Black Spirituality Religion : Origins Of African American Spirituality

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    osofoaddo New Member MEMBER

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    Origins Of African American Spiritualism
    Peter Eric Adotey Addo
    It was a very typical African afternoon, the sun was high, hot, and muggy. People
    were everywhere in the village square under the few coconut trees. As the drums began to
    beat, suddenly people could be seen running and hurrying to the square from every
    direction. There seemed to be an air of expectancy. Something was happening and once in
    a while there was a loud noise from the crowd. But this was no play. It was not even a
    political rally. No one seemed curious because everybody knew what was happening, for
    that moment it was a sensational happening of great importance. Now as one looked one
    could see a tall dark skinned man in the center of a human circle wearing only a white
    waist cloth covered with white clay. He also wore several talismans around his neck,
    ankles, and arms. Now he gyrates in circles and steps as if walking on fire. The drums
    beat and several women in white, who seem to be his assistants, begin to feel his
    movements as if he is in fact talking with them. These are the Okomfo, and one by one
    they stand up and raise their hands. The right hand is lifted and then stretched up and
    forward with the second and third fingers pointed to the dancer, who by this time is in a
    frenzy. He is the most revered priest of the Klote Lagoon the keeper of the oral traditions,
    the interpreter of the gods, who knows all things present and in the future. The people
    shout in fear, admiration, and respect. Now his eyes are focused on the crowd and his
    chest is wet and the drops of sweat shine on him like little stars at night. He begins to
    move towards the audience and now he displays his knowledge handed to him through the
    years. He takes a walk and as if he is a lion, and then a bull. The audience now in fear
    and anticipation moves back. The priest shouts and does several somersaults and waves
    his lion’s tail, the Awuja, to emphasize his power. He jumps high. The great fetish is now
    being possessed by the great Lagoon Spirit. Now he moves around and his eyes dilate, he
    now speaks in a tongue that no one understands. The Okomfo bring him a potion to drink
    in a special bowl and they dance around him, moving back and forth . Now the high priest
    is in full possession of the Spirit of the ancestors and he waves his lion’s tail, the Awuja,
    towards his audience. Now whoever he points to is automatically possessed and moves
    into the circle and dances without hesitation. This begins to take hold of the audience and
    soars like a wind through it. Some are dancing in a frenzy and tearing off their clothes.
    The women priests move in to make sure that no one is hurt. The possession of the spirit
    is no respecter of persons. It works and subdues any and all.
    The priest who is considered the great and only true mediator between men and
    the gods is also the mediator between the family and the ancestors, between the weak and
    the strong. He will pour libation for the possessed to help them maintain a proper
    connection with their dead ancestors. They will have to return later with food, goats, and
    other tokens of respect and hospitality and then perform the proper rituals as mandated
    by the Holy Priest who in his possession by the spirits has seen the destiny of the
    possessed who were overcome by the spirit. This is the ultimate spirituality; for in African
    traditional life spirituality is the foundation of one’s being. One’s destiny is bound up in it
    from the time one is born to the time one dies. And through this ritual of spiritualization
    the gods are able to transfer a sacred consciousness to the High Priest who can then share
    it with the people . Hence the priest in his state of spirituality is able to help to ensure
    that the people are in balance with the gods, the ancestors, and other living persons,
    families, and nature.
    The desecration of Africa in the past by the Western European powers seriously
    and adversely affected the traditional cultures of the indigenous African people and in
    consequence many traditional beliefs, social vaules, customs, and rituals were demeaned
    or disvalued as “pagan” or “superstitious.” True culture is the what and the how of a
    peoples’ creative survival, and the introduction of European Christianity separated the
    indigenous Africans from the ancient roots of their traditions and their identity.
    Traditional African religion is centered around the existence of one Supreme High
    God. However, the Europeans who spread Christianity in Africa never understood or
    properly appreciated the African’s own conception of the Great Creator. They saw no
    similiarity between the God they preached and the African’s own belief in the One
    Supreme God and creator who was , king, Omnipotent, Omniscient, the Great Judge,
    Compassionate, Holy and Invisible, Immortal and Transcendent. The traditional African
    belief is that the Great One brought the divinities into being. He, therefore is the maker
    and everything in heaven and on earth owe their origin to Him alone. He is the Great king
    above all Kings and can not be compared in majesty. He is above all majesties and
    divinities. He dwells everywhere. Thus He is omnipotent because He is able to do all
    things and nothing can be done nor created apart from Him. He is behind all achievements.
    He alone can speak and acomplish his words. Therefore there is no room for failure. He is
    Absolute, all wise Omniscient, all Seeing, and all Knowing. He knows all things and so no
    secrets are hid from Him. If there is rain it is God who wills it and if the fish do not run it
    is by His will. This Great Creator is the final Judge of all things, but he is able to be
    compassionate and merciful. He can look kindly and most mercifully on the suffering of
    man and is able to smooth the rough roads through his divine priests and the ancestors.
    But the God of the African Traditional Religion is also a Holy God both ritually and
    ethically. He is complete and absolute since He is never involved in any wrong or
    immorality. Traditionally Africans believe that the holiness blinds and can not be
    approached by mere mortals. He is a spirit and thus he is invisible.
    How is this God to be approached? He is to be approached directly and indirectly
    only through his chosen priests. Libations or prayers are the only supplications acceptable.
    And they are made by his chosen priests in traditional rituals and ceremonies. The priest
    becomes the keeper of the welfare of the people and subsequently is entrusted with the
    sacred rituals of worship. The African, therefore does not need to prove the existence of
    God to anyone. God is self existing and needs no proof. His existence is self-evident and
    even children know by instinct that the Great One exists. There is a proverb that says, “No
    one points out the Great One to a child.” This God then is given regular and direct
    worship at regular intervals and the calendar is kept by dedicated priests. However, there
    is continuous indirect worship on a daily basis through the divinities and ancestors at all
    times during the day by each family and individual. The ritual altars in the African villages
    are the indigenous peoples’ way of reaching out and praising the Great Creator. To the
    Africans they are the boundary between heaven and earth, between life and death,
    between the ordinary and the world of the spirit. The constant pouring of drink, food and
    sacrificial animal blood makes them sacred and no one would dare abuse them. Some
    altars are simple, especially the ones in homes, but some communities and villages have
    communal altars for the entire village as vehicles for channeling the positive forces from
    the Great one and the ancestors to the whole community.
    These are some of the components of the traditional beliefs that the Africans who
    were brought to the Americas as slaves brought with them . They arrived in this
    hemisphere with the cultural imprint of the traditions of their elders, and what they
    retained in fact or symbol is the very essence of contemporary black spirituality.
    Thus there are many common and latent traditions and cultural behaviors among
    contemporary African Americans that could be derived from the traditional African beliefs
    and religious systems. Religion today plays such an important part of the contemporary
    African America’s life that it would be hard to ignore the vestiges of African tribal life.
    Indeed today, in spite of the hurt and suffering, the denial of the existence of Black
    Americans, the denial of equality in all aspects of American life, the Black church is still
    the only viable social institution which is dominated, operated, and totally controlled by
    African Americans. It is a tribal instinct which has survived years of change and abuse.
    The Priest Leader and spokesperson is still the Black Preacher. The intense need to be
    free motivated African Americans to adapt their Christianity to the African way of life and
    the tradition continues today. The African traditional religious life has always considered
    all life to be the sphere of the Almighty, the powerful(the Otumfoo), the Omnipotent(Gye
    Nyame). He is wise, and all seeing and all knowing. He is the Great Spider (Ananse
    Kokroko), and the Ancient of Days (Odomankoma).
    In the private and public life of the African religious rites, beliefs, and rituals are
    conssidered an integral part of life. Life then is never complete unless it is seen always in
    its entirety. Religious beliefs are found in everyday life and no distinction is made between
    the sacred and the secular. The sacred and the secular are merged in the total persona of
    the individual African. Life is not divided into compartments or divisions. Thus there are
    no special times for worship, for everyday and every hour is worship time. There are no
    creeds written down because through the traditions of the Elders all creeds and functions
    are carried in the individual’s heart. Each individual by his very nature and life style is a
    living creed from the time one rises until one retires at night. An understanding of the
    basic nature of the African religious tradition surely illuminates the meaning of spirituality
    in the contemporary African American church.
    In the Black Church to be full of the Holy Spirit is being filled with such inspiration
    that one can feel as it were the breath of God. It gives one power to do the impossible. In
    contemporary language it enables some to “do great things for God,” to even love your
    neighbor though that neighbor may be your enemy or your oppressor. The Holy Spirit
    does not free one from harm. Evil may abound and burdens may be heavy, but the Holy
    Spirit enables the faithful to say of God: “Though He slay me; yet will I trust Him.”
    Like the biblical Diaspora, the people of the African Diaspora have deep
    wellsprings of spirituality for they too were taken by force, stripped of their dignity and
    had their identity blurred by centuries of abuse.. But in spite of this devastation they
    managed to persevere and to keep in tune with God, even in a foreign land. Like their
    African cousins, African Americans still have extended families, and they still break out in
    spontaneous song and joyful music. And they still drum, even in the church. Dancing goes
    with music as it always has in African culture, and colorful processionals mark the beauty
    of African American spiritual life. There is a pronounced and evident African residual in
    African American spirituality that gives it the uniqueness of “soul,” and there is a deft
    synthesis of the sacred and the secular in much African American music just as there is in
    Africa. Many African American songs reveal the same improvisations found in the music
    of Africa and also feature the same improvisations found in the African village
    But it is at the Sunday worship service that the perfect welding of God and man
    takes place in a formal and ritualized setting. There in the black churches African
    American spirituality achieves its most complete expression in a rich variety of forms.
    When the Great Spirit , by whatever name, moves among the worshippers some may cry
    out in release from the accumulated tribulations of the week gone by. Some may testify,
    bearing witness to the goodness and graciousness of God. Fervent prayer, joyous singing,
    powerful preaching and the rekindling of the bonds of love and fellowship bring God and
    humankind together in a festival of spiritual celebration. This is the African American
    Church at its best. This is African American spirituality transcending its origins in the
    regeneration of the faith that had its origins at Pentecost.