Encourage the predominately pastoral/nomadic population to practice a more stationary and agricultural lifestyle. Encourage mass farming programs that train people in the most effective means of agriculture and irrigation. Nomadic life CONSUMES the land and wastes the environment depleting it not only of it's resources but even the mineral and vitamin content giving nothing back to it. After years of this, the occupants then move on to the next location to do the same. Pretty soon after thousands of years of doing this, the entire contient would be depleted. Besides being salted by the colonists..... I believe this is the reason why there is so much of the continent is suffering from famine and drought. Much of the land is just tired and used up, unable to yeild forth it's strength. The problem is most people don't want to be farmers and agriculturalists anymore. Especially the young. They don't want to get their hands dirty or get sweaty. They'd rather go to school to get a job in the West, or in one of the major cities of thier respective nations....while their vast open rural areas go to waste. This isn't unique to Africa, it was common in China and North Korea also until the communist governments FORCED their citizens to get out in the field and work the land.