Black People : LAND OWNERSHIP MADE BLACKS TARGETS FOR MURDER....

Discussion in 'Black People Open Forum' started by Isaiah, Jun 28, 2005.

  1. Isaiah

    Isaiah Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    For the Indya's of the world, who think Blacks aren't owed reparations...


    Landownership Made Blacks
    Targets of Violence and Murder

    By DOLORES BARCLAY
    TODD LEWAN and
    ALLEN G. BREED
    Associated Press Writers


    As a little girl, Doria Dee Johnson often asked about the man in the portrait hanging in an aunt's living room - her great-great-grandfather. ''It's too painful,'' her elderly relatives would say, and they would look away.
    A few years ago, Johnson, now 40, went to look for answers in the rural town of Abbeville, S.C.

    She learned that in his day, the man in the portrait, Anthony P. Crawford, was one of the most prosperous farmers in Abbeville County. That is, until Oct. 21, 1916 - the day the 51-year-old farmer hauled a wagon-load of cotton to town.

    Crawford ''seems to have been the type of negro who is most offensive to certain elements of the white people,'' Mrs. J.B. Holman would say a few days later in a letter published by The Abbeville Press and Banner. ''He was getting rich, for a negro, and he was insolent along with it.''

    Crawford's prosperity had made him a target.

    Closer look at the Crawford case

    The success of blacks such as Crawford threatened the reign of white supremacy, said Stewart E. Tolnay, a sociologist at the University of Washington and co-author of a book on lynchings. ''There were obvious limitations, or ceilings, that blacks weren't supposed to go beyond.''
    In the decades between the Civil War and the civil rights era, one of those limitations was owning land, historians say.

    Racial violence in America is a familiar story, but the importance of land as a motive for lynchings and white mob attacks on blacks has been widely overlooked. And the resulting land losses suffered by black families such as the Crawfords have gone largely unreported.
    The Associated Press documented 57 violent land takings - more than half of the 107 land takings found in an 18-month investigation of black land loss in America. The other cases involved trickery and legal manipulations.

    Sometimes, black landowners were attacked by whites who just wanted to drive them from their property. In other cases, the attackers wanted the land for themselves.

    For many decades, successful blacks ''lived with a gnawing fear ... that white neighbors could at any time do something violent and take everything from them,'' said Loren Schweninger, a University of North Carolina expert on black landownership.

    While waiting his turn at the gin that fall day in 1916, Crawford entered the mercantile store of W.D. Barksdale. Contemporary newspaper accounts and the papers of then-Gov. Richard Manning detail what followed:

    Barksdale offered Crawford 85 cents a pound for his cottonseed. Crawford replied that he had a better offer. Barksdale called him a liar; Crawford called the storekeeper a cheat. Three clerks grabbed ax handles, and Crawford backed into the street, where the sheriff appeared and arrested Crawford - for cursing a white man.

    Released on bail, Crawford was cornered by about 50 whites who beat and knifed him. The sheriff carried him back to jail. A few hours later, a deputy gave the mob the keys to Crawford's cell.
    Sundown found them at a baseball field at the edge of town. There, they hanged Crawford from a solitary Southern pine.

    No one was ever tried for the killing. In its aftermath, hundreds of blacks, including some of the Crawfords, fled Abbeville.

    Two whites were appointed executors of Crawford's estate, which included 427 acres of prime cotton land. One was Andrew J. Ferguson, cousin of two of the mob's ringleaders, the Press and Banner reported.

    Crawford's children inherited the farm, but Ferguson liquidated much of the rest of Crawford's property including his cotton, which went to Barksdale. Ferguson kept $5,438 - more than half the proceeds - and gave Crawford's children just $200 each, estate papers show.

    Crawford's family struggled to hold the farm together but eventually lost it when they couldn't pay off a $2,000 balance on a bank loan. Although the farm was assessed at $20,000 at the time, a white man paid $504 for it at the foreclosure auction, according to land records.
    ''There's land taken away and there's murder,'' said Johnson, of Alexandria, Va. ''But the biggest crime was that our family was split up by this. My family got scattered into the night.''

    The former Crawford land provided timber to several owners before International Paper Corp. acquired it last year. Jenny Boardman, a company spokeswoman, said International Paper was unaware of the land's history. When told about it, she said: ''The Crawford story is tragic. It causes you to think that there are facets of our history that need to be discussed and addressed.''
    Other current owners of property involved in violent land takings also said they knew little about the history of their land, and most were disturbed when informed about it.

    The Tuskegee Institute and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People have documented more than 3,000 lynchings between 1865 and 1965, and believe there were more. Many of those lynched were property owners, said Ray Winbush, director of Fisk University's Race Relations Institute.

    ''If you are looking for stolen black land,'' he said, ''just follow the lynching trail.''

    Some white officials condoned the violence; a few added threats of their own.

    ''If it is necessary, every Negro in the state will be lynched,'' James K. Vardaman declared while governor of Mississippi (1904-1908). ''It will be done to maintain white supremacy.''

    In some places, the AP found, single families were targeted. Elsewhere, entire black communities were destroyed.

    Today, Birmingham, Ky., lies under a floodway created in the 1940s. But at the start of the 20th century, it was a tobacco center with a predominantly black population, and a battleground in a five-year siege by white marauders called Night Riders.

    On the night of March 8, 1908, about 100 armed whites tore through town on horseback, shooting seven blacks, three of them fatally. The AP documented the cases of 14 black landowners who were driven from Birmingham. Together, they lost more than 60 acres of farmland and 21 city lots to whites - many at sheriff's sales, all for low prices.


    http://www.mamiwata.com/murder.html
     
  2. PoeticManifesta

    PoeticManifesta Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    iTS TRUE.. THEY BURNT MY GREAT GRANDFATHERS BARN... TO STIFEL THE PRODUCION OF HIS POTATO DISTRIBUTION.. A COMPANY OUR FAMILY INHERITED FROM A WHITE PROSPEROUS FARMER.. THAT MY G'GRANDMOTHER TENDED TO.. THEY WERE MAD WHEN THEY GAVE THE NI**ERS THE LAND AND THE BUSINESS.. EVEN THOUGHT THEY RAN IT ANYWAYS.. BUT LUCKILY THE BARRELS HAD ALREADY WENT OUT.. AND THEY WERE ABLE TO SAVE THE TRACTOR. sO THEY OVERCAME.... THAT WAS 1958.. TOANO, VA. sO WE INHERITED OUR 40 ACERS ANDE A MULE.. LITERALLY!
     
  3. panafrica

    panafrica Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Of course it is true, and if you notice, these events happened after slavery (long after slavery). The terrorist activities committed against blacks by white supremacist in the roughly 100 year span after slavery ended (1865-1970) is conveniently looked over by those arguing against reperations. Every black person who had family in America during this time has stories about them. Many of the people who suffered are still living. Dismissive attitudes often overlook significant facts!
     
  4. Isaiah

    Isaiah Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Brother Pan, no doubt that when we look at all of artifices, schemes, and scandalous ways used to deprive African Americans of our humanity, we will find, as you said, that every African family in America was touched in some way... Indya, the Black NeoCons, and their White backers, either are unaware, or blatantly overlook these facts...

    It is our job, then, as always, to do the homework, and spank them good with the facts, the evidence of why we would make the just claim for reparations... It is not just about no slavery, but all that has been brutally taken from us as a people... And just as there are white folks with inheritances from Slavery, we too demand our inheritance, simple and plain...

    Peace!
    Isaiah
     
  5. Isaiah

    Isaiah Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Brother Pan, no doubt that when we look at all of the artifices, schemes, and scandalous plans used to deprive African Americans of our humanity, we will find, as you said, that every African family in America was touched in some way... Indya, the Black NeoCons, and their White backers, either are unaware, or blatantly overlook these facts...

    It is our job, then, as always, to do the homework, and spank them good with the facts, the evidence of why we would make the just claim for reparations... It is not just about no slavery, but all that has been brutally taken from us as a people... And just as there are white folks with inheritances from Slavery, we too demand our inheritance, simple and plain...

    Peace!
    Isaiah
     
  6. indya

    indya Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    I'm not even in on this conversation, so kindly leave my name out of your argument. I don't appreciate you sneaking around different threads and talking about me.

    NO, I don't agree with reparations and I've stated my reasons. You don't agree with me fine.
     
  7. Isaiah

    Isaiah Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Sister, I don't "sneak" and do nothing... I spank your behind from in back and in front, because it turns me on - no pun intended(smile!) I love it when you back down, and submit to your whipping by begging for mercy, too(Haaaaaa!) How do ya handle a heretic NeoCon Negrow???? Like Dis!(hahahahaha!)

    Peace!
    Isaiah
     
  8. indya

    indya Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    :puke2: Ewwwwwwwww, don't ever want to do anything that'll turn you on.

    From now on when you'r trying to make a point, just make sure I know your making it :nono: Otherwise my names haning around out there with no one defending it.

    By the way I'm not a neocon, I've always been a republican and conservative, a neocon is a new conservative and that doesn't describe me. Thank you very much!!! :tongue3:
     
  9. Isaiah

    Isaiah Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    You weasling little wishy washy human being, the only thing that turns me on about you is putting you across my lap and spanking the hell outta you - figuratively, that is... I cannot stand cowards by whatever name they call themselves, Ms. republican phony conservative... And you prove yourself a coward by not standing up for to the little challenge I presented you...

    Beleive me, I've no reason to harass you... I just want others to see you for the little weasly, wishy-washy vacillator you are... I consider this matter with you officially closed...or until I think you need another good spanking...

    Peace!
    Isaiah
     
  10. panafrica

    panafrica Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Brother Isaiah to be fair, this is an unneccessary assault on Indya. I don't agree with her political views (most people on this website don't). However she is entitled to her beliefs (no matter how misguided we believe them to be). In addition, she is not the only one to feel the way she feels, therefore you shouldn't make her the face of neoconservatism. You also should not call her out of her name, which is a rule violation (#1 respect). Indya makes her statements without insulting anyone. It is possible to shoot holes in her theories, without shooting holes in her person. That is an example we are trying to set. We are a civilized people....we can disagree without being disagreeable! I think you owe her an apology.
     
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