BBY... You have just described how the baptism story in Mark’s Gospel was re-written as a sort of parody of the Akedah. Many Jews will want to know whether the account of the crucifixion of Jesus was also created as a literary parallel to the Akedah? JH... Again there is nothing about the Akedah in the first edition of the story in Matthew. But when Mark did his rewriting of Matthew’s crucifixion story yes he added in elements of the Akedah into the crucifixion story as well. But he did so in a very subtle way that also adds in Roman anti-semitic humour. In Torah Isaac of course had two sons, Esau the red haired, and Jacob who was Israel the soldier of God. You remember how Isaac carries the wood to the altar. In Matthew’s crucifixion account there was a man who carried the wood of the cross—who is called Simon of Cyrene. So this act of carrying wood makes Simon a bit like Isaac. The author of Mark then makes him even more like Isaac, by giving him a son Rufus the red haired and Alexander which means ‘protector of mankind’. Its in Mark 15;21 War of the Jews 7:2 . This is just Roman humor since these are the names of two Roman generals. During the Jewish War Rufus was the Roman general who helped crucify the true Jewish messiah and Tiberius Alexander was the other general who crucified the sons of the freedom fighter Judas. So the Roman generals who crucified the Jews are being given cameo appearances in this epic as Esau and Jacob-Israel. Instead of featuring Israel the soldier of God the gospel features Tiberius Alexander the Roman general who was known for slaughtering Jews in Alexandria. The Romans thought this hillariously funny. That is why the Gospels are the most anti-Semitic documents ever written. Then a generation after the gospels were written a whole secondary literature of commentaries sprung up like the Epistle of Barnabas written which tried to spell out the message and claimed that in the crucifixion, Jesus offered “the vessel of his spirit as a sacrifice for our sins, in order that the type established in Isaac, who was offered upon the altar, might be fulfilled”. ISSAC & OSIRIS This is the story of Isaac who is symbolic of Osiris. He was bound to an altar for the purpose of becoming a burnt sacrifice. Abraham approached carrying both fire and a knife. Prior to setting the wood (cross) aflame, Abraham was ready to slay Isaac. (note, also that in traditional Jewish slaughter one slits the throat, in effect separating head from body). God stopped Abraham’s act at the last moment, suddenly a ram appeared (As a substitute like Simon of Cyrene) and Abraham placed the ram in the fire. In sum, Isaac, like Osiris and the deceased Egyptian kings in imitation of Osiris, was about to have his head severed from his body and his body passed through the fire. The sacrifice of Isaac was derived from a ritual reenactment of Egyptian funerary services which identified the deceased with Osiris. One of the most sacred animals in ancient Egypt was the ram which was the ba/soul of Osiris. After death the ba of the deceased visits the tomb where the body lay. In the Isaac story, the Ram, Osiris ba, appears at the altar where the deceased is laid out. As the soul of Isaac (Osiris), it replaces (substitutes) Isaac on the funeral pyre..