PLACE AND PERSONAL NAMES IN ANCIENT TIMES By Andre Austin In my quest to expand my understanding of Lukewarm I looked up the origin of Luke which is Greek for Loukas. Step 1 What does Loukas mean? Loukas [loukas] as a boys' name is of Greek origin, and the meaning of Loukas is "from Lucania". Lucania was the ancient name of an area of Italy now known as Basilicata. This name is the source form of Luke and Lucas. See also Lucian. (http://www.thinkbabynames.com/meaning/1/Loukas) Step 2. I looked up Lucania in Wikipedia and this popped up: Lucania (Greek: Λευκανία Leukanía) was an ancient area of southern Italy Etymology There are several hypotheses on the origin of the name Lucania, inhabited by Lucani, an Osco-Samnite population from Italy. Lucania might be derived from Greek λευκός, Leukos meaning "white", cognate of Latin lux ("light"). According to another hypothesis, Lucania might be derived from Latin word lucus meaning "sacred wood" (cognate of lucere), or from Greek λύκος, lykos meaning "wolf". (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucania). I took a liken to the first hypotheses of Loukas relating to Leukos because I thought that the way Lukewarm was being used was a pun for Leukomas, an eye disorder for seeing white clouds. After all the Lukewarm church was spiritual blind in need of salve for their eyes. This was ironic because the city where they lived Laodicea was famous for its medical school and eye-care treatment. By luck I was flipping through the index of Homer’s ILLIAD 4:490-500 at the same time I was reading Wikipedia explanation of Loukas/Lucania and bumped into a male character called Leukos. More luck arrived when I discovered a female Luke (Leucothea), in the Odyssey 5:333-413. First note Bible scholars like Dennis Macdonald have cite themes in the NT Acts, luke and mark for incorporating themes from Homer. I was very pleased with my findings because: 1. Male Luke (Leukos) is killed and Odysseus takes revenge by having a mist of darkness clouding both Antiphos eyes. 2. Female Luke (Leucothea) is white water waves who takes pity on the suffering of wandering Odysseus. Odysseus is healed of his misery when he felt with land and trees in sight. Somehow or another all the cognate words that’s related to Luke are also associated with vision. This couldn’t be a coincidence. Wikipedia also cited a book for extra information. With me being super curious I took out an interlibrary-loan of this 1897 book The Italic Dialects p.11-21 by Robert Seymour Conway and found some interesting information about the ancient city of Lucania has same place-names of Leucosia (Leucothea) which is mentioned in the Odyssey. I wish I knew what they named Leucothea after. The people there spoke Latin and Greek. Their personal names that started with L, and I don’t mentioned them all, were: Luxillia Lucia Licinia Luccia Lucretia When Jesus cured a man that was blind it was a two-step process of spiting in his eyes, then he saw men like tree’s then he rubbed his hands on him with mud (land) (Mark 8:22-26; john 9:1-11). This sounds similar to Homer being cured of his misery when he saw tree’s. But when Tefnut cured Ra’s eyes it was a two-step process by first lifting the eye out of water then removing the white cloud called a “Bush” (shrubs of small wood and branches) from his eye. This sounds similar to the warning against judging peoples speck of sawdust in their eyes when you have a big *** log in yours (Matthew 7:1-5). Lukewarm is talked about being a balanced between Hot & Cold. Aristotle reported that Health was a balance between Hot & Cold. Pliny the elder reported that good eyesight was protected from the Hot & Cold. Notes: For Lucus meaning sacred wood is also possible. Dr. Richard Carrier linked Jesus spit that can open up eyes and ears (Mark 7:33-35 and Mark 8:22-26) might be related to Moses turning bitter water into good water by a sacred piece of wood. This episode is talked about in conjunction with good hearing & sight (Exodus 15:22-26). Now note Lukewarm is linked with the Latin word Tepida or Tepidus and it means warm. In English we take Tepida and turn it into Tepid meaning warm, lukewarm, lacking passion, zest. Water being Tepid would be bitter in taste and possibly smell a condition with the Ladociea water situation. But we are talking about Lukewarm as a deed not a literal drinking water. The first time I came across Lukewarm being mentioned before it was once said in the book of Revelation was in Quintus Curtius Rufus History of Alexander. Im in serious need of assistance to anybody who can read Roman or Latin to translate one sentence for me. I’ve read an English translation of Book 4 chapter 7:22 of Quintus Curtis Rufus’s History of Alexander. Rufus states: 22 Est et aliud Hammonis nemus: in medio habet fontem — Solis aquam vocant. Sub lucis ortum tepida manat, medio die, cuius vehementissimus est calor, frigida eadem fluit, inclinato in vesperam calescit, media nocte fervida exaestuat, quoque nox propius vergit ad lucem, multum ex nocturno calore decrescit, donec sub ipsum diei ortum adsueto tepore languescat Translation:“There is also a second wood of Ammon with a fountain called ‘the water of the sun’ at its centre. At sunrise it runs Lukewarm, and yet at midday, despite the inordinate heat, it is cold, warming up towards evening and growing boiling hot at midnight. Then, as dawn approaches, it loses much of its nocturnal heat until daybreak it drops back to its original Lukewarm temperature” (History of Alexander Book 4 chapter 7:22). When I went to another translation the second use of Lukewarm was average temperature. Then when I went to an online translation from latin to English Lukewarm didn’t pop up for individual words. Then I typed in group of words of about six and nothing. Only when I typed in the entire passage does lukewarm appear. The words for warm in Latin were tepida (warm), calor (heat) calescit (warm). Curtis isn’t using the word Lukewarm. In the book 1984 they talk about how the government goes back and start re-writing books and changing definitions. I’m trying to discover if he’s translating the word Lukewarm from Curtis or is this his modern flavor he’s putting on it. The bible used the word Lukewarm only once and would like to know if it was used prior to the book of Revelations being written. Another historian Tacitus claims Curtis could have used the Library in Alexandria to do his writing between 41-54AD (Tacitus Annals Book 11:21). Please read the original script in verse 22 and inform me if the word Lukewarm appears. Luke in Greek was Loukas in which I believe was used as a pun for Leukomas in Rev chapter 3. History of Alexander by Quintus Curtis Rufus http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/L/Roman/Texts/Curtius/4*.html or https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015008158415;view=1up;seq=273 Types of place-names There are several clearly definable types of place name, the primary division being between the names of natural features and the names of human settlements. That the latter are 'places' is obvious. The case is slightly more ambiguous for natural features, depending on how exactly 'place' is defined, and what exactly the concept of a 'place' is used for. If, as is probable, natural features were originally given names to distinguish nearby hills, streams etc. from each other, then these features can be thought of as places, in that they represent distinct geographic locations. However, as names are applied on a larger scale, they may become less useful as place names. For instance, a relatively small, distinct upland valley (e.g. Swaledale) clearly represents a definable geographic location. However, the broad, extended valley of a major river, such as the Trent, is not easily understood as a single location. That notwithstanding, it is probable that the origins of the names of both settlements and natural features is the same, namely to distinguish one from another; and thus that both should be considered place names. Many other types of place name can be defined, for example those relating to tribal or personal names. Previously names relating to pagan religion were extensively studied as these were thought to be early. Another class studied was those relating to particular people” (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Place_name_origins).