Black History Culture : Kerma: The Land of Makeda

Discussion in 'Black History - Culture - Panafricanism' started by Omowale Jabali, Jul 25, 2010.

  1. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    History
    Around 7500 BCE: Settlement with a cemetery here, one of the two oldest in Africa.
    Around 2500: The emergence of a civilization here.
    19th century: Egyptian advances southwards lead to the establishment of a firm border at Semna. People of Kerma were not permitted to continue northbouth beyond this point.
    17th century: Apparent height of the Kerma culture, with the building of the deffuffas. Also, this was a period of advances into Egyptian territory, but this primarily reflects the temporary weakness of Egypt, which had been invaded by the Hyksos.
    15th century: Egyptian king, Tuthmosis 1, captures Kerma and destroys the Cu****e state.
    1913-15 CE: Excavations at Kerma.

    http://i-cias.com/e.o/kerma.htm

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Kerma
     
  2. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Historical names of Nubia

    Ancient Egyptians called the land down south from the first cataract of the Nile River Tanehsu. In Tanehsu, they called the land between the first and second cataracts, Wawat. That region was very rich in gold. Egyptians exploited it for almost three millennia. Napatans and Ptolemy II of Egypt exploited it as well. During the Old Kingdom, the Egyptians called the land between the second and third cataracts Medja and its inhabitants the Medjay (Mazzoi in later Greek translation); however, by the Middle Kingdom "Medjay" referred to a group of desert nomads who wandered in and out of what used to be Medja, many of whom were employed as archers and/or in the Egyptian Army and eventually became an elite group of guardsmen; by the New Kingdom, the word essentially meant "police inspector."
    The term Nubia came from Nobat, the name Egyptians used around the New Kingdom to refer to tribes living on their southern boundaries.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_names_of_Nubia

    Kerma (now known as Dukki Gel, a Nubian term which can be roughly translated as "red mound") was the capital city of the Kingdom of Kerma, which was located in present dayEgypt and Sudan. Kerma is one of the largest Nubian archaeological sites. It has produced decades of extensive excavations and research, including thousands of graves and tombs and the residential quarters of the main city surrounding the Western/Lower Deffufa. The Kerma site has been confirmed by archaeology to be at least 9,500 years old.[1][2]
    Around 3000 BC, a cultural tradition began around Kerma. Kerma was a large urban center that was built around a large mud brick temple, known as the Western Deffufa.[3] Some unique aspects of this culture were beautiful pottery, the importance of cattle, a system of defense, and the King's audience chamber, which bears no resemblance to any Egyptian building (it was rebuilt 10 times).[4]
    'Kerma' is also used to describe the early Sudanese culture, of which Kerma was capital. The material culture at Kerma is synonymous with the culture of Kush. This was one of the earliest African civilizations, commanding an empire that circa 1600 BCE rivaled Egypt (stretching from the First to Fourth Cataracts). As a capital city and location of royal burials, it sheds light on the complex social structure present in this anhistoric society (there was no indigenous writing system in Nubia). Kerma is about 435 miles (700 km) south of Aswan/the first cataract.

    Human populations settled in the Kerma Basin at a very early date, as evidenced by several Mesolithic and Neolithic sites. The earliest traces of a human presence in the region date back tens of thousands of years. From 7500 BC onward the archaeological remains become more significant: semi-buried dwellings, various objects and tools, and graves.[5][verification needed] What’s clear is that Kerma’s civilisation emerged out of an ancient pastoral culture that had flourished in that part of Sudan since at least 7000 B.C. when the first settlements were established. Near Kerma, archaeologists have discovered one of the two oldest cemeteries ever found in Africa – dating back to 7500 B.C. – and the oldest evidence of cattle domestication ever found in Sudan or, indeed, in the Egyptian Nile Valley. Around 3000 B.C., a town began to develop near the Neolithic dwellings.
    • Pre-Kerma (c. 3500-2500BC) No C-Group Phase
    • Early Kerma (c. 2500-2050BC) C-Group Phase Ia-Ib
    • Middle Kerma (c. 2050-1750BC) C-Group Phase Ib-IIa
    • Classic Kerma (c. 1750-1580BC) C-Group Phase IIb-III
    • Final Kerma (c. 1580-1500BC) C-Group Phase IIb-III
    • Late Kerma – ‘New Kingdom’ (c.1500-1100?BC) ‘New Kingdom’
    [6][7]

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerma
     
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