Black People : PAST IMPERFECT: THE ROOTS OF DARFUR...

Discussion in 'Black People Open Forum' started by Aqil, Oct 18, 2004.

  1. Aqil

    Aqil Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    50,000 Africans have been killed in Sudan this year — by Arabs who look just like them — how did it come to this?

    By William Jelani Cobb

    The numbers, beyond a certain threshold, begin to blur into abstraction. The question is one that a four-year-old would ask: how many is 50,000? And how is it different from fifteen thousand — or a hundred? Ponder that question for more than a second and this much becomes clear: mass murder defies our moral grasp. The only apparent and solemn reality is that a mere decade after 500,000 people were slaughtered in the surreal horrifics of Rwanda, the term “genocide” is once again being used to describe an ongoing conflict in Africa.

    History is not supposed to repeat itself that fast.

    The region of present concern is Western Darfur, the area in Sudan where black Arabs have killed an estimated 50,000 black Africans in the past several months. The adjectives in the preceding sentence are not incorrect: Sudan is witness to the latest in the evolving episodes of murderous ethnic conflict among peoples who are visually indistinguishable from each other...

    Please read the entire article:

    http://www.africana.com/columns/cobb/ht20041011dafur.asp
     
  2. Emeka

    Emeka Banned MEMBER

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    Oh don't get it twisted Aqil; this IS a conflict between Blacks and Arabs. Don't believe the hype that just because the "Arabs" who are the ones doing the killing happen to be Black; that this is predominantly a Black-on-Black war. In order to understand fully what is going on over there in the Sudan you have to look at the historical ways White invaders of Africa have used against the Black inhabitants. Surely you're familiar with Whites equipping and fielding almost totally Black armies and unleashing them on other Blacks? The Arabs have been doing this for a thousand years. Rather than just coming in with their own armies; they go to one group of Africans and get them to form hostilities against their neighbors. Then they arm this group and unleash them against those neighbors. It is exactly the same technique that is being used by the Europeans in the DRC (Democratic Republic of Congo); in Sierra Leone; Ivory Coast; and other parts of Africa.

    This gives the impression that what is going on is really a conflict between Blacks and obstructs any attempts by the Blacks themselves to unite against their common enemy. The other problem in the Sudan is the increasing presence of mixed-race peoples (who have always been instrumental in the fall of Black civilizations). These guys are often times even worse than the Whites in their discrimination of Blacks. Just like the Coloreds in South Africa, Brazil, Jamaica and Haiti (even in the U.S), these mixed folks have always played the "buffer" role between Blacks and Whites. They expire to be like the Whites (who only half accept them) by hating the Blacks even more (who they blame for giving them their "Blackness"). On the African continent there are whole ethnic nations (tribes) who are comprised almost exclusively of mixed race people, such as the Fulani, the Tuareg, and the "red" Noba. These groups have historically been incredibly detrimental to Blacks.

    Of course the last of the Sudan’s problems is those Blacks who are willing to TOTALLY sell out their own people. These guys TRULY believe that they too are Arabs and will share in the victories of their white "brothers". They are the collaborators who willingly join in the enemies of their people for their own selfish interests. However, these Uncle Tom Judases are not unique to Blacks alone, but are common whenever a stronger group colonizes or oppresses weaker peoples. In Iraq, those "moderates" which you hear so much about on the media, are the code word for sell outs. During the European Holocaust, there were many Jews who helped the Nazi's destroy their own people. I bring this up to show that Blacks are not the only ones who were willing to cause destruction upon their own peoples at the instigation of foreigners.
     
  3. Aqil

    Aqil Well-Known Member MEMBER

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  4. Aqil

    Aqil Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Summit Rejects Meddling in Sudan

    Sudan's FM Ismail says Africa can assume all its responsibilities

    An African summit has concluded with a joint statement rejecting any foreign intervention in the crisis-torn Sudanese region of Darfur. The meeting in Libya on Sunday also voiced strong support for the Sudanese government, which is threatened with international sanctions over the situation.

    The five participants, including Sudanese President Umar al-Bashir, also urged rebel groups in Darfur to sign a humanitarian protocol, drawn up with Khartoum, at the next negotiating session scheduled for Thursday in Abuja, the meeting's joint communique said. The leaders of Libya, Sudan, Egypt, Nigeria and Chad also stressed their "rejection of all foreign intervention in this purely African question." The meeting also rejected any intervention in the interior affairs of Sudan, "which would only hinder the efforts to stabilize the country."

    Olu Adeniji, the foreign minister of Nigeria, which currently chairs the African Union, said the summit "favorably accepted the decision of the Sudanese government to sensibly increase the number of African Union troops in Darfur and appealed to all African nations to contribute to this force." He said talks were under way with the U.S. and the European Union to provide logistic and financial aid to the Pan-African force.

    Sudanese Foreign Minister Mustafa Ismail said he was happy with the results of the summit, adding that it "sent a message to the international community affirming that Africa can assume all its responsibilities and refuses all international intervention." Egyptian presidency spokesman Majid Abd al-Fattah echoed that the international community was being asked "to provide Sudan with assistance to allow it to fulfil its obligations under UN resolutions on Darfur, rather than putting pressure on it and issuing threats."

    The fighting in Darfur erupted in February last year when rebels from minority tribes took up arms to demand an equal share of national development. The rebellion prompted a bloody crackdown on the civilian population by regular troops and the Janjawid, spawning what the UN has described as the world's worst humanitarian disaster. The crisis has left about 50,000 people dead, according to the UN, and nearly 1.4 million more homeless, of whom 200,000 have sought refuge in Chad.

    One of the main rebel groups, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), told Al-jazeera that it had not been invited to participate in the summit. "If this summit will support the governmental stance, then it will not provide any solution" "Since the beginning, we have questioned whether this summit comes only to support the governmental stance refusing to fulfil its international commitments or to force this regime to fulfill its commitments approved by the UN Security Council and many other international organizations," said Ahmad Husain Adam, spokesman for the JEM. "If this summit will support the governmental stance, then it will not provide any solution." Adam said the Sudanese government did not want any international intervention or Security Council resolutions. "Then what is the alternative to protect civilians? What is the alternative presented within the framework of human aid?" he asked.

    Last month, the UN Security Council adopted a resolution threatening Sudan with oil sanctions if it failed to restore order in Darfur. The international community is insisting that Khartoum disarm the pro-governmental militias that are terrorizing the local population. The final summit statement said the foreign ministers of the five countries involved would meet regularly to discuss Darfur, with the first meeting to be held in Cairo.

    http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/5DA8D755-72EC-48DA-A655-B4041BA70065.htm
     
  5. Aqil

    Aqil Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Sudan Considers Federation at African Mini-Summit

    At a summit of five African state leaders in Libya, Sudanese President Omar Al-Bashir outlined plans to introduce a federal government system in Sudan in an effort to solve the crisis in Darfur. The leaders of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Nigeria hailed President Al-Bashir's initiative and said the crisis in Darfur is an "absolute African issue."

    President Al-Bashir told his African counterparts that federalism would now be considered in Sudan, with an aim to end the many armed conflicts that have ridden the large country for more than two decades. A federal Sudan would also improve power and wealth sharing mechanism in the vast country, the Sudanese leader said. Sudan's Foreign Minister, Mustafa Osman Ismail, further explained that a federal system would give Darfur and other regions "the right to elect their own Governor and parliament and take care of their internal affairs." A future Sudanese federation would mean far reaching autonomy for the country's provinces.

    A less-centralized state had already emerged from the almost completed peace negotiations between the Khartoum government and the SPLA rebels, controlling large parts of southern Sudan. The peace deal even foresees total autonomy for South Sudan, with the possibility of full independence after a referendum to be held in five years. This, however, has not been discussed as an option for Darfur.

    The announcement of Sudanese plans to look into a federal solution for the country came after strong pressure from the UN Security Council to stop the fighting and humanitarian crisis in Darfur. The Security Council even has threatened an embargo on Sudan's oil exports if Khartoum fails to end the fighting. This threat came after strong pressure from the governments of the U.S. and Germany. The five African Heads of State gathered in Tripoli, however, rejected Western interference in the Sudanese conflict. The leaders said the Darfuri crisis should be treated as an "absolute African issue," according to a statement issued after the summit.

    Sunday's summit in Tripoli had united Libyan leader Muammar Ghaddafi, Sudanese President Bashir, Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak, Chadian President Idriss Deby, Nigerian President and current African Union (AU) leader Olusegun Obasanjo and AU Commission leader Alpha Omar Konaré. The Heads of State and the AU leadership emphasized that Africa should lead the process of achieving peace in Darfur. While the united leaders rejected possible sanctions against the Khartoum regime, they nevertheless encouraged the government to adopt "measures to comply with the demands of the Security Council's resolutions."

    The African Union currently has a small group of military observers stationed in Darfur, but it is preparing for a larger peacekeeping operation. While the deployment of AU peacekeepers has been delayed for one week, the Rwandan government yesterday announced it was now ready to send between 600-800 fresh troops to protect AU peace observers in Darfur. By the end of the month a Nigerian battalion was to be deployed also in Darfur, President Obasanjo said before heading off to Tripoli on Friday. The AU expects its peacekeeping mission in Darfur to increase to about 3,500 troops within the next weeks. Sudan's three Darfur provinces total a size comparable to France...

    http://www.afrol.com/
     
  6. Keita Kenyatta

    Keita Kenyatta going above and beyond PREMIUM MEMBER

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  7. Aqil

    Aqil Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Here is a historical perspective:

    Man has lived in the Sudan for at least nine million years, and the valley of the Nile - which wanders more than 4,000 miles from the lakes of Central Africa to the Mediterranean - may well be the cradle of civilization rather than the Euphrates. About four centuries before Christ, the ox-driven water wheel, which still plays a vital role in the country's economy, was introduced to the Sudan. At the same time came camels, brought with them by the Persians when Cambyses invaded Egypt in 525 BC.

    Homer knew of the Sudan and his countrymen visited it to barter cloth, wine and trinkets for gum arabic, spices and slaves. Nero sent a reconnaissance expedition far up the river but the commander's experience with the "sudd" (Arabic for "obstruction"), a vast and impenetrable papyrus swamp in the southern Sudan, dissuaded the emperor from any thought of conquest. During the reign of Justinian, many Sudanese kingdoms were converted to Christianity, and churches dotted the sweep of the Nile until the spread of Islam in the 16th century.

    Modern Sudanese history owes much to Napoleon. It was the victory in 1797 at the battle of the Pyramids which shook the power of the Mamelukes, the Caucasian ruling class of Egypt, and paved the way for the rise to power of the Albenian soldier of fortune, Muhammad Mi. He sent his third son Ismail at the head of 10,000 men across the desert and, by 1821, all of north and central Sudan was his. For the first time, the Sudan - the name means, "Land of Blacks" - began to take shape as a political entity.

    Salvation was to come from the desert. Muhammad Ahmad, the son of a Dongola boat-builder, was born in 1844. He grew into a soft-spoken mystic and soon retired to Aba Island - 150 miles south of Khartoum - to live the life of a religious recluse, proclaiming himself in 1881 to be the Mahdi, the second great prophet. The tribes of the west rallied to the Mahdi's call for a war against the infidels and despots and, early in 1884, the Mahdi was master of all Sudan except Khartoum.

    Britain, who meanwhile had moved into Egypt, resolved that the Sudan could not be held, and sent General Charles Gordon to evacuate Khartoum. No man could have been more ill-fitted for the job, and after 317 days the Mahdi's dervish hordes overran the city's defenses and razed Khartoum. Five months after the fall of Khartoum, the Mahdi died of typhus; he was succeeded by Khalifa Abdallah. Hardly had he come to power when the Sudan was plunged in a series of civil wars. In September 1898 the Anglo-Egyptian force, led by General Herbert Kitchener, met the Khalifa's 60,000 warriors on an open plain outside Omdurman, the new Sudanese city built across the Nile. Khalifa's casualties comprised of 10,800 killed and 16,000 wounded, and Kitchener entered Omdurman as a conqueror.

    On January 19, 1899, Britain and Egypt signed a condominium agreement under which the Sudan was to be administered jointly. In the twelve ensuing years, the Sudan's revenue had increased seventeen-fold, its expenditures tripled, and its budget reached a balanced state which was to be maintained until 1960. Mounting Egyptian nationalism in the period after WW I culminated in 1924 in the assassination of Sir Lee Stack, Governor-General of the Sudan, in Cairo. British reaction resulted in the expulsion of all Egyptian officials from the Sudan.

    After the Anglo-Egyptian "entente" of 1936, a few Egyptians were allowed to return to the country in minor posts. But the signing of the 1936 agreement stimulated Sudanese nationalists who objected both to the return of the Egyptians and to the fact that other nations were deciding their destiny. Expression of this feeling was seen in the formation of the Graduates' Congress, under the leadership of Ismail al-Azhari...

    There is much more here:

    http://www.sudan.net/society/history.html
     
  8. Keita Kenyatta

    Keita Kenyatta going above and beyond PREMIUM MEMBER

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  9. NNQueen

    NNQueen going above and beyond PREMIUM MEMBER

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    I've read through this thread and am having difficulty in understanding it's purpose. What is the main point for raising this issue in Sudan?

    Queenie :spinstar:
     
  10. Aqil

    Aqil Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    I don't want to accuse you of thread corruption, my brother, but please be advised that the topic of this thread is, "Imperfect: The Roots of Darfur." Darfur is a region in western Sudan, bordering the Central African Republic and Chad...
     
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