Alot of people believe that Jim Crow was only a southern policy. However, Jim Crow was actually federal law enacted by Woodrow Wilson, and was a national problem not just a southern problem. William Monroe Trotter was one of the few African-American Elite who were fighting against Jim Crow here is a link to his bio: http://www.bridgew.edu/HOBA/Trotter.cfm Here are some other links about this great man: http://www.trotterinst.org/ - The Trotter Institue http://www.trottergroup.com/trotter.htm - A brief dialogue about his heated debate with Wooddrow Wilson in the oval office. http://www.trottergroup.com/index.html - Journalistic Commentary about Black America. Also there is a book written by NIcholas Patler Entitled "Jim Crow and the Wilson Administration" - It talkes about William Monroe Trotter and other grassroots movements to end Federal Jim Crow.