/client. It is very important not to overlook a physical illness that might mimic or contribute to a psychological disorder. If there is any doubt about a medical problem, the mental health professional should refer to a physician, who will perform a complete physical examination and request any necessary laboratory tests.

    Frequently, people with psychotic disorders are brought involuntarily for evaluation and treatment.

    How is a psychotic disorder treated?

    In the acute stage, a person with a psychotic disorder is treated with medication. The medications are called antipsychotics, and they are used to help organize the person’s thinking and, therefore, his/her behavior. Examples of such medications are Clozaril (clozapine), Haldol (haloperidol), Risperdal (risperidone), and Zyprexa (olanzapine). Many types of psychotherapy, including individual, group, and family therapy, may be used at some point in the illness to help support the person suffering from a psychotic disorder. Although some patients with psychotic disorders can be treated as outpatients, acutely disorganized people with psychoses frequently need hospitalization in order to be stabilized.

    What happens to someone with a psychotic disorder?

    The course of psychotic disorders varies greatly from a few days to many years.

    What can people do if they need help?

    If you, a friend, or a family member would like more information and you have a therapist or a physician, please discuss your concerns with that person.


    Developed by John L. Miller, MD
    Reviewed 7/2000