Black History Culture : NAME IT

Discussion in 'Black History - Culture - Panafricanism' started by Knowledge Seed, Mar 28, 2009.

  1. Knowledge Seed

    Knowledge Seed Well-Known Member MEMBER

    Joined:
    Feb 22, 2008
    Messages:
    2,747
    Likes Received:
    549
    Gender:
    Male
    Location:
    Atlanta, GA
    Ratings:
    +551
    Name at at least 5 West African civilizations. Try not to repeat the names of civilizations that have already been stated.
     
  2. LindaChavis

    LindaChavis Well-Known Member MEMBER

    Joined:
    Feb 11, 2007
    Messages:
    1,213
    Likes Received:
    144
    Occupation:
    Car Sales Consultant
    Location:
    Columbus, Ohio
    Ratings:
    +147
    5 In no Particular Order

    The Nok

    In 1928, archaeologists unearthed artifacts from an amazing culture that flourished from about 500BC to AD200. The archaeologists referred to the ancient culture as the Nok, the name of a modern Nigerian village where they made their discovery.

    The Nok artifacts included sculptures of animals and people made of terra cotta, or fired clay. The complex Nok sculptures were probably based on woodcarvings, but any wooden artifacts would have disintegrated long ago in the humid climate of West Africa. This leads archaeologists to believe that the Nok civilization may have been much older than even the oldest artifact.

    The Nok discovered that by heating certain rocks they were able to “smelt” iron. Iron is very malleable, so it can be reshaped to make weapons and plows. Most ancient cultures discovered copper and bronze before iron, but the Nok apparently moved directly from the Stone Age to the Iron Age.

    Songhai Empire

    Songhai, Empire, formerly in the western Sudan in Africa. It flourished in the 15th and 16th centuries in the area of the great bend in the Niger River, in present Niger and Mali. The capital was Gao, near the top of the bend, from ancient times a terminal of trans-Saharan caravan trade.

    When Emperor Askia Muhammad ruled, the empire stretched from the Atlantic coast to what is now central Nigeria. It included parts of what are now Burkina Faso, Gambia, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Senegal. Trade routes to and from Songhai made the empire the richest in West Africa.The Songhai people occupied Gao about 800 A.D. and became Muslims in the early 11th century. In the mid-1200's neighboring Mali expanded into an empire, with a prosperous trade in gold and salt. About 1325 Mali conquered Songhai. Fifty years later Songhai regained independence and in the 15th century conquered most of Mali, including Timbuktu, a center of trade and learning.

    On a pilgrimage to Mecca, 1495–97, Songhai Emperor Askia Muhammad was appointed caliph in the western Sudan. He and his successors further expanded the empire to the east. Songhai's wealth aroused the avarice of the sultan of Morocco. In 1591 he sent a force of musket-bearing mercenaries, who easily defeated the Songhai forces armed with spears and bows and arrows. The Songhai Empire then collapsed and was reduced to a small kingdom. In the 1890's it became part of the French colony of French West Africa.

    The Songhai people live today along the bend of the river in Mali and Niger.


    THE ASHANTI KINGDOM



    The Ashanti Kingdom in Ghana was founded in the seventeenth century by King Osei Tutu I. He was able to do this with the help of his Fetish Priest Okomfo Anokye. Tradition has also said that Okomfo Anokye conjured the famous Golden Stool from the sky and landed it on the lap of King Osei Tutu, the first King of the Ashantis. The Fetish Priest declared that the soul of the new nation resided in the stool and the people must preserve and respect it. The safety of this Great Stool which united the Ashanti Kingdom has however been fought for on certain occasions.

    Although located in the heart of the forest, the Ashanti Kingdom was extended by military and political skill towards the European rulers. In March 1900, a Governor in the then Gold Coast told the Ashantis to bring the stool for him to sit on. This demand was rejected and War broke out between the Ashantis and the British. The Supreme Commander in this war was a brave and intelligent Ashanti woman called Yaa Asantewaa the Great.

    She was born in 1863 at Ejisu, near Kumasi, in Ashanti and later became the Queen Mother of Ejisu. Brave and fearless as she was, she led the men of Ashanti or the “Ashanti Warriors” to fight the British when the Asantehene (Ashanti King), Nana Prempeh I and other important chiefs were captured and sent to the Seychelles island. She and her army fought well, but they were defeated by the British army. After the war, the British arrested Yaa Asantewaa and took her also to the Seychelles Island. She died there in 1923. She became the first woman commander of the Ashanti Kingdom.

    Most of these great Ashanti Kings returned to the country in the late 1920`s after their release by the British. Notable among them was Nana Sir Agyeman Prempeh II, who ruled from 1931 until his death in 1970. Otumfuo Opoku Ware II, a professional surveyor born into the royal Oyoko clan, succeeded him. He was loved by all his subjects and contributed immensely to the development of the Ashanti nation. He unfortunately died on 25th February 1999 after ruling for 29 years.

    The current Asantehene or Ashanti King is the son of the Asantehemaa or Queen Mother by the name Otumfuo Osei Tutu II. Known in Private life as Nana Kwaku Dua, he was trained in Britain and has a private company based in Kumasi, the Ashanti Capital. This Great Ashanti King is also referred among his people as “King Solomon” and was recently awarded doctorate degrees by two universities in the United States of America.

    The Ashanti Kingdom also expanded with trade. Many travelers all over the world visit this great nation at the very center of Ghana. Accompanied by the rich gold reserves, this kingdom also became famous for wonderful works of art especially in the field of Kente weaving.

    THE GOLDEN STOOL

    The famous Golden Stool for the People of Ashanti is their spiritual symbol. Covered with pure gold, it flew out from the sky in thick cloud of white dust and rested on the knees of Osei Tutu I who united the Ashanti Kingdom. This happened on a famous Friday at a gathering of chiefs from Ashanti and was made possible by an intelligent and powerful fetish priest, Okomfo Anokye.

    This Golden Stool is never allowed to touch the ground. When a new Ashanti King is enstolled, he is merely lowered and raised over it three times without touching it. Whenever the golden stool is taken out on special occasions, the Asantehene follows it.

    The Ashantis have never lost the Golden Stool and it serves as an enduring symbol of their culture. It has also helped to keep the Asante people as one people.

    Tradition also has it that, this stool contained the spirit of the Asante people. Just as a man could not live when his soul is departed, so the Asante people would disappear from history if ever the Golden stool were taken away from them.

    On the advice of the Fetish Priest Okomfo Anokye, Osei Tutu I also established the great annual festival called Akwasidae (or Odwira). On the occasion of this festival, all the Asante kings assemble at Kumasi and renew their allegiance to the Golden Stool and their loyalty to the Asantehene.

    Oyo
    The Oyo Empire was established by the Yoruba people in the 15th century and was one of the largest West African states. It succeeded Ile Ife as the dominant kingdom in the area after 1700. The nearby Benin kingdom was also an important kingdom.
    The city engaged extensively in trade and became wealthy. It was known for its powerful cavalry. The capital city was Oyo-Ile, also sometimes called Katunga or Old Oyo. The palace of the ruler (oba) was the most important building. The large market was the heart of the city. There was a tall wall made of earth around the city for defense.

    The Oyo traded with the Portuguese for guns and horses. Their cavalry and guns enabled them to dominate the region between 1700 and 1900. Civil war and divide and conquer strategies of the Europeans eventually brought about the decline of the Oyo.

    Mali
    The Madingo tribe of Africa formed the Mali Civilization in 1240 AD. After the Ghana civilization, the Mali civilization was established and naturally, Mali reflects much influence of Ghana in several aspects like politics, religion, economy and so on. The civilization spanned during the thirteenth century to fifteenth century. In this context the name of Sundiatia should be mentioned who is known as the founder of the Mali civilization. He was also popular by the name of “Lion King”.

    During the 14th century, Mali reached its glorious heights in terms of law, order, judicature and peace. There was also a great contribution of the Mali Empire behind the increasing popularity of Timbuktu as an important Islamic religious destination. Timbuktu became a central point on the trade roads. During the heights of glory of ancient Mali, Timbuktu was one of its greatest cities. The Mandigo tribe of Mali developed its agriculture and also made a mark in the field of trade and business. Its business partners were primarily the people of Sahara.

    Mansa Kankan Musa was one of the famous kings of Mali, who ruled in the 1326 AD. He played a crucial role in expanding the empire of Mali across the African continent. The commercial aspects of the civilization also became more active during his rule. In 1337, Mansa Kankan Musa died and the Mali Empire started declining. Mansa Kankan’s sons were unable to rule the huge Empire in the right direction. Gradually the Mali Empire crumbled into smaller states. At the same time, Songhai was growing as a very important business hub under within the Mali civilization. Gradually, the Songhai rulers such as Sunni Ali Ber, Askia Mohammed Toure and others succeeded in expanding the Songhai civilization across Mali.
     
  3. Amnat77

    Amnat77 Well-Known Member MEMBER

    Joined:
    Dec 11, 2006
    Messages:
    5,428
    Likes Received:
    2,620
    Occupation:
    professional.
    Location:
    UK..not for long
    Ratings:
    +2,622
    KONGO

    IGBO-UKWO

    EDO

    SOKOTO CALIPHATE

    CALABAR KINGDOM
     
  4. Knowledge Seed

    Knowledge Seed Well-Known Member MEMBER

    Joined:
    Feb 22, 2008
    Messages:
    2,747
    Likes Received:
    549
    Gender:
    Male
    Location:
    Atlanta, GA
    Ratings:
    +551
    Kingdom of Dahomey
    Kingdom of Ife
    Kingdom of Bamum
    Bambara Empire
     
  5. Astrologer4U

    Astrologer4U Well-Known Member MEMBER

    Joined:
    Oct 18, 2008
    Messages:
    3,298
    Likes Received:
    484
    Occupation:
    Self Employed
    Location:
    California
    Ratings:
    +486
    @post#2

    Thought this would be a great idea to give an example of
    Nok Culture/Civilization. I first heard of the "Neolithic Nok Culture" while taking an art class about 5 years ago, which is pretty recent considering. The Culture was more than advanced during it's time leading that Culture to be a Civilization.






    Astrologer4U
     
  6. Knowledge Seed

    Knowledge Seed Well-Known Member MEMBER

    Joined:
    Feb 22, 2008
    Messages:
    2,747
    Likes Received:
    549
    Gender:
    Male
    Location:
    Atlanta, GA
    Ratings:
    +551
    Kingdom of Kongo
    Mossi Empire
    Wolof Empire
    Kingdom of Kaabu
    Kingdom of Fouta Tooro
     
  7. Blackbird

    Blackbird Well-Known Member MEMBER

    Joined:
    Jan 31, 2004
    Messages:
    3,972
    Likes Received:
    1,819
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Professional Hitman
    Location:
    Da Desert, literally
    Ratings:
    +1,820
    Senegal

    1. Tekrur
    2. Cayor

    Mali
    1. Kaarta
    2. Segu
    3. Macina

    Ghana
    1. Denkyira
    2. Dagomba
    3. Gonja

    Togo
    1. Borgu
    2. Dendi

    Nigeria
    1. Jukun
    2. Nupe
    3. Bornu

    Niger
    1. Gobir
    2. Kanem

    Burkina Faso
    1. Yatenga

    Congo
    1. Lunda
    2. Luba

    Angola
    1. Chokwe
    2. Ndogo

    Here's brief list of some. Of course, the underlined are the present-day countries that many of these old African states were domiciled at. Good luck researching these fabulous places of our people.

    Blackbird
     
  8. Blackbird

    Blackbird Well-Known Member MEMBER

    Joined:
    Jan 31, 2004
    Messages:
    3,972
    Likes Received:
    1,819
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Professional Hitman
    Location:
    Da Desert, literally
    Ratings:
    +1,820
    Let me see.... hmmm.... Can I think of any others....

    1. Nri
    2. Allada
    3. Kangaba
    4. Loango
    5. Bono

    Wild Card:
    1. Waddai - in present Darfur, Sudan ... this was a Fur kingdom some say influenced by Kanem to its west. It was Islamic based like Kanem-Bornu and made use of a light cavalry.

    Blackbird
     
  9. Clyde C Coger Jr

    Clyde C Coger Jr going above and beyond PREMIUM MEMBER

    Country:
    United States
    Joined:
    Nov 17, 2006
    Messages:
    39,351
    Likes Received:
    10,417
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Speaker/Teacher/Author
    Location:
    Dallas, TX
    Home Page:
    Ratings:
    +12,071
    In the Spirit of Sankofa!





    Teach Black Man, teach and reach Seed.

     
  10. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

    Joined:
    Feb 28, 2009
    Messages:
    19,252
    Likes Received:
    5,505
    Gender:
    Female
    Ratings:
    +5,560
    Kanem was situated north east of Lake Chad. Its early origins are thought to lie in the 7th century with the settlement of the Zaghawa people. In the early 11th century, the Kanuri-speaking Sefawa dynasty was established, displacing the Zaghawa.


    Hausa speaking people have been occupying the same territory in north-west Nigeria since the 10th century. They founded a number of city-states (Biram, Daura, Katsina, Zaria, Kano, Rano, and Gobir), connected by loose alliances while the Songhai Empire replaced the Mali Empire in the west and the Kanem-Bornu Empire flourished in the east. They accepted Islam which was introduced from the Kanem-Bornu Empire in the 14th century but apparently the ruling class retained some ancient Animist beliefs. This provoked the revolt of the Fulani reformer, Usman dan Fodio whose Jihad overran the Hausa and neighbouring states to establish a new elite of Hausa speaking Fulanis who ruled until the 20th century.


    Tukulor empire

    Tukulor also spelled Tukolor, or Toucouleur,
    Muslim theocracy that flourished in the 19th century in western Africa from Senegal eastward to Timbuktu (Tombouctou).

    The founder of the empire, al-Hajj 'Umar (c. 1795–1864), was a Tukulor cleric of the austere Tijaniyah brotherhood who about 1848 moved with his followers to Dinguiraye (now in Guinea), on the borders of the Fouta Djallon region, to prepare to found a new state that would conform to the stringent moral requirements of his order. He thus set about training an elite corps in which religious, military, and commercial considerations were combined. Equipped with European firearms, this force was ready by about 1850 to embark on a jihad, or holy war, against his neighbours. It first came into conflict with the Bambara chiefdoms to the north, then two years later moved northward again across the upper Sénégal River to conquer the Bambara kingdom of Kaarta. Checked by the French in their westward return down the Sénégal River, the Tukulor quickly overran the Bambara kingdom of Segu (1861) and thereafter conquered Macina. They then extended their dominion as far north as Timbuktu (now in Mali).

    The Mandinka (also known as Mandingo or Malinke) are one of the largest ethnic groups in West Africa with an estimated population of fifteen million. They are the descendants of the Empire of Mali, which rose to power under the rule of the great Mandinka king Sundiata Keita. The Mandinka in turn belong to West Africa's largest ethno-linguistic group, the Mandé, who account for more than twenty million people (including the Dyula, Bozo and Bambara). Originally from Mali, the Mandinka gained their independence from previous empires in the thirteenth century, and founded an empire which stretched across West Africa.


    *I didn't include the Fulani and another one because I wasn't sure if they were specific "civilizations" or "kingdoms" or "empires."*
     
Loading...