Omowale Jabali : Mesopotamia, Germany and West Africa Theories

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  1. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Germany and West Africa theories
    Thus far the only people who have been attested with a high level of research to be the descendants of the ancient Mesopotamians are the Assyrian Christians of Iraq and its surrounding areas. Assyria continued to exist as a geo political entity until the Arab-Islamic conquest in the mid 7th century AD, and Assyrian identity, personal names and evolutions of Mesopotamian Aramaic (which still contain many Akkadian loan words) have survived among the Assyrian people from ancient times to this day. (see Assyrian people).
    However, there have been many claims of ancient mid eastern ancestry (including Assyrian) throughout Europe, Africa (Afrocentric) and even the Americas, none of which have been supported by mainstream opinion or strong evidence, let alone proof.
    The most long standing and popularised theory has been the attempts to link Assyrian ancestry to the ancient Germans. The Assyria-Germany connection has an early precedent in Jerome, who compared the Germanic invaders of his day to the threats to the Kingdom of Israel described in the Bible, quoting Psalms 83:8, "Assur also is joined with them":[30]
    The whole country between the Alps and the Pyrenees, between the Rhine and the Ocean, has been laid waste by hordes of Quadi, Vandals, Sarmatians, Alans, Gepids, Herules, Saxons, Burgundians, Allemanni and—alas! for the commonweal!—even Pannonians. For "Assur also is joined with them."
    The idea has also some backing in German legend, for example the Gesta Treverorum (a 12th century German medieval chronicle) makes Trebeta son of Ninus the founder of Trier.[31] This legend of Trebeta as having founded Trier is also found in Godfrey of Viterbo's Pantheon (1185) and several other German chronicles of the 12th or 13th century, including the works of Sigebert of Gembloux.[32] The legend is also found cited in compendiums of historical sources from later periods, for example Gottfried Leibniz's Scriptures rerum Brunsvicensium (1710) and the Anthologia veterum latinorum epigrammatum et poematum (1835).[33]
    Like with the West Africa theory, this idea does not have the backing of serious historians, nor contemporary written records of the time in the Near East. There have been no studies or records which show such a link, and it must be pointed out that Ninus and Trebeta were fictional figures, and not historically attested. In addition, there are no traces of Akkadian or Mesopotamian Aramaic in any Germanic Language.
    According to a single piece recent research, refugees from the collapsed Assyrian Empire claim to have reached the region of Lake Chad and founded the kingdoms of Kanem and Kebbi. Though these refugees claimed the ancestry of Sargon of Akkad, they also contrdictionally claimed ancestry from the Nabopolassar, a Babylonian king of Chaldean extraction who played a major part in the destruction of the Assyrian Empire. From the Medieval Arabic king lists of both African states, allegedly copied from earlier lists in ancient Near Eastern languages it appears that the state founders claimed to be deportees of the Assyrian empire who had fled from Syria and Samaria after the defeat of the Egyptian-Assyrian army at Carchemish in 605 BCE.[34]
    A counterpoint to this argument would be that neither Samaria nor Syria where these refugees were claimed to have originated from were actually part of Assyria, but were colonies inhabited largely by Hebrews, Nabateans and Arameans respectively. In addition, there is no evidence whatsoever in Assyrian, Babylonian, Median, Persian, Greek or Egyptian records of the time mentioning deportations of Assyrians from their homelands[35] Additionally, the claimants to this ancestry also claim decendancy from Sargon of Akkad (whose dynasty died out over 1500 years before the Assyrian dynasty fell), and from Nabopolassar, who was a Chaldean opposed to Assyria, and not in fact an Assyrian. It must also be pointed out that this theory has not received any support at all from the vast majority of historians or Assyriologists.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assyria
     
  2. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    The Kanem Empire (ca. 600 BCE - 1380 CE) was located in the present countries of Chad, Nigeria and Libya.[1] At its height it encompassed an area covering not only much of Chad, but also parts of southern Libya (Fezzan), eastern Niger and north-eastern Nigeria. The history of the Empire is mainly known from the Royal Chronicle or Dīwān discovered in 1851 by the German traveller Heinrich Barth.[2]

    There are two views concerning the foundation of Kanem. The majority view based on previous scholarship is that the state was founded by local Zaghawa. According to recent research by historian Dierk Lange, the Kanem state was founded by immigrants from the Near East, however, due to its novelty this view is not yet widely accepted.

    The information contained in the prologue and the first section of the Girgam provides evidence for the founding of Kanem by refugees from the collapsing Assyrian Empire: the names of biblical patriarchs point to Israelites, the names of ancient Mesopotamian kings indicate Babylonian contributions and the names of the last Assyrian kings bear witness of immigration in consequence of the fall of Assyria.[3] The royal titles offered by the Girgam and the origin-chronicles support the idea of mass immigration of various people formerly dominated by the Assyrians in consequence of the destruction of the Assyrian Empire by the invading Babylonian and Median armies in 612 BCE. The theory is further strengthened by linguistic and archeological evidence.[4] Writing in the ninth century, the celebrated Arab historian al-Ya'qubi seems to refer to this migration on the basis of Central Sudanic oral traditions when he describes the dispersion of people from Babylon which led to the foundation of Kanem and other states in West Africa.[5] Another theory proposes that the lost state of Agisymba (mentioned by Ptolemy in the middle of the 2nd century CE) was the antecedent of the Kanem Empire.[6]

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanem_Empire
     

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  3. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Agisymba is a lost sub-saharan country in Africa mentioned by Ptolemy in the middle of the 2nd Century. According to Ptolemy's specification it was a 4 months journey south of the Fezzan, contained large animals and many high mountains.
    Between the years 83 and 92, the king of the Garamantes claimed that the Agisymba population were his subjects.
    Ptolemy's account is based on that written by Marinus of Tyre between 107 and 115.
    Modern historians cannot decide whether Agisymba lies in Tibesti, or the Lake Chad area or elsewhere. It is in the Chad area that there are many high mountains.
    One theory is that Agisymba was an antecedent of the Kanem Empire on the northern shore of Lake Chad. [1] Other theories suggest a link with the current country of Zimbabwe with its "Zimbabwe ruins".[2][3]
    References

    1. ^ "The Mune as the Ark of the Covenant between Duguwa and Sefuwa (in ancient Kanem)" Borno Museum Society Newsletter 66-67 (2006), 15-25. (The article has a map (page 6) of the ancient Central Sahara and proposes to identify Agisymba of 100 CE with the early Kanem state).
    2. ^ http://www.dlmcn.com/anczimb.html
    3. ^ http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=print_topic;f=8;t=006597
    • Desanges, Jehan,Recherches sur l'activité des méditerranéens aux confins de l'Afrique, Rome 1978 (here: p. 197-213).
    • Huss, Werner: "Agisymba",NewPauly, vol I, Stuttgart 1996 (Sp 260).
    • Lange, Dierk,Ancient Kingdoms of West Africa, Dettelbach 2004 (here: pp 280-4).
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agisymba
     
  4. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    The Mune Symbol as the Ark of the Covenant between Duguwa and Sefuwa in ancient Kanem.
     

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  5. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Race, Epistemology, and Historiography


    Westerners have a tendency to view interaction among the world's various peoples as a marker of the modern age. This implies that interaction across the globe is a modern phenomenon given primarily to Westerners. Inherent in this tendency is the inability of non-Westerners and those also deemed un-modern to participate in this interaction. 1
    Even when this interaction occurs within modern time and space, most of us have little critical regard for what we view. For instance, what are the levels of African and Asian interaction in the "New World"? How is this interaction interpreted? What are its nuances and implications? What should we make of an eighteenth-century Mexican slave from "Bengal" who sues for his freedom and that of his wife, "una creola negra"? Or how is Alberto Fujimori understood in a Peru once mined by African slaves? 2
    The exigencies of modern racial construction have erected paradigms that are accepted globally and that militate against critical examination of African and Asian interaction. In that regard, modern racialized hierarchies preclude Africans and Asians, as well as other interested parties, from making such inquiries. If this is true of modern analysis and the histories that it spawns, the issue of the histories that precede the modern era written by those of us who consider ourselves "Western" or modern—even postmodern—appear to be more problematic. 3
    This is particularly true in the examination of Africans and people of African descent. The vision imposed on Africans is temporally and geographically fixed: movement to the western hemisphere in the wake of the Columbian voyages. The vehicle, and therefore, the sociopolitical economic icon of this experience is the slave ship. It is here that the histories of Africa, Africans, and peoples of African descent are "known."
    http://www.historycooperative.org/c...ycooperative.org/journals/jwh/16.1/keita.html
     
  6. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Working Papers in African Studies: The Founding of Kanem by Assyrian Refugees c. 600 BCE.
     

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  7. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Biblical Patriarchs mentioned in the Diwan
     

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  8. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    The Prologue of the Diwan
     

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  9. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    In reference to the Diwan and the Girgam:



    "The Dīwān was discovered in 1851 by the German traveller Heinrich Barth in Kukawa, the nineteenth century capital of Bornu.[1] Its "local" name girgam appears to be derived from the Sumero-Akkadian term girginakku ("library, box for written tablets"). Hence its Arabic translation dīwān ("register, collection of written leaves"). [2] It begins with an original list of all the Biblical patriarchs (except one) before Abraham, and it places Sef and Dugu before and after Abraham. The thirteenth century identification of Sef with the pre-Islamic Yemeni hero Sayf ibn Dhī Yazan represents a conscious effort to bring the history of Kanem-Bornu in line with pre-Islamic Arab history. According to Dierk Lange's research, the form of some of the Patriarchal names can be shown to be authentic and not derived from Arabic sources, and consequently it must be supposed that there existed a local line of transmission of valid biblical information.[3]"

    The following is concerning "Dugu".

    The Dugu is an ancient extended funerary ceremony practiced by the Garifuna people. The Garifuna is a small-to-medium sized Central American ethnic group that has inhabited many Central American countries such as Belize and Honduras since the 17th century.[1] Their roots come from both the Caribbean and African coasts. The story goes that slaves being brought over to the Americas crashed into St. Vincent. The indigenous Caribbean Indians and Africans soon formed a community and ethnic group called the Garifuna. They were identified as the "Black Caribs" to differentiate them from the native Caribbean population.
    The Dugu is a type of funeral ceremony that brings the community and families together. It is a festival that aims to bring deceased ancestors of the Garifuna to the present[2] and lasts between two days to as much as two weeks. The ceremony seeks to cure ill persons that have become sick because they have displeased the gubida (spirits).[3] Families and friends gather around drums and sing, calling the gubida to the ceremony. This ceremony is headed by the Buyai (shaman).[4] The Buyai is responsible for organizing and ordering all parts of the ceremony including food, clothes worn, sacrifices, and its length.[5] Once the Buyai believes the spirits of the ancestors are present, the sick person is given food and rum. The rest of the food and alcohol is sacrificed and the person is predicted to be cured.[6]

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dugu

    Funeral Ceremonies of the Garifuna begin after the gathering of family and friends at nightfall. Women, children and men participate in their respective roles throughout the night until early morning. The men create a sacred space by making tent like roofs out of their canoe sails and afterwards, they play card games, tell traditional tales such as Ananse and enjoy song and dance. Along with the traditional dances, like the Punta and circle dances, the younger children play many games. Throughout, food is served to family and close friends as well as beverages made of rum and local roots. Outside of the immediate area the older women gather around the coffin and begin their nightlong vigil of prayer. Everyone stays till dawn because it is said that, "Anyone leaving before that time may excite the wrath of the dead and be exposed to his revenge"(Coelho pg. 174). In accordance with the Garifuna's incredible ability to adapt to the surroundings, they have incorporated Catholicism into the rite. On the morning after the wake, the body is carried to a church where customary masses and rites are preformed. The body is then buried according to Catholic rite.
    The Garifuna observe a Nine-Night Wake in which the wake procedures are repeated for nine days following the death. It begins on a day so that the ninth night falls on a Saturday. This is considered the family's final farewell to the spiritual double or ahari of the dead who is believed to remain in the house after the burial. It is only now that her/his trip to the other world begins. Candles are lit, prayers are repeated and, especially regarding the Black Caribs, the wishes of the ahari are carefully attended. The favorite things of the spirit and fresh water are placed allover the altar to further satisfy the wishes.About six months later a further process of helping the ahari to its ascendancy is preformed. The immediate family does Amuiedahani or the bathing of the soul, usually the spouse and children, because the spirit has become weary and is in need of refreshment and strength to continue. The males dig a pit in the deceased's bedroom and water for the bath is prepared from herbs and leaves into which small half-baked cassava bread is dissolved. It is a short ceremony that begins with religious songs. The eldest member fills a gourd with the water and throws it into the pit saying, "Here this is for your bath"(Coelho pg. 177). Everyone then follows according to age.
    http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/afburns/afrotrop/Dugu.htm
     
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