Omowale Jabali : Introduction to the Bible With Complexion

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  1. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    From the Sons of God, to the Sons of Men:
    ‘The Bible With Complexion’

    By Omowale Jabali

    © 2011

    Generation No. 1

    1. EVE1 She married THE GOD 'ATUM' ADAM.

    Notes for EVE:
    In the early centuries of the Christian church in the lands around the Mediterranean, the Gnostics, or “Knowing Ones,” developed ideas about the teachings of Christ and his disciples that were at variance with the more traditional forms of Christian thinking. Some Gnostics developed elaborate mythologies based on a fascination with the Old Testament Book of Genesis. An important concept among certain Gnostics was the idea that Eve wasn't simply the second human God created or Adam's mate, but actually the Mother of All of Creation, an illustrious and imminently important role that equaled Adam's position as the Father of Humankind. In the Gnostic culture, women were treated as equals of men. They were seen as spiritual beings as capable as men to receive holy teachings.

    According to modern scholars, Gnosticism, which emerged during the period in which traditional Christianity developed, includes numerous religious movements,. At first, what little was known about Gnostic beliefs was gleaned from the writings against heresies by the early Church fathers such as Clement, Origen, and Irenaeus. They saw many ideas originating within the Gnostic sects as heresies infecting Christian teaching. Another early church father, Tertullian (circa A.D. 155-A.D. 230), found it unbelievable that Gnostic sects allowed their women not only to discuss religion, but also to perform such functions as healing, baptizing, and exorcising that were normally performed by men in Christian communities.

    In 1945, a priceless collection of Gnostic documents unearthed by a peasant searching for fertilizer near Nag Hammadi, Egypt, enabled religious scholars to better understand some of the Gnostic beliefs and concepts. In the Bible, Eve is an exemplar of sexual temptation by Satan; in the culture of Gnosticism, Eve is portrayed as Barbelo, or emanation of the Godhead in its highest feminine aspect. other Gnostic texts refer to her as Mother of the Aeons. The Gnostics understood the meaning of aeon (Latin for “forever”) to be an emanation from the Godhead that had ennoea, or thought, as its own inner being.

    Included in the body of Gnostic literature that exists today is a controversial text entitled The Gospel of Mary [Magdalene], the only gospel named after a woman. Only fragments of the gospel survive — two third-century fragments in Greek and a fifth-century version in the Egyptian Coptic script.
    References to Barbelo, the Gnostic Eve, can be found in such texts as The Apocryphon of John, The Three Steles of Seth, The Thunder Perfect Mind, The Gospel of Judas, and The Gospel of the Egyptians, among others. In the Apocryphon of John (also called The Secret Book of John and The Secret Revelation of John), Eve, the Mother of All Living, is called Luminous Epinoia. She is the sacred light within and the spiritual capacity of humans to know God. Before the Trinity of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit became Church doctrine, sects of Gnostic Christians worshipped Luminous Epinoia. The Apocryphon of John proclaims that it is the Savior's teaching given to John, his disciple, and that the teaching reveals the mysteries which are hidden in silence. The Gnostics adhered to the idea that only through inner knowing could humans achieve salvation, and that inner knowing (gnosis) came about in silence.

    Source:

    The Esoteric Gnostic Fascination with Eve by Meera Lester

    Notes for THE GOD 'ATUM' ADAM:
    (1) There is/was/will be essence beyond Time's measure, but this cannot be called the Beginning, or even 'before the beginning', for Beginnings and befores began with Time.

    (2) Nun is the Egyptian name for the Abyss, the primal void. Isntisnt is the negation of the primal Mother Isis, a new 'non-entity' deifying Spare's 'Neither-neither' principle.

    (3) Atum is the creator deity of the Egyptian pantheon. In the earliest known texts Atum is referred to as 'that great He-She'. Hermaphroditic deities of other cultures and mythologies are here introduced as different masks or names for this One essence.

    (4) The great axiom of Hermes Trismegistus, 'As Above, so Below', or as A.O.Spare elucidated, 'As Within, so Without', is Now applied to Time as well as Space. The quantum theory of Morphogenetic Fields shows that anything significant that has occurred, has more likelihood of recurring in a new way than something totally 'new'.

    (5) In most versions of the Egyption creation mythos Atum created Tefnut and Shu, the first male and female, by masturbating, although this could be also interpreted as being the 'self-mated' One; Either way asexual. The creation of the first male and female is thus seen as being the root mythos of the Qabbalistic seperation of the one divine essence Kether into the masculine and feminine essences Chokma and Binah, or the taoist version of the creation of Yin and Yang from the Tao.

    The Hebrew name 'Adam' comes from 'Atum'. Atum became masculinized as the Red God of the Setting Sun in later Egyptian myths, so it is not surprising that this male bias remained in the tale of Adam and Eve, where Eve was said to have sprung from Adam's rib. 'Adam Qadmon' as the 'Perfect Man' is associated with Kether in Qabbala.

    (6) Atum as hermaphrodite was the deified representation of an original essence ultimately beyond gender and thus equally well represented as sexless, as is the 'babe in the egg', the undefined child Hoor-Paar-Kraat of our future 'Wordless Aeon.'

    (7) Ipsos is the Word of the future aeon of Maat, the Egyptian Goddess of Truth or Measure. It means 'By the same mouth' (from the Greek 'Ipse' and 'Sos'. Tefnut, the first female, was also sometimes called 'Mayet', The World Order - This was the earliest form of Maat. Shu, the first male, was said to be spat from the mouth of Atum, but as Shu is the God of Air or Life (Prana) this is probably just a metaphor for the first exhalation of Atum.

    While Tefnut/Mayet was said to have been ejaculated by Atum, that great He-She is in another myth equated with the cosmic serpent, as if Hir whole being was like a great phallus, thus it is 'the same mouth' which births/spits/ejaculates/breathes both Tefnut and Shu. This is the Mouth of the Cosmic Serpent and the Eye of the penis. The Eye being a symbol of the Kteis (vagina), Atum is thus the YoniLingam as represented by the Cornucopia -phallic in shape yet hollow- of abundance fromwhich everything comes.

    (8) The magickal energies of Horus and Maat form a double current in the present aeon. Mayet as the World Order (Maat is Goddess of Measure and the natural Balance) and Shu as the God of Air and Light (Air represents Horus in the Pentagrammaton aeonic formula, and he is also 'Lord of Force and Fire' as a Sungod -Light) are the earliest form of these twins. Their return in our present aeon suggests imminent reabsorption into the source, the end/beginning. On a personal level, the union of these currents within the initiate may allow them access, via atavistic resurgence, to our genetic memories of the source.

    (9) The World Order gave birth to Geb, the Earth, and Nu/Nuit, the Universe. Thus form began, and the Abyss (nothingness) was no longer everywhere.

    (10) Maya is the web of illusions in the Hindu tradition, the manifest universe, Lila the play of form.

    (11) The chopping up of the Babylonian Chaos Serpent Tiamat represents the onset of Time, as the division/ordering of reality into segments or periods, which was done by the sword (the elemental weapon of the air/mind) of the solar hero Marduk - the mental apprehension of the Sun's passage through the sky is used as a measure of cycles.

    (12) With the beginning of Time comes the Scribe, the recorder of history and cronology ('In the Beginning was the Word'). Language describes and thus earths the vision. Thoth, the Ibis-headed Scribe of the Egyptian pantheon, is thus sent to retrieve the Eye.

    (13) The reunion of the Hand and the Eye represents the manifestation of the vision. Atum has 'new eyes' because as the creator his perception is everything, and the Universe (Nu) of form has now been born.

    (14) The Ajna or third eye chakra is represented in many cultures as a serpent. The Egyptians symbolized it with the Uraeus, a cobra (which has an eye-like glyph on it's neck) from the forehead often worn on crowns and headresses.

    (15) With the advent of form and Reason -the Sun or Utchet Eye, Atum loses his Dreaming -the Moon or Wedjat Eye; His visions have manifested and are therefore no longer just dreaming but solid 'reality.' Without the daughter eye She-He becomes a He, even as Atum was masculinized into a Sun God in the later Egyptian texts. Atem is the Goddess of blood and periodicity. Thus during the dark of the Moon She disappears.

    In an Aeonic/historical perspective, this symbolizes the disappearance of the feminine from power in the outer structure and record of civilization during the Patriarchy.

    Later Egyptian myths tell of the Sun and Moon (right and left) Eyes of the Creator as the Eyes of Heru/Horus, thus Horus is an aspect of Atum, and by implication also originally hermaphroditic. Thus The Double-Wanded One, Heru-rAHA, contains Maat, (and viceversa as Mayet birthed the deities which later spawned Horus.) even as Her current exists within His aeon.

    (16) The Daughter Eye has become the Moon. Shu the Air-God seperated Geb and Nu as the atmosphere, thus allowing Life to exist.

    (17) Set tore out the left eye of Horus and cast it away. Set, as the God of Death, is the Egyptian analogue of Saturn and thus yet another Serpent of Cycles of Time. Thus the eye of the moon is cast beyond Time, which in our dreams is often absent or distorted.

    This disappearance is the monthly waning of the Moon to the Dark In the Greater Cycle, the replacement of the lunar cycles with the solar calendar at the advent of the patriarchy is suggested. Set as Time, ie. recorded His-story, left out/threw away the lunar/feminine aspect.

    (18) The Lord of Parts is the dismembered Osiris, the Egyptian Dying and Rising Lord, God of the Sun and the Underworld, whose Aeon was the Patriarchy whose cult of resurrection (Christianity) He represents. The Lovers of the Hawk are the Thelemic tribe who have inaugurated the Aeon of Horus and thus returned Osiris to the darkness. This is a reiteration of line 8 in Nema's ''Liber Pennae Praenumbra'' to provide a context for the following lines.

    (19) The pieces of the Wedjat Eye (Like the Utchet, the Wedjat contains a mathermatical formula by its division into parts - 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16. 1/32, 1/64) are the phases of the Moon, which must now be gathered to return the dreams of our subconscious to the world of form on the full Moon. This occurs within the greater (aeonic) cycle too. Maat's function in our times is Balance -She represents the return of the feminine to the outer.

    (20) Nema's 'Liber Pennae Praenumbra'' ('The Foreshadowing of the Feather') begins with the line 'O Mother of the Sun,' the title of Maat as the Upper Air or Space. Infinite Stars and Infinite Space equals I.S.I.S. -the Star-Mother of the Egyptian pantheon who aeonically represents the Matriarchy.

    Nema's book has helped earth the current of the coming aeon into the present, so Maat now exists 'in our atmosphere', Shu, and is thus also 'Daughter of the Sun.' Maat's hieroglyph is the Feather. ('Daughter of the Sun' is also one of the names given to the feather-staff 'KiaQyl' by it's carver, Ra'en, who gave Hir to me during the transmission of this book.) Maat is the Daughter in the Aeonic formula of Pentagrammaton. As such, her Aeon represents the element of Earth, 'the Ma-nifestat-ion ('Ma' is Maat's title as the daughter, therefore Ma-ion = The Aeon of the Daughter) of Nuit', which according to Crowley, 'is at an end' (Liber AL, I 66) -the completion of the cycle is the reabsorption back to the source. (see 'Liber Pentagrammaton')

    (21) The Word of the Aeon of Maat, 'IPSOS' (which means 'by the same mouth') received by high priestess Nema, was breathed onto a feather in her 'Feather and Flame Rite.' This same feather was then used as a quill with which I tattooed the SwordQyl on my left wrist.

    A prophecy was fulfilled with the transmission of this book and the rituals involved: The Word IPSOS was inscribed in the 'living parchment' -the skin- of a priest of Maat, as foretold/reartold by Nema in 'Liber Pennae Praenumbra.' This was the first mark made with the sword-quill I first tattooed on my left wrist. Having married Maat (Truth) as the Godform of Thoth invoked during the ritual, the IPSOS starseed sigil was Her wedding gift to Him.

    Thus the Eye -Nema's vision- is retrieved, the prophecy fulfilled; ...Or the spell manifested, for I was inspired by Nema's work to do this ritual; - the duality of divination/conjuration is transcended in paradox.

    (22) In the ancient Egyptian mythos, Maat weighs the Heart of the deceased soul against the Feather of Truth.

    The sword -weapon of Horus as Air in the Pentagrammaton aeonic formula- is united with the feather as the symbol of Maat to become the quill which earths the visions of the mind (air/sword): Fight not the Universe with your hard blade of persistence; rather float on Her currents, light and fine -yet remaining sharp, an instrument of precision on it's natural path of flight.

    (23) 'Ink' is the Egyptian word for 'I Am.' Much of this book was received during the gradual ritual tattooing (with handheld featherquill) of this scribe's 'SwordQyl' tattoo, during which Thoth was invoked. As I 'inked' the ibis-heads on it's hilt, I chanted, 'Tahuti (Thoth) I invoke thee.' As the energy of the ibis-headed scribe began to fill my being, I began to chant 'Tahuti, Ink thee.' -With Him came the Egyptian scribe's love of wordplay and the pun.

    Another important aspect of the Egyptian word 'ink' is that it's tense is undefined. It can be interpreted in modern linear terms as 'I am', 'I was' or 'I will be'. Thus the Egyptian pantheon exists 'beyond time' and was/is/shall be all-ways accessible.

    Thoth is the consort of Maat, the Goddess of Truth, who Goes by the title 'She-Who-Moves' -The power of the Gods is in the Go-ing.

    (24) "True Will" is the union of the Horus and Maat currents within. For "Thelema" means "Will" and "Maat" is "Truth."

    (25) The spine of the quill is the shaft of the arrow, thus the staff which is the weapon of will.

    (26) Hermes -the Greek equivalent of Thoth -also 'marries truth' with this vow, which equates with the Hindu Boddhisattvic Vow (which is To not ascend from humanity until the species entire is ready to do so) because He knows the Whole Truth as a God Himself, yet is bound also to the realm of mortals, to Tell the Truth/ point the Way to others as Messenger and Guide.

    (27) Our individual perceptions are as varied as the way we appear to the perceptions of others. In a quantum multi-verse we each have our own (malleable) outer truths.

    (28) And yet one's words can be aught but forked, for they exist only in the realm of duality, the manifest world. Time is represented in almost every mythology of the World as a serpent.

    "All words are lies" -Crowley. He was lying -words may build a (rain-bow) bridge to other Worlds, for they are also expressions of Cannac/Chthonos, the (rain-bow) serpent of both matter and spirit.

    The triple-tongue is the form of the Hebrew letter Shin, which represents Spirit. There is essence beyond the capacity of language or sound to express, when as represented by the apex of a triangle a duality is transcended.

    (29) 'In the Beginning (there being no concept of 'beginning' 'before'/beyond the record of time) was the Word' -language as the documentation or CronoLogy (The Logos or Word of Cronos, the Greek Time-God) of events is the measure of Time, as spoken by the forked tongue of the Serpent of Time. The Beginning was Atum, thus the Word (creative force) 'In the Beginning' was In Atum. AHA is the mantra of the hermaphroditic One. Thus the double-wanded One is Heru-rAHA. The ah is the inhalation, the ha the exhalation. Hahu is another name of Shu, as Life, Light and Air.

    Tantrically the AHA mantra represents a balance of implosive (non-ejaculatory/circulatory, therefore 'inspirational') and explosive (ejaculation/ the 'little death', thus 'expiration.') orgasm. This is a reverse key to forwards and backwords movement in time/emit.

    (30) The All can never be fully expressed with language, thus the Quill/Pennae as the weapon of the Word can only point the Way.

    'The Way' is the Tao or Quintessence of pure spirit -"The Tao which can be spoken of is not the Tao" -Lao Tze Tung .

    For when, in a state of uncensored divinity, one proclaims, 'I am God' The reflection back in time is 'Dogma I'; One can only appear a Hierophant or Messenger with language, And not a God oneself.

    Thus is this the 'pen-ultimate' manifestation of the double current. The Quill can only point the Way: The Ultimate manifestation of the aeon of Maat, it's inauguration -which appears to us as its end because the current flows backwords in time- is the beginning of the 'Wordless Aeon', the Ultimate re-union -as represented by Hoor-Paar-Kraat/Harpocrat whose mudra is the Sign of Silence- of the double current back into the hermaphroditic/genderless source. Thus 'Liber Pennae' can never be Written, nor spoken; yet is, now and forever.

    (31) AHA, the mantra of the Double-Wanded One, is here expressed as the secretive murmur of a coming surprise. 'Sh' represents Harpocrat's Sign of Silence, a secret, and the letter Shin which represents spirit.

    (32) As the female/lunar current Maat is the feather in one of the dishes of the scales. This feather is united with the Sword of Horus as the masculine/solar current to create the central SwordQyl axis/ mast/ sushumna (spine) or fulcrum of the Scales, the dishes ofwhich thus hang from either side of the hilt of the Sword of Reason.

    (33) Again language as the record and thus measure of time: 'Oro-bouros', the Greek tail-biting (cyclical) equivalent of Tiamat, translates as 'golden serpent'.

    This has been ritually represented by this scribe riting with featherquill the text of this Liber on the scales of a seven-foot golden-brown snakeskin, which after skinning, tanning and inscribing I have wound and bound around KiaQyl, the pennae-staff (carved of 5000-yr-old hardwood) which I was given during the transmission of the book.

    (34) The Honey-Moon represents the time of ovulation, the honey being the elixir of this phase of the lunar/menstrual cycle, and the bee gynander one of the primary symbols of Maat and the hive-mind to come. Sekhmet, the Egyptian Lioness-Goddess of heat and sexuality, is the Goddess of the Honeymoon. Tefnut (Mayet) is also considered 'the leonine one' thus we have Sekh-Maat, the Goddess of the Lion and the Bee and a glyph of the double-current.

    Talam is the semen-honey. 'Lam' is an alien egregore who has contacted Crowley, Nema, Aossic, Staley and others; and is also the seed sound of the base chakra, to which the stellar energies of Sirius and Andromeda are earthed; It is also Tibetan for 'the Way', ie the Tao. Maat is also contained in this mantra. Talam = 81 = KSA, the Full Moon. The backwords reiteration 'Malat' suggests the backwards or inwards-turning passage of the waning Moon after this turning-point, and also the implosive or non-ejaculatory orgasm. It is also short for Malatan, menstrual blood, the elixir of Atem, the Goddess of periodicity. With the mantra Talat Malat, combined with various other techniques of gnosis, it is possible to invoke Atum and generate the Talam Malat -the combined elixir of both male and female secretions- on One's own, as Two-in-One. This is the sacred honey-moon gift of Maat and Thoth, the elixir with-which they inscribe the IPSOS sigil -the DNA of QNA or Aeonic Lemniscate.

    'Lamat' is a glyph from the Mayan calendar which represents 'the starseed', harmony and stellar consciousness. Thus the Talam may become the Starseed when via tantric techniques we channel information from Andromeda through Sirius.

    (35) Here are revealed the consecration rituals and the magickal tools thereof which heralded and celebrated this transmission: I internalized my staff several years ago, represented on the surface by the Caduceus Staff I tattooed on my right wrist - I am left-handed. The SwordQyl tattoo I also eventually did myself with my right-hand through a supreme effort of focused Will, becoming thus ambidextrous or double-wanded. This was possible with the appropriate use of feather-quill rather than tattoo-gun. The feather was thus held by my Caduceus Staff (right hand), in a 3-night balancing activity (activating my left-brain) - the rendering of the SwordQyl which is itself a symbol of Balance.

    During the same initiation period I received a new staff, carved by Ra'en from 5000-year old (carbon-dated) black hardwood. This staff told Ra'en its name is KiaQyl: from following the flow of the woodgrain, a flat ridged feather-shape emerged at its tip, a hoof at its base and seven half-formed snakes between. Ra'en carved the staff with both hands, which are the heads of two large black serpents tattooed down and around his arms and torso (in the Druidic tradition), The KiaQyl staff is thus sushumna. the spine around-which Ida and Pingala -the kundalini serpents of the right and left nadis- entwine. One of these was tattooed by me a year earlier (forwhich gift he gave me the staff), thus it was 'filled by the SwordQyl' before it had a manifest form.

    (36) Thus the sword-qyl and staff-qyl combine into the Arrow of Art, fledged with the feathers of Maat/Truth.

    Arrow of Art = Subconscious desire, intuitive creativity, 'True Will.' Will alone is thought-forms of unrealized desire. The Art or Temperance card of the Tarot is also suggested, as representing the second part of the alchemical formula 'Solve et Coagula.'

    The Aeon of Maat is the ma-nifestat-ion because as Truth it is the moment of real-ization. For nothing can stop the True Will from manifestation. Truth is ultimately timeless, thus can future dreams be brought into being via the faculty of ambition. So look to the Stars -we are they. The Arrow may pierce the Heart of Matter\Maya, the emptiness at the centre of the illusion of being. This is the silence, void or calm Eye at the centre of the aeonic cyclone. Thus the Eye (target/vision/Way) is the Tao.

    (37) The Heart is Tiphereth, the Death Daath/the Abyss and Hope the Star path to Kether

    (38) Qaneshentator is a Word of Power revealed to Nema, priestess of Maat. Like the stele of revealing, it equals 718. Now are further aspects of this Word revealed: When I was first dreamtracing the Eye-globe's passage, I was confused by the presence of Ganesha, the Vedic/Hindu elephant-headed God.

    Nevertheless, this vision persisted, so I included the vedic chant, 'Om Ganapati Namah' in my SwordQyl workings. Later reading up on this deity, I discovered he is actually the Scribe of the vedic tradition, thus the eastern equivalent of Thoth. Not only that, but He is responsible for the disappearance and return of the moon just as Thoth was sent forth to retrieve Atum's Eye.

    The word 'Qaneshantator', which also kept invading my psyche at this time, relates thus to the Q- uill of Ganesha. The suffix 'tator' is 'tarot' turned inside-out, even as the 'spokes of the Wheel (of tarot/rota) invert' in this sub-consciously-written verse. Qaneshantator contains the letters QNA, which equals 151, Coph Nia -the Eye of the Daughter, the 'inwards-turning eye' which is 'sucked up and into Ganesha's great trunk'; ie. contained within him. As 'Lord of the Categories' Ganesha has 32 different forms. The reflection/inversion of this is 23, the mysterious arcana 'beyond the cycles' of tarot/time.

    There are also a total of 32 paths and spheres on the Tree of Life (thus the Q in Qaneshantator also stands for Qabbala) ; the 33rd thus being the non-sphere Daath as the gateway to the Nightside of the Tree, the 23rd Arcana as the inversion of 32.

    (39) In his role of Scribe of the Gods Ganesha used his right tusk as His Quill. This tusk was hurled at the Moon when She laughed at His antics, banishing Her. On the other Gods' request He allowed Her to return, but since then She has waxed and waned (the crescent moon appears like a tusk). Even as Ganesha was informed to write the Words of the Gods only when He understood them fully, so has reading this tale at the appropriate time allowed me comprehension of Ganesha's relevance to this transmission.

    Another meaning of Ipsos is 'By the same bone'(/tusk/tooth). In the Hindu tradition Ganesha's quill banished the moon to darkness, then returned it, as does Thoth's quill in Egyptian mythology.

    The triple-tongue is the form of the Hebrew letter Shin, which represents both fire and spirit/ether. It's symbol is the tooth. Ganesha/Ganapati is often called 'One-Tooth'.

    The Trident of Shiva is also suggested, as Ganesha is Hir scribe even as Thoth is Atum's -for Shiva was also originally hermaphroditic.

    (40) Tahuti is another name of Thoth. By the same mouth, different versions of the same tales are told in different languages of different cultures and traditions-we are all connected by the Group Mind, Na'aton: Currently subconscious but awakening as the Moon (the subconscious mind/ dreams) returns to unite with the Sun (the conscious mind/ the manifest world) in the greater cycle also.

    (41) In the Hebrew alphabet, 10/Yod(I)/Hand + 70/Ain(O)/Eye =80/Pe/Mouth. The journey is written or The Vision Manifested -IO!

    (42) The Heart which the Feather of Truth is weighed against is the Chalice of Love, the Cup of Isis, the elemental tool of Water. The chalice is the symbol of the kteis/vagina, whose other major glyph is the Eye. Yet Eros/Cupid, the Greek God of Love, is the Archer, thus 'target and source' - For when your Will is True, there is no difference between the Universe and the Self.

    (43) The huntress/archer is Diana, the maiden (waxing) phase of the Greek triple-moon Goddess Hecate, whose number, like Qoph, is 100. 'Liber Qoph vel Hecate' is a new ritual of praise to the Moon, to balance Crowley's sun-salute, 'Liber Resh vel Helios'. Hecate's original form as the Egyptian Hekt was a frog, thus She who turns the wheel as Goddess of the Crossroads also leaps beyond the wheel on the dark moon.

    (44) The old Qabbalistic formula of Tetragrammaton, YHVH, as applied to the aeons and represented by the corresponding elemental tools.

    (45) The KiaQyl staff arrived the night I performed a version of Nema's 'Pan-Aeonic Vortex' ritual. Having existed through all the aeons dealt with, it became the perfect central 'mast' for the rite.

    Just as elemental correspondences to magickal tools and directions vary according to different sources and traditions, so are there many different historical/aeonic perspectives. The resultant confusion reveals and thus pierces the veil of illusion to the central source of Spirit.

    The Arrow from the Bow of Zos only pierces the Kia when it realizes That the target is also the source, that the Arrow is fledged with feathers from the wings which bear the Eye aloft, to which they thus return.

    Thus the orb is the egg of potential, wound around with the serpent of time, as all aeons and elements and the magickal tools thereof entwine the essence of spirit. Thus is the underlying formula of Pentagrammaton revealed -YHShVH, with spirit as the axis. (-see Liber Pentagrammaton.)

    (46) The Egg of potential cracks apart, The illusions of the world of form are shattered and there is nothing within but the arrow of the perciever, who then begins to recreate their reality from the shards of its previous form. The Egg seems whole again, as potential is recreated. The Abyss, and the quantum idea of the perceiver-created reality.

    (47) TheWedjat or Left Eye of Horus is made up of six pieces, each smaller than the last, forming the mathematical pattern of fractions: 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, 1/64. This equates when assembled to 63/64, i.e. it approximates to one, the full moon.

    The Moth of the moon is the insectoid version of Thoth, with eyes on His wings.

    (48) Yet note the use of a word-pun to illustrate the point!

    (49) Kali is the Hindu Goddess of Time, the Kalas or Colours the emanations from Her womb. These form the rain-bow which the arrow pierces, so in the drawn Bow it has already reached its target and thus 'time stands still'.

    (50) The vision is grounded with Art/Language as represented by the Arrow/Quill.

    (51) In the formula of Pentagrammaton the Daughter takes the throne of the Father. But the Son must also attend to the Mother. We must heal and reconcile our relationships with our parents, on an aeonic as well as personal level. so as not to repeat their mistakes. The aeon of Isis (matriarchy) and the aeon of Osiris (patriarchy) should be philosophically and magickally apprehended so as we can progress.

    (52) Mayet, Measure or the World Order, is basically the balance of nature -thus Maat's scales. The natural justice of karma.

    (53) Eros, the Greek God of Love, is the Archer, even as the Chalice is the target.

    (54) The Zos, represented by the hand, is the individual self or the body, the Kia, represented by the eye, is the group mind, ether or 'atmospheric I'. They are reunited when the Eye returns to the Hand.

    Zos is also the magickal name of A.O.Spare, whose major magickal tool was the Quill. Thus his legacy and Will are continued via this scribe. The 'execution' of the Will is the Little Death or sex-magickal activation of sigils/hieroglyphs.

    (55) Immersion in A.O.Spare's Death Posture and the Osirian Corpse Asana initiated re-connection with the guide Black Eagle. Azoth is the black eagle in alchemy. A is the first letter in the Roman, Greek and Hebrew alphabets, Z, O and Th the last letter in each of these alphabets. Thus Azoth represents the first and the last, the beginning and the end, the source and the target; immortal continuity as expressed in Spare's Alpha-Omega evocation. Walla Warru is Australian Aboriginal (Central Uluru tribe) for eagle, a fact which I discovered after the fleeting spirit of a dead eagle itself had already revealed to me its name in a spontaneous funerary chant. The return to the shamanic Dreamtime is also suggested.

    The Black Goat is Pan Pangenitor, the All-Begetter, combined with Shub Niggurath (Female 'Black Goat with a Thousand Young' -abundant fecundity) of the Cthulhu Mythos, ritually symbolized in the physical temple with the skin of Mandrake, which like his departed soul is entwined with mine.

    Kanacheta is Ouranian barbaric for Baphomet, the hermaphroditic Horned One with face and legs of a black goat, breasts, torso and genitals of a hermaphoditic wo/man and wings of a black eagle.

    (56) Fourteen days is the period between dark moon and full moon. The Kingdom is Malkuth, the World of form.

    (57) ATU(cell)/Arcana 23 is added to Crowley's chart of Tarot/ Hebrew-alphabet correspondences in the Book of Thoth:

    The letter Shin appears twice in this table, its Fire aspect correlating with the Aeon/Judgement card. There are no correspondences given for its Spirit aspect, but this line is now filled: It is the 'Triple-Crown' rather than the 'Triple Tongue of Fire', the Crown being Kether or the Sahasrara. The number of the letter Qoph is 100, it corresponds to the Moon Card and the Back of the Head. The number of the letter Resh is 200, its card is the Sun and its symbol the (front of the) Head. 100 + 200 = 300, the value of Shin. As the Aeon card, this is the union of Horus and Maat. As the added ATU 23, it is pure spirit outside the cycle (beyond the wheel) of 0 the Fool back to 0 the Fool. It has no Title, being beyond words and names. It's glyph is the 8-spoked wheel of Spirit or the Sun and Moon glyphs conjoined.

    (58) The Forgotten Ones are primal atavistic entities which have been re-membered by Nema, Hollub and others.

    Iannu is the union of Abraxas (Ian) and Nuit (Nu). As such, S/He is the intersection of Chthonos (matter-energy) and Ycronos (time-space), as mapped out by the yearly passage of the sun (the Greek spell-ing of the name Abraxas is a grammatical equivalent of the 365 days) and the moon across the sky. S/he is the formula for grounding all time and space into the Here and Now.

    In Gematria, Iannu = 117, as does Qyl. Thus the Arrow of True Will and it's target, the Winged Eye, are equivalent and thus united. The glyph of Iannu as depicted by Allen Hollub is an eye appended with the male and female (Mars and Venus) symbols. The symbol of Sagittarius, the astrological archer, is also a composite of Mars and Venus symbols, thus again weapon and target are the same.

    Source:
    Liber Pennae Ultim-Atum
    The Commentary
    by Orryelle Bascule

    Child of EVE and THE ADAM is:
    2. i. THE GOD SET2 SETH.

    Generation No. 2

    2. THE GOD SET2 SETH (EVE1) He married AZURA.

    Notes for THE GOD SET SETH:
    Seth (Hebrew: ????, Standard Šet, Tiberian Še?; Arabic: ???? Shith or Shiyth; "Placed; appointed"), in Judaism, Christianity and Islam, is the third listed son of Adam and Eve and brother of Cain and Abel, who are the only other of their children mentioned by name. According to Genesis 4:25, Seth was born after the slaying of Abel by Cain, and Eve believed God had appointed him as a replacement for Abel.

    According to Genesis, Seth was born when Adam was 130 years old[1] "a son in his likeness and image."[1] The genealogy is repeated at 1 Chronicles 1:1-3. Genesis 5:4-5 states that Adam fathered "sons and daughters" before his death, aged 930 years. In Genesis 4:25, there is a folk etymology for Seth's name, which derives it from the Hebrew word for "plant" as in "plant a seed" (syt). Eve says, "God has planted another seed, under/replacing Abel's". Seth lived to the age of 912.[2]

    Book of JubileesThe Book of Jubilees also dates his birth to 130 AM.[3] According to the Book of Jubilees, in 231 AM Seth married his sister, Azura, who was 4 years younger than he was. In the year 235 AM, Azura gave birth to Enos.[3]

    In Jewish tradition
    Rashi (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi) refers to Seth as the ancestor of Noah and hence the father of all mankind, all other humans having perished in the Great Flood.

    In gnosticism, Seth is seen as a replacement given by God for Abel, whom Cain had slain. It is said that late in life, Adam gave Seth secret teachings that would become the kabbalah. The Zohar refers to Seth as "ancestor of all the generations of the tzaddikim" (Hebrew: righteous ones).[4]

    According to Seder Olam Rabbah, based on Jewish reckoning, he was born in 130 AM. According to Aggadah, he had 33 sons and 23 daughters. According to the Seder Olam Rabbah, he died in 1042 AM.

    In Islam
    Islamic tradition reveres Seth as the gift bestowed upon Adam after the death of Abel. Although not one of the prophets mentioned in the Qur'an, Muslims see Seth as a prophet like his father, and the one who continued teaching mankind after the death of Adam.[5] Islamic lore gives Seth an exalted position among the Antediluvian Patriarchs of the Generations of Adam, and some sources even cite Seth as the receiver of a scripture.[6] Islamic literature holds that Seth was born when Adam was past 100 and that, by the time Adam died, Adam had already made Seth the heir to him in guiding the "Children of Adam". Muslims hold that Seth was taught of the hours of day and night as well as of the Great Flood to come and was further taught to pray to God during the hours of the night. Islam, like Judaism and Christianity, traces the genealogy of mankind back to Seth, since Abel did not leave any heirs and Cain's heirs, according to tradition, were destroyed by the Great Flood.[7]

    Some Muslims believe that Seth's tomb is located in the village of Al-Nabi Shayth (literally meaning The Prophet Seth) where a mosque is named after him.

    In Josephus
    In the Antiquities of the Jews, Josephus refers to Seth as virtuous and of excellent character, and reports that his descendants invented the wisdom of the heavenly bodies, and built the "pillars of the sons of Seth", two pillars inscribed with many scientific discoveries and inventions, notably in astronomy. They were built by Seth's descendants based on Adam's prediction that the world would be destroyed at one time by fire and another time by global flood, in order to protect the discoveries and be remembered after the destruction. One was composed of brick, and the other of stone, so that if the pillar of brick should be destroyed, the pillar of stone would remain, both reporting the ancient discoveries, and informing men that a pillar of brick was also erected. Josephus reports that the pillar of stone remained in the land of Siriad in his day.

    William Whiston, a 17/18th century translator of the Antiquities, stated in a footnote that he believed Josephus mistook Seth for Sesostris, king of Egypt, the erector of the referenced pillar in Siriad (being a contemporary name for the territories in which Sirius was venerated (i.e., Egypt). He stated that there was no way for any pillars of Seth to survive the deluge, because the deluge buried all such pillars and edifices far underground in the sediment of its waters.

    In Christian tradition
    The 2nd century BC Book of Jubilees, regarded as non-canonical except by Coptic Christianity, says that in 231 AM Seth married his sister, Azura, who was 4 years younger than he was. In the year 235 AM, Azura gave birth to Enos.[3]

    Seth is commemorated as one of the Holy Forefathers in the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with Adam, Abel, and others, with a feast day on July 26. He is also included in the Genealogy of Jesus, according to Luke 3:23–28.[8]

    The name of one of the oldest deities of which we have any record is Set (Phoenician), [Egyptian] or Seth (Hebrew). Traces of this God are found in all oriental countries; and in the most primitive religions, whose traditions are still extant, he (or she) appears as the supreme God. After the subjection of Egypt by the stranger kings and the consequent introduction into the country of Sabianism, the dual creative force residing in the sun is represented by Seth. We are told that Seth signifies "appointed or put in the place of the murdered Abel."

    That there is some deep mystery connected with this subject none who has studied it carefully can help observing.

    According to the story of creation as set forth in the Jehovistic account, on Saturday night, after God had finished his work, and immediately after he had commanded Adam to "be fruitful," he presents him with a staff, which we observe is handed down to Enoch and all the patriarchs. Here the mystery deepens, for it is declared that this staff was presented so Seth, and that it was a branch of the Tree of Life.

    That beneath this allegory is veiled a contest, or perhaps a compromise, between the worshippers of two distinct sects, seems altogether probable. That the handing down of this branch of the Tree of Life, first to Adam, or man, by Aleim, and its subsequent transference to Seth, the God of Nature, the Destroyer or Regenerator, seems to indicate a victory for the adherents of a purer religion. The translator of Kallimachus says: "It is well known to the learned reader that the descendants of Cain are distinguished in Scripture by the name of the sons of man or Adam; those of Seth by the name of the sons of God." Gen. vi., 2.[85] It is stated in Julius Africanus that all the righteous men and patriarchs down to the Saviour himself have sprung from Seth and have been denominated as the sons of God in contradistinction to the sons of man.

    [85] Forlong, Rivers of Life, vol. i., p. 527.

    Doubtless at the time indicated by the transference of the creative agency from Aleim to Adam, the worship of an abstract principle, or of a Trinity composed of the powers of Nature, was losing its hold on the minds of the people, and the creative power, or the reproductive energy in human beings, was rapidly taking the place of the older Deity. These higher principles forgotten, Adam, or man, had become the Creator.

    It is not improbable that the terms Adam, Cain, Abel, and Seth have an esoteric meaning which for ages was known only to the priests. From various facts which in later times are being brought forward regarding the ancient myths of Genesis, it is believed that these names originally stood for races of men, and that subsequently certain religious doctrines came to be attached to them. The offering of fruit by Cain, the elder brother, who was a tiller of the ground, and that of flesh by Abel, who was a keeper of sheep, indicates a quarrel which ended in the death of the latter. After the death of Abel, or after one of these principles or sects was subdued, the older religion was revived, and Seth, as the Aleim, or as the creative power within the sun, was "appointed" or again worshipped.

    It would seem that Seth was appointed to represent the third person in the ancient Trinity–the Destroyer or Regenerator which had previously come to embody all the powers of the Creator and Preserver. The fact has been observed that the very ancient philosophers believed matter to be eternal, hence, seeming death, or destruction, was necessary to renewed life or regeneration. In other words, creation was but continuous change in the form of matter.

    Of the doctrines of the Sethians extant at the beginning of Christianity, Hippolytus says that their system "is made up of tenets from natural philosophers. These tenets embrace a belief in the Eternal Logos: Darkness, Mist, and Tempest." These elements subsequently became identified with the Evil Principle, or the Devil. The cold of winter, the darkness of night, and water, were finally set forth as the Trinity. Regarding cold, darkness, and water, or darkness, mist, and tempest, Hippolytus observes:

    "These the Sethian says are the three principles of our system; or when he states that three were born in paradise– Adam, Eve, the serpent; or when he speaks of three persons, namely, Cain, Abel, Seth, and again of three others, Shem, Ham, Japheth; or when he mentions three patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob; or when he speaks of three days before the sun, etc."

    The same writer says that their entire system is derived from the ancients; that, antecedent to the Eleusinian mysteries, were enacted by them the ceremonies connected with the worship of the Great Mother.[86]

    [86] Hippolytus, Refutation of all Heresies, book v., ch. 15.

    We have observed that through some process not thoroughly understood at the present time, the adherents of the older faith had succeeded in reinstating their Deity. The powers of Nature had come to be represented by Typhon Seth. It was the God of Death and of Life, of Destruction and Regeneration. The simoom of the desert and the cold of winter were Seth, as were also the genial powers of Spring. We are informed by various writers that Typhon Seth was feminine. She was the early God of the Jews. In other words, the Jews were formerly worshippers of a female Deity. Jehovah, Iav, was originally female.

    Although the secret meaning of all the allegories contained in the Old Testament is not fully understood, still the belief that Cain, Abel, and Seth represented the self-triplicated Deity at a time when the idea of man as a creator had been accepted, or when his power to reproduce was becoming the highest idea of a creative force, is consistent with what is known of the Cabala of the Jews, or of the esoteric meaning of the Jewish scriptures formerly known only to the priests. In other words, the ancient doctrines, the true meaning of which was no longer understood by them, were patched together as a basis for the later developments in Jewish religious experience.

    We have seen that six hundred years after Adam appears Noah, another self-triplicated Saviour or preserver of man, with his ark or seed vessel, beneath which is veiled the female element. Afterward Abraham becomes the Great Father or Saviour, and later Moses. That, in the time of the latter, the more ancient worship of a creative force in Nature represented by the Aleim, had, by the masses of the people, been wholly lost, is evident from the Old Testament writings. The worship of the Father, the male power, in opposition to that of the Mother, or the female power, constituted the religion of Moses. In the religion of the Jews, Jehovah came to be regarded as wholly male and as spirit, while Edam (translated "downward tending"), the female principle, was matter, or woman, which finally became identified with the Devil.

    The philosophical doctrine that spirit is evolved through matter, or that matter must be raised to a certain dynamical power before spirit can manifest itself through it, was no longer understood; only the husks of this doctrine –the myths and symbols of Nature-worship–remained; these were taken literally, and thus man's religion was made to conform to his lowered estate.

    When man had so far gained the ascendancy over woman as to assert that he is the sole Creator of their joint offspring, he was no longer of the earth earthy, but at once became the child of heaven. He was, however, bound to earth through his association with matter, or with woman, from whom he was unable to free himself. The "sons of God" were united "to the daughters of man." Jahvah, the "God of hosts," who was revengeful, weak, jealous, and cruel, was worshipped in the place of Aleim the great dual force throughout Nature. The ethereal, spiritual male essence resided somewhere in the heavens and created from afar, while the earth (female) furnished only the body or material substance.

    In the history of the god Seth is to be found a clue to the way in which the sublime and philosophical doctrines of the ancients, after their true meaning was forgotten, were finally changed so as to conform to the enforced humiliation and degradation of women.

    Seth or Typhon was for ages worshipped throughout Egypt, and as she comprehended the powers of Nature, or the creative energy residing in the sun and earth, little is heard of any other god. Strange it is, however, that Seth is worshipped more in her capacity as Destroyer than as Regenerator. So soon as we understand the origin and character of the Devil, and so soon as we divest ourselves of the false ideas which under a state of ignorance and gross sensuality came to prevail relative to the "powers of darkness," we shall perceive that his (or her) Satanic majesty was once a very respectable personage and a powerful Divinity–a Divinity which was worshipped by a people whose superior intelligence can scarcely be questioned. Regarding this subject Higgins remarks:

    "Persons who have not given much consideration to these subjects will be apt to wonder that any people should be found to offer adoration to the evil principle; but they do not consider that, in all these recondite systems, the evil principle, or the Destroyer, or Lord of Death, was at the same time the Regenerator. He could not destroy but to reproduce, and it was probably not till this principle began to be forgotten, that the evil being, per se, arose; for in some nations this effect seems to have taken place. Thus Baal-Zebub is, in Iberno Celtic, Baal Lord, and Zab Death, Lord of Death; but he is also called Aleim, the same as the God of the Israelites; and this is right, because he was one of the Trimurti or Trinity.

    "If I be correct respecting the word Aleim being feminine, we here see the Lord of Death of the feminine gender; but the Goddess Ashtaroth or Astarte, the Eoster of the Germans, was also called Aleim. Here again Aleim is feminine, which shows that I am right in making Aleim the plural feminine. Thus we have distinctly found Aleim the Creator (Gen. i., 1), Aleim the Preserver, and Aleim the Destroyer, and this not by inference, but literally expressed."[87]

    [87] Anacalypsis, ch. ii., p. 66.

    At one period of their history the Hebrews worshipped Ashtaroth and Baal, they together representing the great Aleim, the indivisible God, but after the Israelites had chosen the worship of the male principle as an independent deity, or as the only important agency in the creative processes, as Baal might not be represented aside from his counterpart Ashtaroth, he was no longer adored but came to stand for something "approaching the Devil." Forlong has observed the fact that, although in Hebrew Baal is masculine, in the Greek translations he is feminine both in the Old and New Testaments.[88]

    [88] Forlong, Rivers of Life, p. 223.

    Jehovah was originally female, so, also, was Netpe the Holy Spirit of the Egyptian Tree of Life. We are given to understand that Netpe was the same as Rhea, the partner of Sev or Saturn, and that her hieroglyphic name was "Abyss of Heaven." Osiris was the son of this goddess who was really a Mai or Mary, the Celestial Mother, he being the only God of the Egyptians who was born upon this earth and lived among men. Of this Forlong remarks: "His birthplace was Mount Sinai; called by the Egyptians Nysa, hence his Greek name Dionysos."

    As the Palm was the first offering of Mother Earth to her children, so Osiris was the first offspring of the Egyptian Celestial Virgin to mankind. He was the new sun which through the winter months had been "buried," but which in process of time arose to gladden all the earth. He was also the new Sun of Righteousness which was to renew the world, or redeem mankind from sin.

    The female principle for the time being cast out of the Deity, Osiris, the male element, now outwardly assumes the position of supreme God. It was, however, reserved for a later and more sensuous age to permanently adopt an absurdity so opposed to all established ideas relative to a creative force in Nature and in man. Seth, the Destroyer, had been deposed, but, so deeply rooted in the human mind had become the idea of a female Creator, that Isis, the Queen of Heaven, a somewhat lower conception of Muth, or of universal womanhood, soon assumed the place of Seth beside Osiris. Later in the history of Egypt, when the gods have become greatly multiplied, and the original significance of the deity obscured, Horus, the child and the third member in the later Egyptian triad, not unfrequently appears in her place as one of the eight great gods.

    The fact is observed that the history of Osiris is not alone the "history of the circle of the year, or of the sun dying away and resuscitating itself again, but that it is also the history of the cycle of 600." It has been said that of the component elements of his hieroglyphical name, Isis is the first, and that the name Osiris really signifies the "Eye of Isis."

    According to Plutarch, Isis and Muth are identical, but from the evidence at hand it is plain that Muth comprehends divine womanhood, or the female principle as it was regarded at an earlier stage of human growth. Muth is not only the parent of the sun, or the force which produces the sun, but she is also Wisdom, the first emanation from the Deity, at the same time that she comprehends all the possibilities of Nature. Isis seems to represent the Deity at a time when the higher truths known to a more ancient people were beginning to lose their hold upon the race.

    Renouf informs us that the word Maat, or Muth, means Law, "not in that forensic sense of command issued either by a human sovereign authority, or by a divine legislator, like the laws of the Hebrews, but in the sense of that unerring order which governs the universe, whether in its physical or its moral aspect."[89] The same writer observes further that Maat "is called mistress of Heaven, ruler of earth, and president of the nether world," and in a further description of the conception embodied in this Deity, refers to the fact that while she is the mother of the sun she is also the first emanation from God.

    [89] The Religion of Ancient Egypt, p. 126.

    Although Typhon Seth was long worshipped as the sole Deity in Egypt, in later ages the god-idea came to be represented by Seth and Osiris. Toward the close of Typhon Seth's reign, Horus, the child, the young sun, was represented "as rising from his hiding-place, attracting beneficent vapors to return them back as dews, which the Egyptians called the tears of Isis."

    Seth and Osiris represent a division of the Deity. Osiris, as the sun, represents heat; as man, or as god, he stands for desire. Seth or Typhon stands for the cold of winter, the simoom of the desert, or the "wind that blasts." Seth, Osiris, and Horus constitute a Trinity of which Muth is the Great Mother. Finally, with the gradual ascendancy of male influence and power, it is observed that Seth appears as the brother of Osiris.

    It is the opinion of Bunsen that the fundamental idea of Osiris and Set was "not merely the glorification of the sun, but was also the worship of the primitive creative power."[90] But, as in Egypt the creative agency was regarded as both female and male, the former being in the ascendancy, this fact of itself would seem to determine the sex and position of Seth.

    [90] History of Egypt, vol. iv., p. 319.

    In the ideas concerning Seth and Osiris may be observed something of the manner in which the fructifying agencies of the sun and the reproductive power in human beings were blended and together worshipped as the Deity; while through the history of these gods are to be traced some of the processes by which the idea of the Creator was changed from female to male.

    In all countries, at a certain stage in the history of religion, the transference of female deified power to mortal man may be observed. In the attempt to change Seth or Typhon into a male God may be noted perhaps the first effort in Egypt to dethrone, or lessen the female power in the god-idea.

    The fact seems plain that the Great Typhon Seth, or Set, who conferred on the sovereigns of the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties of Egypt "the symbols of life and power," was none other than the primitive Regenerator or Destroyer, who was for ages worshipped as the God of Nature the Aleim, or the life-giving energy throughout the universe.

    We have observed that when the profound principles underlying the most ancient doctrines had been lost or forgotten, and when through the decay of philosophy, and through the stimulation of the sensual in human nature, mankind had lost the power to reason abstractly, Destruction, which was symbolized by darkness or the absence of the sun's rays, finally became the evil principle, or the Devil. Darkness and cold, which had formerly been worshipped as the powers which brought forth the sun, or as mother of the sun, in process of time became the agency which is ever warring with good and which is constantly destroying that which the latter brings forth.

    We are informed by Forlong that "some derive our term Devil from Niphl or Nevil, the wind that blasts or obstructs the growth of corn; and it used sometimes to be written th' evil, which is D'evil or Devil."

    It was "this Dualistic heresy which separated the Zend or Persian branch of the Aryans from their Vedic brethren, and compelled them to emigrate to the westward."[91]

    [91] See Rawlinson, Notes on the Early History of Babylon.

    The ancient philosophical truth that matter is eternal, and that the destruction of vegetable life through the agency of cold was one of the necessary processes of re-generation, or the renewal of life, had evidently been lost sight of at the time when Seth was dethroned in Egypt. Wilkinson informs us that "both Seth and Osiris were adored until a change took place respecting Seth, brought about apparently by foreign influence." Sethi or Sethos, a ruler whose reign represents the Augustan age of Egyptian splendor, received his name from this Deity. It is said that during the twentieth dynasty Seth is suddenly portrayed as the principle of evil "with which is associated sin." Consequently all the effigies of this great Goddess were destroyed and all her names and inscriptions "which could be reached" were effaced.

    Bunsen tells us that Schelling, who has made a study of Egyptian mythology, although totally ignorant of the later historical facts which by means of hieroglyphical monuments have been obtained, had arrived at the conclusion that Seth had occupied an important position in the Deity down to the fourteenth century B.C. "Schelling had on mere speculative grounds been brought to lay down as a postulate that Typhon, at some early period, had been considered by the Egyptians as a beneficent and powerful God."

    Wilkinson says that the character given to Seth, who was called Baal-Seth and the God of the Gentiles, "is explained by his being the cause of evil." We are assured that formerly "Sin the great serpent, or Apophis the giant, was distinct from Seth who was a deity and a part of the divine system. But after the recondite principles underlying sun-worship were lost or forgotten; when cold and darkness, or the sinking away of the sun's rays, which are necessary to the reappearance of light and warmth, came to be regarded as the destructive element, or the evil principle, woman became identified with this principle. She was the producer of evil, and came to be represented in connection with a serpent as the cause of all earthly or material things. She is Destruction, but not Regeneration. She is in fact matter. The cold of winter and the darkness of night, which are necessary to the return of the sun's warmth and which were formerly set forth as a beneficent mother who brings forth the sun, became only the evil principle–that which obscures the light. In fact Darkness or absence of the sun's heat has become the Devil. It is the "cause of evil in the world."

    With woman blinded by superstition, with every instinct of the female nature outraged, and with her position as the central figure in the Deity and in the family usurped, her temples were soon profaned, her images defiled, and the titles representing her former greatness transferred to males.

    There is no doubt but this doctrine was the legitimate outcome of the decay of female influence. Through the further stimulation of the lower nature of man its absurdity gradually increased, until under the system calling itself Christian it finally reached its height. This subject will be referred to later in these pages.

    When we remember that the original representation of the Deity among the nations of the earth consisted of a female figure embracing a child, and when we observe that subsequently in the development of the god-idea woman appears associated with a serpent as the cause of evil in the world, the history of the God Seth, who, as we have seen, represented the processes of Nature, namely Destruction and Regeneration, seems quite significant as indicating some of the actual processes involved in this change.

    There can be little doubt that the facts relating to this Deity indicate the source whence has sprung the great theological dogma underlying Christianity, that woman is the cause of evil in the world.

    This above section was created by Philipp Lenssen. Source: Burt Gamble, Eliza, God Idea of the Ancients or Sex in Religion 1897.
    The Gods of the Phoenicians also Kings of Atlantis

    Not alone were the gods of the Greeks the deified kings of Atlantis, but we find that the mythology of the Phoenicians was drawn from the same source.

    For instance, we find in the Phoenician cosmogony that the Titans (Rephaim) derive their origin from the Phoenician gods Agrus and Agrotus. This connects the Phoenicians with that island in the remote west, in the midst of ocean, where, according to the Greeks, the Titans dwelt.

    According to Sanchoniathon, Ouranos was the son of Autochthon, and, according to Plato, Autochthon was one of the ten kings of Atlantis. He married his sister Ge. He is the Uranos of the Greeks, who was the son of Gaea (the earth), whom he married. The Phoenicians tell us, "Ouranos had by Ge four sons: Ilus (El), who is called Chronos, and Betylus (Beth-El), and Dagon, which signifies bread-corn, and Atlas (Tammuz?)." Here, again, we have the names of two other kings of Atlantis. These four sons probably represented four races, the offspring of the earth. The Greek Uranos was the father of Chronos, and the ancestor of Atlas. The Phoenician god Ouranos had a great many other wives: his wife Ge was jealous; they quarrelled, and he attempted to kill the children he had by her. This is the legend which the Greeks told of Zeus and Juno. In the Phoenician mythology Chronos raised a rebellion against Ouranos, and, after a great battle, dethroned him. In the Greek legends it is Zeus who attacks and overthrows his father, Chronos. Ouranos had a daughter called Astarte (Ashtoreth), another called Rhea. "And Dagon, after he had found out bread-corn and the plough, was called Zeus-Arotrius."

    We find also, in the Phoenician legends, mention made of Poseidon, founder and king of Atlantis.

    Chronos gave Attica to his daughter Athena, as in the Greek legends. In a time of plague be sacrificed his son to Ouranos, and "circumcised himself, and compelled his allies to do the same thing." It would thus appear that this singular rite, practised as we have seen by the Atlantidae of the Old and New Worlds and the red men of America, dates back, as we might have expected, to Atlantis.

    "Chronos visits the different regions of the habitable world."

    He gave Egypt as a kingdom to the god Taaut, who had invented the alphabet. The Egyptians called him Thoth, and he was represented among them as "the god of letters, the clerk of the under-world," bearing a tablet, pen, and palm-branch.

    This not only connects the Phoenicians with Atlantis, but shows the relations of Egyptian civilization to both Atlantis and the Phoenicians.

    There can be no doubt that the royal personages who formed the gods of Greece were also the gods of the Phoenicians. We have seen the Autochthon of Plato reappearing in the Autochthon of the Phoenicians; the Atlas of Plato in the Atlas of the Phoenicians; the Poseidon of Plato in the Poseidon of the Phoenicians; while the kings Mestor and Mneseus of Plato are probably the gods Misor and Amynus of the Phoenicians.

    Sanchoniathon tells us, after narrating all the discoveries by which the people advanced to civilization, that the Cabiri set down their records of the past by the command of the god Taaut, "and they delivered them to their successors and to foreigners, of whom one was Isiris (Osiris), the inventor of the three letters, the brother of Chua, who is called the first Phoenician."1

    Notes for AZURA:
    The name Azura the sister/wife of Set means ‘blue’ as in ‘blue sky’ or heavens.

    Azur: Female Persian name meaning "blue"

    Azura: Female Persian name meaning "blue"

    The sky is called Nut in Egypt :

    The sky goddess whose arched body formed the vault of heaven gave birth to the sun each dawn and swallowed him each dusk; conversely, she bore the myriad stars each evening and gobbled them up each dawn.

    The help was the word Azar and the meet was also the word Azar. This word is intensified when it is doubled although they leave that out in the Concordance renderings. When speaking about Chavvah the ‘mother of all living’ as she is called by Adam her husband. She is referred to as Azar-Azar.

    In the extra-biblical literature Enosh mother is Azura, his sister who coincidentally is named after her mother’s role as Azar-Azar, helpmeet and binder, defender and protector in the Garden.

    Azura means blue sky …but also relates to the mother of all living and her role in the garden for the man. Azura was [said to be] the daughter of Eve and wife of Enosh and that same name can also mean Fire.

    But, what are the Hebrew words for Blue sky? Here the Hebrew word is suppose to be [email protected] {tek-ay'-leth} because of the blue dye found in a snail in the Indian Ocean , but that seems a bit circuitous. That word references a Cerulean purple color and not blue, but the prime root word is [email protected] {shekh-ay'-leth} which relates to incense from India called onycha.

    Then we get to the root word: shachal {shakh'-al} which is defined as a black lion [Syrian]. We never get to the color blue that was the color of the sky first heaven, but we get a black purple reference for the sky which can only be the night or the distant vault of the heavens. That was also represented by Nut in Egypt.

    "The word for Sky or Heavens in Hebrew is: Shamayim {shaw-mah'-yim} dual of an unused singular Shameh {shaw-meh'} which means firmament or vault over the globe of earth. "

    The Egyptian iconic image is this, a dark blue-black woman with a body of stars or Kohab.

    Black Lion: In some cosmologies Leo, the lion is associated with the classical element Fire, and thus called a Fire Sign. Azura is also the name for Fire.

    There it is the ‘Vault of Heaven’ the same symbolism as 'Nut' in Egypt. Here is further extra-biblical proof Seth’s wife and her name Azura is an astrological reference that can be traced to Egypt.

    Habar {haw-bar'} which they call: a primitive root of uncertain derivation, is related to the Heavens and those who plot them called astrologers or those who divide the heavens into quadrants.

    So, the Hebrew reference for the word Azura rendered ‘Blue Sky’ is actually the same as the Black Vault in the Heavens that is the realm of the astrologers. Her name is an astrological reference. How does Azura the night sky relate to Set?

    Set is the god or neteru of the night and Azura is the night sky. What is the Astrological or Astro-theological reference?

    Yet, Set was thought to be a follower [as night follows day] of Ra [Day/Sun]. It was he who defended the Solar Barque each night as it traveled through the underworld, the only Egyptian deity who could kill the serpent Apep - Ra's most dangerous enemy - each night as it threatened to swallow the Barque [Ark].

    Then Set, the strong one, the son of Nut, said "As for me, I am Set, the strongest of the Divine Company. Every day I slay the enemy of Ra when I stand at the helm of the Barque of Millions of Years, which no other god dare do."[3]

    M’azzar’oth meaning "From the night skies" [with a feminine plural ending OT]. ‘M’ is the prefix from in Hebrew and ‘son’ in Egyptian and west African languages..

    So, that would leave the word 'azzar/azar' the OT is a feminine ending and the M means son. Azar meaning the helper and the vault in heaven.

    The meaning of the word Mazzaroth has been in contention for some hundreds of years as the scarce but, adequate literature confirms. Traditional sources generally interpret the word as meaning constellation, though usually understood in the plural, constellations; where others agree it specifically refers to the zodiac and possibly the planet ‘Venus’

    Leo: It is the domicile of the Sun. The Egyptian pharaoh Nechepso, and his priest Petosiris, taught that at the creation of the world the Sun rose here near Denebola, and hence Leo was Domicilium Solis, the emblem of fire and heat, and the "House of the Sun".

    House of the Sun is Heliopolis and also relates to Zion in Israel .

    However, for those with an enquiring desire for the esoteric elements of the mystery of the M’azzar’oth, much will be revealed and certain elements of truth will not be lost, but remain for all generations : even as the author of the Book of Job intended, for the things which are revealed are ours and our children's forever [Deuteronomy 29:29].

    According to the ancient Hebrews, the names of the constellations, figures and the signs of the ancient zodiac were given by Yahweh (the unutterable name of God) from the beginning of creation; however as it has been known to happen, certain etymological meanings and roots have eroded throughout time, with the ancient Hebrew language undergoing numerous changes and modifications in its history.[4]

    Again: M’Azzar’oth contains the word Azzar or Azar meaning helper or comforter and the "Feminine One" who is the covering and alludes to the vault of heaven as we have shown or the Egyptian iconographic image of Nut the vault over the sky.

    See artistic depiction of Nut [Sky] and Geb [Earth] with his penis pointed at her navel.

    M’ azzar’ oth means: From the ‘helping one/feminine’ in the Heavens. Set was a God of the night sky, storms and earthquakes.

    He was strongly worshipped in Upper Egypt and the Delta. His birthday was celebrated at the end of the year. [see Dec 25th].

    Description: “In early times Set was worshipped as the god of wind and the desert storms, and prayed to that he would grant the strength of the storms to his followers. Although he was always a dark and moody god, he was believed to be the ally of his brother and sister, Osiris and Isis, the counterpart to his sister-wife Nephthys, and the defender of their father, Ra.[5]

    Seth was called the seed of his mother. The variant spelling of the name is Sheth, Shethar {shay-thawr'} which is Persian for the word ‘star’ found in the book of Esther 1:14, which is the 7 princes of the Medo-Persian empires which references the belt of Orion or 7 stars in his belt.

    See Orion over Giza [next]

    Shethar Bowzanay {sheth-ar' bo-zen-ah'-ee} is called the star of Splendor a prince of Persia . Ezra 5:3, 6:6

    So we can say that Seth or Sheth is another word for Star in another language other than Hebrew, although it is used in the bible but said it is of unknown derivation by the Concordance people.

    Now the Hebrew word for Star is kowkab {ko-kawb'} from the root: To burn and to hollow, to trace or excavate, like a window or aperture or hole to bore through.

    Although the meaning may escape the Concordance people it is obvious to me, the stars in the night sky look as though they are holes in a cloth or blanket in which light shines through. This is also to the word for stargazer or seer. Even the American Algonquin Indians understood the simplicity of it all.

    7 stars of Orion

    "Long ago, the Indians believed the departed left this world and their spirits went to the happy hunting grounds in the sky. At night, the Great Spirit would draw a blanket over the sky to make it dark. The Indians believed the points of light seen in the blanket were holes made by the spirits as they passed through the blanket on their way to the happy hunting grounds. Some of the holes were large, making bright points of light, while others were so small they were hardly visible. The Indians thought that the size of the hole had nothing to do with how powerful a chief the person had been, or how large his land was, or how many enemies he had killed in battle, but instead was larger for the number of good deeds and acts of kindness the departed had done throughout his life."[6]

    Let’s put a conclusion on this short essay by looking at the scriptures in Genesis 4:25-26 in a new light:

    And Adam knew his wife again; and she bare a son, and called his name Seth: For Elohim [plural/nerteru], said she, hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew.

    And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enos [synonym for Adam or man]: then began men to call upon the name of the Lord or call themselves by the name of the Lord.

    To summarize our initial scripture and put it in context of the Egyptian Creation story of the heavens and stars reinterpreted into man and mankind by the Hebrews.

    "Genesis 4:25 And Adam knew his wife again; and she bare a son, and called his name Seth [appointed]: For Elohim [the many], said she [life], hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew."

    "Genesis 4:26 And to Seth [appointed], to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enos: then began men to call upon the name of the LORD."

    Here is the summary to Genesis 4

    25"And mankind/male and female knew and understood and was initiated by this; and she bare a class of guild of men/women and call them by the name of the [son] of the night sky. For the attributes of the One God and she [life] hath appointed me another seed [That from which anything springs; first principle; original; source] instead of the vapor/spirit, whom the man of the Lord slew.

    26 "[Seth] the son of the night sky, the seed of the mother of all living [Eve], who was married to his sister/wife [Azura] the ‘vault of heaven’ that held the stars out on a blanket, the protector, gave birth to son or class/guild/order of men/stargazers [Enosh]. Then they [the sons of Enoshian class] men began to call on the attributes of name LORD/God/Elohim."
     
  2. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    The following attachment is a pdf file of the entire text which is a 'rough draft' of my unpublished work known collectively as 'The Bible With Complexion'. I am making this information available for the first time. It is the culmination of intensive and extensive genealogical research conducted between 1988-November 2011. 'The Bible With Complexion' is not a single text. It is a compendium of over 137 books (at last count) generated from genealogical reports as well as research notes, a personal manuscript, and thousands of supporting documents. This has become a second generational project which was begun by my father Johnny B. Connor, Jr (1935-1990). It began with our family history and began to involve into a critique of this genealogy which was supported by the research and publications by several family members. The vast majority of the information in the early stages was strictly factional and over time it began to evole into a body of written material based on oral history and written record related to Biblical scholarship and its relationship to African and World History. My personal contribution has been to establish the linkages to Ancient Kemet, Ethiopia, Kush, etc. The culmination of this research was recently achieved and this resulted in the articles and blogposts that I have been sharing lately related to what I refer to as 'Oromiya'.

    As with any work based on human genealogy, there are areas of speculation, some of mythic and legendary proportions, while others are obviously contradictory and historical fabrication. What I have attempted in this work is to establish common reference points so that African/Black people can use this body of information to asist in their own family research, while understanding some of the historical events which have been purposely white-washed, erased and plagarised then codified into Western European spirituality/religious systems. I grant permission for the contents of these documents to be shared for educational purposes and human enlightenment.

    Hetep'tah!
     
  3. Clyde C Coger Jr

    Clyde C Coger Jr going above and beyond PREMIUM MEMBER

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    In the Spirit of Sankofa,

    .......Good to see you are now public, at least on Destee.com, with this well prepared thesis. Here's a link in witness to a conversation between us and shows how long ago we had dialog about it:

    http://destee.com/index.php?threads/color-of-the-cross.42995/page-69#post-447950

    The question I asked then has now been answered...(Have you made any progress on completing Dad's work: The Bible has Complexion?)

    Peace In,

     
  4. skuderjaymes

    skuderjaymes Contextualizer Synthesizer MEMBER

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    wow.. wow.. thanks for this.. I'm so used to being charged for insight I don't know how to act..
    I already have a digital library of your posts in the history/culture section.. the book of omo...
    can't wait to read this..

    -thanks again..
     
  5. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Brother Clyde,

    At last I have decided that the work of my Father is sufficient in its present form. It's been a long journey and I decided to use the internet for releasing/publishing this material rather than go the traditional book publishing.

    Peace.
     
  6. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    You are welcome my brother!

    In the near future I will also share the link to my blogsite soon as I complete editing and bookmarking my internet archives.

    Peace.
     
  7. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    TBWC cont.,

    Generation No. 3

    3. ENOSH3 (THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) He married NOAM.

    Notes for ENOSH:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Enos or Enosh (Hebrew: ???????, Standard Enoš, Tiberian 'Enôš; "mortal man"; Ge'ez: ??? Henos), in the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible, is the first son of Seth who figures in the Generations of Adam, and consequently referred to within the genealogies of Chronicles, and of Genealogy of Jesus according to Luke 3:38.

    According to Genesis, Seth was 105 years old when Enos was born[1] (but the Septuagint version gives 205 years[2]), and Seth had further sons and daughters. He was the grandson of Adam and Eve (Genesis 5:6-11; Luke 3:38). According to Seder Olam Rabbah, based on Jewish reckoning, he was born in 235 AM. According to the Septuagint, it was in 435 AM.

    Enos was the father of Kenan, who was born when Enos was 90 years old[3] (or 190 years, according to the Septuagint). According to the Bible he lived 905 years.

    "Call upon the name of the Lord"Genesis 4:26 says that "at that time men began to call upon the name of the Lord". In giving a meaning to the statement, commentators have proposed that it means either (1) then began men to call themselves by the name of the Lord (marg.) i.e., to distinguish themselves thereby from idolaters; or (2) then men in some public and earnest way began to call upon the Lord, indicating a time of spiritual revival.

    The traditional Jewish interpretation of this verse, though, implies that it marked the beginning of idolatry, i.e. that men start dubbing "Lord" things that were mere creatures. This is because the previous generations, notably Adam, had already "begun calling upon the name of the Lord", which forces us to interpret ???? huchal not as "began" but as the homonym "profanated". In this light, Enosh suggests the notion of a humanity (Enoshut) thinking of itself as an absolute rather than in relation to God (Enosh vs. Adam).

    In Christianity
    According to the Book of Jubilees (4:11-13) in the Ethiopian Orthodox Bible, Enos was born in 235 AM, and "he began to call on the name of the Lord on the earth." He married his sister, No'am, and she bore him Kenan in the year 325 AM. Ethiopian Orthodox tradition considers him a "faithful and righteous servant of God", and further credits him with the introduction, following a divine revelation, of the Ge'ez alphabet in its original, consonant-only form, "as an instrument for codifying the laws".[4]

    Enos is commemorated as one of the Holy Forefathers in the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church, with a feast day on July 30. He is also included in the Genealogy of Jesus, according to Luke 3:23–28.[5]

    E’nosh was the son, brought forth by Seth, who was brought forth by Eve or Chavvah, the ‘mother of all living’ as a replacement for the slain Abel or Hevel. [Hebel] Abel of Ay-bel means breath or vapor. It can also mean vanity or something transitory and unsatisfactory. Cain the slayer of Abel or the breath or vapor means: The boy's name Cain/Cain is pronounced Kayin. It is of Hebrew origin, and its meaning is "something produced; spear". The spear is usually a phallic reference a weapon of authority in battle and genetics. See Baruch - to praise also a spear. The Hebrews understood that 'praise' or Baruch [Baruch Atah Adonai Elyohenu Melek Ha Olam] was the first go up in battle, so Judah went first. The tribe of Judah were probably the spearmen as well as singers.

    Seth or Shet (Hebrew: ????, Standard Šet, Tiberian Še?; Arabic: ??? Shith or Shiyth; "Placed; appointed"), in the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible, is the third listed son of Adam and Eve and brother of Cain and Abel and is the only other son mentioned by name.

    According to Genesis 4:25, Seth was born after the slaying of Abel by Cain, and Eve believed God had appointed him as "replacement" for Abel "because Cain killed him"...According to the Book of Jubilees, Seth married his younger sister Azura, was 105 when his son Enos was born, and died at the age of 912.[2]

    Due to developments in the Egyptian language over the 3,000 years that Set was worshipped, by the Greek period, the t in Set was pronounced so indistinguishably from ‘th’ that the Greeks spelt it as Seth.

    Remember, we do have a Greek Old Testament the Septuagint.

    Child of ENOSH and NOAM is:
    4. i. KENAN4.

    Generation No. 4

    4. KENAN4 (ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) He married MUALELETH.

    Notes for KENAN:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Kenan (also spelled Qenan or Kaïnan, as found in Luke 3:36, 37), Hebrew: ??????, Modern Keinan Tiberian Qênan ; "possession; smith", or Cainan, was a Biblical patriarch first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible Book of Genesis as living before the Great Flood.

    Family
    According to Genesis 5:9-14, Kenan/Cainan was a son of Enos and an unnamed woman, and a grandson of Seth. Born when Enos was ninety years old,[1] Kenan had his only named son, Mahalalel, when he was seventy.[2] Other sons and daughters were born to Kenan before he died at 910 years of age.

    According to Book of Jubilees, Kenan's mother was Noam, wife and sister of Enos; and Kenan's wife, Mualeleth, was his sister.

    Postdiluvian Cainan
    Main article: Cainan
    Two men named Cainan are mentioned in the genealogy of Jesus given in Luke 3 in the New Testament. One of these is the son of Enos above; a second Cainan is listed as the son of Arpachshad and father of Saleh, who lived in the time between Noah and Abraham.

    This Cainan also appears in the Septuagint (Greek) Old Testament, but is omitted by the Hebrew Masoretic text. For this reason, this second Cainan is considered to be a scribal error by some scholars.[3] Nevertheless, a substantial number of traditions about this other Cainan exist in the history of literature.

    Child of KENAN and MUALELETH is:
    5. i. MAHALELEL5.

    Generation No. 5

    5. MAHALELEL5 (KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) He married DINAH.

    Notes for MAHALELEL:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Mahalalel was a son of Kenan, son of Enos, son of Seth, son of Adam in the Old Testament of the Bible. He was also the father of Jared and the grandfather of Enoch II.

    Although Mahalalel's wife is not named in the Bible, her name in the Book of Jubilees is Dinah; she was Mahalalel's cousin and mother of Jared.

    He appears in the Book of Genesis 5:12-17, and according to the book, he lived 895 years, placing him eighth in the records for the unusually long lifespans for the antediluvian patriarchs.

    Later references to Mahalalel include 1 Chronicles 1:1, Jubilees 4:14–15 and Gospel of Luke 3:37. Enoch’s first dream vision in 1 Enoch 83 recounts the dream that Enoch had in the house of Mahalalel his grandfather, and which Mahalalel explains to him.

    Child of MAHALELEL and DINAH is:
    6. i. JARED6.

    Generation No. 6

    6. JARED6 (MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) He married BARAKA.

    Notes for JARED:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    His father Mahalalel, great-grandson of Seth, son of Adam, was stated to be 65 years of age when Jared was born. In the apocryphal Book of Jubilees, his mother's name is Dinah. His primary history is recounted in Genesis 5:18-20.

    Jubilees adds that Jared married Beraka, and the Bible speaks of Jared having become father to many sons and daughters. Of those children, only Enoch is named specifically, born when Jared was 162 years old (Genesis 5:18, 5:22a, 5:24, Hebrews 11:5b, Jude 14-15). Enoch went on to marry Edna, according to Jubilees, and the sole named grandchild of Jared is Enoch's son Methuselah, the longest-living human mentioned in the Bible (Genesis 5:18, 5:21, 5:27).

    Additionally, Jared was a forefather of Noah and his three sons. Jared's age was given as 962 years old when he died, making him the second-oldest person mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and the Septuagint. In the Samaritan Pentateuch, his age was 62 at fatherhood and only 847 at death, making Noah the oldest and Jared the seventh-oldest.

    Name
    In English translations of the Bible, such as the King James Version of the Bible, the classical Biblical pronunciation of the English name Jared is /'d???r?d/; generally though it is pronounced /'d??r?d/ or /'d??r?d/. The spelling of the identical name in 1 Chronicles is Jered. The original Hebrew pronunciation of the name, ???, found in the Hebrew Bible, was similar but with an initial y sound: ['j?r?ð].

    According to the Book of Enoch, Mahalalel named [his son] Jared "descent" because during his lifetime the angels of the Lord who were called Watchers descended to earth to teach mankind and to do what is just and upright upon the earth".

    Longevity
    For more details on this topic, see Biblical longevity.
    In recent history, the oldest person documented beyond reasonable doubt, Jeanne Calment, died in 1997, aged 122; demographic study of modern human longevity gives odds of trillions to one against humans today reaching 130. The application of modern demographic data to ancient eras is unclear. The extreme ages of the Hebrew Bible exhibit a decrease over time, and the Biblical upper limit of longevity has been categorized by Witness Lee as having four successive plateaus of 1,000, 500, 200, and finally 120 years.

    Accordingly, these very long lifespans have been a source of much speculation, with special emphasis on Methuselah and Jared as record-holders. Biblical apologists hold that sin, loss of the water-canopy firmament, and DNA breakdown all contribute to decreased lifespans. Form critics hold variously that the yearly and monthly cycle were confused, simplifying some dates; that numbers were converted incorrectly; or that other reinterpretation is necessary. If "year" is interpreted consistently as "month", numbers like Jared's age become reasonable (962 lunar months or 78 years), but other numbers become more unreasonable (fathering children at age 5).[1]

    References

    1.^ Morris, Henry M. (1976). The Genesis Record: A Scientific and Devotional Commentary on the Book of Beginnings. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House. p. 159. ISBN 0801060044. "Such an interpretation would have made Enoch only five years old when his son was born!"

    Notes for BARAKA:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Baraka means blessing in Hebrew, Arabic and Arabic-influenced languages. It may refer to:

    Baraka, also berakhah, in Judaism, a blessing usually recited during a ceremony
    Baraka, also barakah, in Arabic Islam and Arabic-influenced languages such as Swahili, Urdu, Persian, Turkish, a blessing from God in the form of spiritual wisdom or divine presence. Also a spiritual power believed to be possessed by certain persons, objects, tombs.
    Baraka, a rarely used French slang term for luck, derived from the Arabic word
    Baraka, fully ?abbat al-barakah, aka Nigella sativa, a spice with purported health benefits
    Baraka Bashad, meaning "may the blessings be" or just "blessings be", originally a Sufi expression and also used in Eckankar

    Child of JARED and BARAKA is:
    7. i. ENOCH7.

    Generation No. 7

    7. ENOCH7 (JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) He married EDNA.

    Notes for ENOCH:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Enoch (Hebrew: ???????, Modern H_anokh Tiberian ?ano?; Arabic: ?????? 'Idris) is a figure in the Generations of Adam. Enoch is described as Adam's greatx4 grandson, through Seth, and the text reads—uniquely in the Generations—that Enoch "walked with God: and he was not; for God took him," avoiding the mortal death ascribed to Adam's other descendants. Additionally, Enoch is described as the father of Methuselah and great-grandfather of Noah (Genesis 5:22-29). Enoch is the son of Jared.

    Despite the brief descriptions of him, Enoch is one of the main two focal points for much of the 1st millennium BC Jewish mysticism, notably in the Book of Enoch. Additionally, Enoch is important in some Christian denominations: He is commemorated as one of the Holy Forefathers in the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Armenian Catholic Church on July 26. He also features in the Latter Day Saint movement.

    Enoch appears in Genesis as the seventh of the ten pre-Deluge Patriarchs. The function of the Patriarchs is primarily to mark the passage of immense periods of time[citation needed]: each lives for several centuries, has a son, lives more centuries, and dies. Enoch is unique in the series on two counts: his life-span of 365 years is extremely short in the context of his long-lived peers, and he does not die, the Bible noting rather that "he was not, for God took him." (Genesis 5:22-29).

    Enoch in Judaism
    In the Septuagint the phrase "God took him" is rendered with the Greek verb metatithemi (µetat???µ?)[1] a common Greek verb for moving from one place to another.[2]

    Sirach 44:16 states, "Enoch pleased God and was translated into paradise that he may give repentance to the nations."

    The Books of EnochThree extensive apocryphal works are attributed to Enoch:

    1st Book of Enoch, or simply the Book of Enoch, an apocryphal book in the Ethiopic Bible that is usually dated between the third century BC and the first century AD.
    2nd Book of Enoch, an apocryphal book in the Old Slavonic Bible usually dated to the first century AD.
    3rd Book of Enoch, a Kabbalistic Rabbinic text in Hebrew usually dated to the fifth century AD.
    These recount how Enoch is taken up to Heaven and is appointed guardian of all the celestial treasures, chief of the archangels, and the immediate attendant on God's throne. He is subsequently taught all secrets and mysteries and, with all the angels at his back, fulfils of his own accord whatever comes out of the mouth of God, executing His decrees. Enoch was also seen as the inventor of writing, and teacher of astronomy and arithmetic, all three reflecting the interpretation of his name as meaning initiated. Much esoteric literature like the 3rd Book of Enoch identifies Enoch as the Metatron, the angel which communicates God's word. In consequence, Enoch was seen, by this literature, and the ancient kabbala of Jewish mysticism, as having been the one which communicated God's revelation to Moses, in particular, the dictator of the Book of Jubilees.

    Enoch in classical Rabbinical literature
    In classical Rabbinical literature, there are divergent opinions of Enoch. After Christianity and Judaism had separated, the prevailing view regarding Enoch was that of Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, which thought of Enoch as a pious man, taken to Heaven, and receiving the title of Safra rabba (Great scribe).

    However, while Christianity was separating from Judaism, the Jewish view of Enoch was he was the only pious man of his time and was taken away before he would become corrupted.

    According to Rashi[3] [from Genesis Rabba[4]], “Enoch was a righteous man, but he could easily be swayed to return to do evil. Therefore, the Holy One, blessed be He, hastened and took him away and caused him to die before his time. For this reason, Scripture changed [the wording] in [the account of] his demise and wrote, ‘and he was no longer’ in the world to complete his years.

    Among the minor Midrashim, esoteric attributes of Enoch are expanded upon. In the Sefer Hekalot, Rabbi Ishmael is described as having visited the 7th Heaven, where he meets Enoch, who claims that earth had, in his time, been corrupted by the demons Shammazai, and Azazel, and so Enoch was taken to Heaven to prove that God was not cruel. Similar traditions are recorded in Sirach. Later elaborations of this interpretation treated Enoch as having been a pious ascetic, who, called to mix with others, preached repentance, and gathered (despite the small number of people on Earth) a vast collection of disciples, to the extent that he was proclaimed king. Under his wisdom, peace is said to have reigned on earth, to the extent that he is summoned to Heaven to rule over the sons of God. In a parallel with Elijah, in sight of a vast crowd begging him to stay, he ascends to Heaven on a horse.

    Enoch is often confused with Enos. However, Enos is grandson to Adam (Genesis 5:5-6), and great-great-grandfather of Enoch (Genesis 5:9-18).

    Enoch in Christianity
    Elijah and Enoch - an icon 17th cent., Historic Museum in Sanok, Poland[edit] New TestamentThe New Testament contains 3 references to Enoch. The first is a brief mention in Luke's genealogy of the ancestors of Jesus (Luke 3:37).

    The second mention is where the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews writes, "By faith Enoch was transferred, that he should not see death, and was not found, because God had transferred him; for before his transference he had the witness that he had pleased God well." (Hebrews 11:5)

    The third mention is in the Epistle of Jude (1:14-15) where the author attributes to "Enoch, the Seventh from Adam" a passage unknown in the Old Testament. The quotation is believed by most modern scholars to be taken from 1 Enoch 1:9 which exists in Greek, in Ethiopic, as part of the Ethiopian Orthodox canon, and also in Aramaic among the Dead Sea Scrolls.[5][6] Though the same scholars recognise that 1 Enoch 1:9 itself is a midrash of the words of Moses "he came from the ten thousands of holy ones" from Deuteronomy 33:2.[7][8][9][10][11] The introductory phrase "Enoch, the Seventh from Adam" is also found in 1 Enoch (1 En. 60:8), though not in the Old Testament.[12] In the New Testament this Enoch prophesies "to"[13] ungodly men, that God shall come with His holy ones to judge and convict them (Jude 1:14-15).[14]

    Early Christianity
    Early Christianity contains various traditions concerning the "translation" of Enoch.

    Regarding the quotation in Jude, most of early Christianity considered it an independent quotation pre-dating the flood. Regarding the Book of Enoch itself Origen, Jerome and Augustin mention it, but as of no authority. Justin, Athenagoras, Irenaeus, Clemens Alexandrinus, Lactantius, and others borrowed an opinion out of this book of Enoch, that the angels had connection with the daughters of men, of whom they had offspring ('the giants of the past'). Tertullian, in several places, speaks of this book with esteem; and would persuade us, that it was preserved by Noah during the deluge.

    Medieval and Reformation
    According to the Figurists (a group of Jesuit missionaries mainly led by Joachim Bouvet into China at the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century and based on ideas of Matteo Ricci 1552 to 1610),[15][16][17] Fu Xi in China's ancient history is actually Enoch.[18][19][20]

    Modern Christianity
    Enoch is not counted as a saint in Roman Catholic tradition, though Enoch has a saints day, July 26, in the Armenian Apostolic Church. The "St. Enoch" in the place name St. Enoch's Square, Glasgow, is a corruption from the site of a medieval chapel to Saint Teneu, the legendary mother of Saint Mungo, and unconnected with Enoch.

    Enoch is revered in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, and the Enochic texts Jubilees and 1 Enoch regarded as the 13th and 14th books, respectively, of the Tewahedo Old Testament canon.[21] Most churches, including the Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Protestant churches, do not accept the books.

    Some Evangelical commentators consider Enoch to be one of the Two Witnesses in the Book of Revelation due to the fact that he did not die according to Genesis 5:24. Two televangelists holding this view, for example, are Pastor John Hagee of Christians United for Israel and Hebrew Roots Bible teacher Perry Stone.

    Enoch in Islam
    Main article: Idris (Islamic Prophet)
    In the Quran, Enoch is sometimes identified with Idris, as for example by the History of Al-Tabari and the Meadows of Gold.[22] The Quran contains two references to Idris; in Surah Al-Anbiya (The Prophets) verse number 85, and in Surah Maryam (Mary) verses 56-57:

    (The Prophets, 21:85): "And the same blessing was bestowed upon Ismail and Idris and Zul-Kifl, because they all practised fortitude."
    (Mary 19:56-57): "And remember Idris in the Book; he was indeed very truthful, a Prophet. And We lifted him to a lofty station".
    Idris is closely linked in Muslim tradition with the origin of writing and other technical arts of civilization,[23] including the study of astronomical phenomena, both of which Enoch is credited with in the Testament of Abraham.[24] Nonetheless, even aside from the identification of Idris and Enoch, many Muslims still honor Enoch as one of the earliest prophets, regardless of whether they equate him with Idris or not.[25] Thus, views on Enoch are divided into two groups:

    The first believes that Enoch and Idris are one and the same.
    The second believes that Enoch and Idris are two different prophets.
    [edit] Enoch in LDS theologyAmong the Latter Day Saint movement and particularly in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Enoch is viewed as having founded an exceptionally righteous city, named Zion, in the midst of an otherwise wicked world. This view is encountered in the Mormon scripture (see Standard Works), the Pearl of Great Price and the Doctrine and Covenants, which states that not only Enoch, but the entire peoples of the city of Zion, were taken off this earth without death, because of their piety. (Zion is defined as "the pure in heart" and this city of Zion will return to the earth at the Second Coming of Jesus Christ.) The Doctrine and Covenants further states that Enoch prophesied that one of his descendants, Noah, and his family, would survive a Great Flood and thus carry on the human race and preserve the Gospel. The Book of Moses in the Pearl of Great Price has several chapters that give an account of Enoch's preaching, visions and conversations with God. In these same chapters are details concerning the wars, violence and natural disasters in Enoch's day, and notable miracles performed by Enoch. The Book of Moses is itself an excerpt from Joseph Smith's translation of the Bible, which is published in full, complete with these chapters concerning Enoch, by Community of Christ, as the Holy Scriptures/Inspired Version of the Bible, where it appears as part of the Book of Genesis. D&C 104:24 (CofC) / 107:48-49 (LDS) states that Adam ordained Enoch to the higher priesthood (now called the Melchizedek, after the great high priest) at age 25, that he was 65 when Adam blessed him, and he lived 365 years after that until he was translated, so making him 430 years old when that occurred.

    Additionally in LDS theology, Enoch is implied to be the scribe who recorded Adam's blessings and prophecies at Adam-ondi-Ahman, as recorded in D&C 107:53-57 (LDS) / D&C 104:29b (CofC).

    External links
    Jewish Encyclopedia Entry (1911)
    Catholic Encyclopedia Henoch (1914)
    Andrei A. Orlov essays on 2 Enoch: Enoch as the Heavenly Priest, Enoch as the Expert in Secrets, Enoch as the Scribe and Enoch as the Mediator
    Ed. Philip P. Wiener Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Cosmic Voyages (1973)
    Dr. Reed C. Durham, Jr. Comparison of Masonic legends of Enoch and Mormon scriptures description of Enoch (1974)

    References
    1.^ 5:24 ?a? e????st?se? ???? t? ?e? ?a? ??? ????s?et? ?t? µet????e? a?t?? ? ?e??
    2.^ LSJ metatithemi
    3.^ Rashi's Commentary on Genesis 5: 24. See also Commentary of Ibn Ezra.
    4.^ 25:1
    5.^ 4Q Enoch (4Q204[4QENAR]) COL I 16-18
    6.^ Clontz, T.E. and J., "The Comprehensive New Testament with complete textual variant mapping and references for the Dead Sea Scrolls, Philo, Josephus, Nag Hammadi Library, Pseudepigrapha, Apocrypha, Plato, Egyptian Book of the Dead, Talmud, Old Testament, Patristic Writings, Dhammapada, Tacitus, Epic of Gilgamesh", Cornerstone Publications, 2008, p. 711, ISBN 978-0-977873-71-5
    7.^ "The initial oracle in chapters 1-5 is a paraphrase of part of Deuteronomy 33,24" George W. E. Nickelsburg, The nature and function of revelation 1 Enoch, Jubilees and some Qumranic documents, 1997
    8.^ Lars Hartman, Asking for a Meaning: A Study of 1 Enoch 1-5 ConBib NT Series 12 Lund Gleerup, 1979 22-26.
    9.^ George WE Nickelsburg & James C Vanderkam, 1 Enoch, Fortress 2001
    10.^ R.H. Charles, The Book of Enoch, London SPCK, 1917
    11.^ E. Isaac, 1 Enoch, a new Translation and Introduction in Old Testament Pseudepigrapha ed. Charlesworth, Doubleday 1983-85
    12.^ Richard Bauckham Jude and the relatives of Jesus in the early church p206 etc.
    13.^ The use of dative toutois in the Greek text (p??ef?te?se? d? ?a? t??t??? instead of the normal genitive with p??f?te?? propheteuo peri auton, "concerning them") has occasioned discussion among commentators including: Ben Witherington Letters and Homilies for Jewish Christians: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary on Hebrews, James and Jude (9780830829323): "...who might be tempted to follow the teachers' example), nonetheless, Jude says that this prophecy refers to these (toutois) false teachers in Jude 14" p624 John Twycross The New Testament in the original Greek: with notes by C. Wordsworth His warning is addressed to them as well to those of his own and future ages. p140; Cox S. Slandering Celestial Beings Hyderabad 2000 "..but instead Jude wrote proepheteusen toutois (verb + dative case pronoun plural) "prophesied TO these men".." p16
    14.^ Jude 1:14-15
    15.^ http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02723b.htm
    16.^ Brock, H. (1907). Joachim Bouvet. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
    17.^ http://archives.catholic.org.hk/books/author/bouvet.htm
    18.^ Etat présent de la Chine, en figures gravées par P. Giffart sur les dessins apportés au roi par le P. J. Bouvet (Paris, 1697)
    19.^ Portrait histoique de l'empereur de la Chine (Paris, 1697)
    20.^ Li, Shenwen, 2001, Stratégies missionnaires des Jésuites Français en Nouvelle-France et en Chine au XVIIieme siècle, Les Presses de l'Université Laval, L'Harmattan, ISBN 2747511235
    21.^ Tewahedo Orthodox Church
    22.^ Alexander Philip S. Biblical Figures Outside the Bible p.118 ed. Michael E. Stone, Theodore A. Bergren 2002 p118 "twice in the Qur'an.. was commonly identified by Muslim scholars with the biblical Enoch, and that this identification opened the way for importing into Islam a substantial body of postbiblical Jewish legend about the character and ...."
    23.^ History of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, B. M. Wheeler, Enoch
    24.^ History of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, B. M. Wheeler, Enoch
    25.^ Lives of the Prophets, L. Azzam, S. Academy Publishing

    Child of ENOCH and EDNA is:
    8. i. METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC).

    Generation No. 8

    8. METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC) (ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) He married EDNA.

    Notes for METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 2348 BC):
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Methuselah (Hebrew: ??????????? / ???????????, Modern M?tušéla? / M?tušála? Tiberian M??ûšéla? / M??ûšala? ; "Man of the dart/spear", or alternatively "when he dies/died, it shall be sent/has been sent"[citation needed]) is the oldest person whose age is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. Extra-biblical tradition maintains that he died on the 11th of Cheshvan of the year 1656 (Anno Mundi, after Creation), at the age of 969, seven days before the beginning of the Great Flood.[1] According to Rashi on Genesis 7:4, God delayed the Flood specifically because of the seven days of mourning in honor of the righteous Methuselah. Methuselah was the son of Enoch and the grandfather of Noah.

    Children of METHUSALEH BC) and EDNA are:
    9. i. RAKE'EL9.
    10. ii. LAMECH.

    Generation No. 9

    9. RAKE'EL9 (METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1)

    Child of RAKE'EL is:
    11. i. EMZARA10.

    10. LAMECH9 (METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1)

    Notes for LAMECH:
    Lamech is the eighth generation descendant of Seth (Genesis 5:25), the son of Methuselah and the father of Noah (Genesis 5:29), in the genealogy of Seth in Genesis 5. In Genesis 5:12-25, Lamech was a son of Methuselah who was a grandson of Jared who was a grandson of Kenan descended from Adam. In Genesis 4:17-18, Lamech was a son of Methushael who was a grandson of Irad who was a grandson of Cain son of Adam. The Lamech of Genesis 4 and the Lamech of Genesis 5 had ancestral lines with almost identical names plus other intervening ancestors.

    Genesis 5:28-31 records that Lamech was 182 years old at the birth of Noah, and lived for another 595 years after this, placing Lamech's age at death at 777 years, just a few years before the Flood using the Masoretic chronology. With such numbers in this genealogical account, Adam was still alive for about the first 50 (56) years of Lamech's life.

    Child of LAMECH is:
    12. i. NOAH10.

    Generation No. 10

    11. EMZARA10 (RAKE'EL9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) She married NOAH, son of LAMECH.

    Notes for NOAH:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Noah divided the world amongst his three sons, begotten of his wife Titea [Emzara]: viz., to Shem he gave Asia, within the Euphrates, to the Indian Ocean; to Ham he gave Syria, Arabia, and Africa; and to Japhet, the rest of Asia beyond the Euphrates, together with Europe to Gadea (or Cadiz).

    Although the Book of Genesis in the Bible does not give any further information about the four women it says were aboard Noah's Ark during the Flood, there exist substantial extra-Biblical traditions regarding these women and their names.

    In the Book of Jubilees, known to have been in use from the late 2nd century BC, the names of the wives of Noah, Shem, Ham and Japheth are as follows:

    Wife of Noah - Emzara, daughter of Rake'el, son of Methuselah
    Wife of Shem - Sedeqetelebab
    Wife of Ham - Ne'elatama'uk or Na'eltama'uk
    Wife of Japheth - 'Adataneses
    It adds that the three sons after some years struck out in different directions from the original camp near Mount Ararat and founded three villages bearing the names of these three mothers of the human race.

    According to the Sibylline Oracles the wives of Shem, Ham and Japheth enjoyed fantastically long lifespans, living for centuries, while speaking prophecy to each generation they saw come and go. (These are not considered to be the Sibylline books of the Greeks and Romans, which were lost in antiquity, but rather pseudo-Oracles dating from the middle of the 2nd century BC at the earliest to the 5th century AD, composed by Alexandrian Jews and revised and enriched by later Christian editors, all adding texts in the interests of their respective religions.) According to the anonymous preface of the Judeo-Christian Sibylline Oracles, the Sibyl author was a daughter-in-law of Noah: the "Babylonian Sibyl", Sambethe — who, 900 years after the Deluge, allegedly moved to Greece and began writing the Oracles. The writings attributed to her (at the end of Book III) also hint at possible names of her family who would have lived before the Flood — father Gnostos, mother Circe; elsewhere (in book V) she calls Isis her sister. Other early sources similarly name one of the Sibyls as Sabba (see Sibyl in Jewish Encyclopedia).

    The early Christian writer St. Hippolytus (d. 235 AD) recounted a tradition of their names according to the Syriac Targum that is similar to Jubilees, although apparently switching the names of Shem's and Ham's wives. He wrote: The names of the wives of the sons of Noah are these: the name of the wife of Sem, Nahalath Mahnuk; and the name of the wife of Cham, Zedkat Nabu; and the name of the wife of Japheth, Arathka. He also recounts a quaint legend concerning the wife of Ham: God having instructed Noah to destroy the first person who announced that the deluge was beginning, Ham's wife at that moment was baking bread, when water suddenly rushed forth from the oven, destroying the bread. When she exclaimed then that the deluge was commencing, God suddenly cancels his former command lest Noah destroy his own daughter-in-law who was to be saved[1][2].

    An early Arabic work known as Kitab al-Magall or the Book of Rolls (part of Clementine literature), the Syriac Book of the Cave of Treasures (ca. 350), and Patriarch Eutychius of Alexandria (ca. 930) all agree in naming Noah's wife as "Haykêl, the daughter of Namûs (or Namousa), the daughter of Enoch, the brother of Methuselah"; the first of these sources elsewhere calls Haikal "the daughter of Mashamos, son of Enoch", while stating that Shem's wife is called "Leah, daughter of Nasih".

    Furthermore, the Panarion of Epiphanius (ca. 375) names Noah's wife as Barthenos, while the ca. 5th century Ge'ez work Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan calls Noah's wife "Haikal, the daughter of Abaraz, of the daughters of the sons of Enos" — whom some authors have connected with Epiphanius' Barthenos (i.e., Bath-Enos, daughter of Enos)[3]. However, Jubilees makes "Betenos" the name of Noah's mother. The word haykal is Syriac for "temple" or "church"; in the Georgian copy of Cave of Treasures, we find instead the name T'ajar, which is the Georgian word for the same[4].

    Armenian tradition give the name of Noah's wife as Nemzar, Noyemzar or Noyanzar.

    Patriarch Eutychius of Alexandria, writing in Arabic, also states that Shem's wife was Salit, Ham's Nahlat and Japheth's Arisisah, all daughters of Methuselah. The theologian John Gill (1697–1771) wrote in his Exposition of the Bible of this tradition "that the name of Shem's wife was Zalbeth, or, as other copies, Zalith or Salit; that the name of Ham's Nahalath; and of Japheth's Aresisia."

    A manuscript of the 8th century Latin work Inventiones Nominum, copies of which have been found at the Abbey of St. Gall in Switzerland, and in a library at Albi, SW France, lists as Noah's wife Set, as Shem's wife Nora, as Ham's wife Sare, and as Japeth's wife Serac[5].

    Jewish Rabbinic literatureThe Genesis Rabba midrash lists Naamah, the daughter of Lamech and sister of Tubal-Cain, as the wife of Noah, as does the 11th century Jewish commentator Rashi in his commentary on Sefer Bereishis 4:22.

    In the medieval midrash Book of Jasher Chapter 5:15, the name of Noah's wife is said to be Naamah, daughter of Enoch[6].

    Islamic traditions
    The Persian historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (c. 915) recounts that Japheth's wife was Arbasisah, daughter of Marazil, son of al-Darmasil, son of Mehujael, son of Enoch, son of Cain; that Ham's wife was Na?lab, daughter of Marib, another son of al-Darmasil; and that Shem's wife was ?alib, daughter of Batawil, another son of Mehujael. He says Noah's wife was Amzurah, daughter of Barakil, another son of Mehujael.

    (According to George Sale's Commentary on the Quran (1734), some Muslim commentators asserted that Noah had had an infidel wife named Waila, who perished in the deluge, and was thus not aboard the Ark.)

    Irish and Anglo-Saxon traditions
    Irish folklore is rich in traditions and legends regarding the three sons and their wives. Here the wives are usually named Olla, Olliva, and Ollivani (or variations thereof), names possibly derived from the Anglo-Saxon Codex Junius (ca. 700 AD), a Bible paraphrase written in the fashion of Germanic sagas, and often attributed to the poet Caedmon. The wife of Noah is given as Percoba in Codex Junius.

    The Anglo-Saxon "Solomon and Saturn" dialogue gives for Noah's wife Dalila, for Ham's, Jaitarecta, and for Japheth's Catafluvia, while giving Olla, Ollina and Ollibana as alternatives. The name of Shem's wife is missing. Some versions of the Gaelic Lebor Gabala also name Shem's, Ham's and Japheth's wives as Cata Rechta, Cata Flauia and Cata Chasta respectively. Similar traditions seem to have endured for several centuries in some form, for in Petrus Comestor, we read that the wives of Noah, Shem, Ham and Japheth are Phuarpara, Pharphia, Cataflua and Fliva respectively, and in a 15th century Middle English catechism, we find written "What hicht Noes wyf?" "Dalida; and the wif of Sem, Cateslinna; and the wif of Cam, Laterecta; and the wif of Japheth, Aurca. And other 3 names, Ollia, Olina, and Olybana."

    Ælfric of Eynsham's Anglo-Saxon translation of the Heptateuch (ca. 1000) included illustrations with the wives' names recorded in the captions. One such illustration (fol. 17) names Noah's wife as Phiapphara, Shem's as Parsia, Ham's as Cataphua, and Japheth's as Fura[7]. Another (fol. 14) includes one wife, presumably Noah's, named Sphiarphara[8]. A Middle English illustrated version of Genesis dating to the 13th century also gives Puarphara as Noah's wife.

    Mandaeism
    Mandaean literature, of uncertain antiquity, refers to Noah's wife by the name Nuraita (or Nhuraitha, Anhuraita, various other spellings).

    Gnostic literature
    Gnostic literature of the first few centuries AD calls Noah's wife Norea, including texts ascribed to her, as reported by Epiphanius, and confirmed in modern times with the discovery of these texts at Nag Hammadi.

    Képes Krónika
    Hungarian folklore has several tales about Japheth and his wife called Eneh, attributing this information to the Chronicles of Sigilbert, Bishop of Antioch in the 14th century Képes Krónika.

    Pseudo-Berossus
    According to the 15th century monk Annio da Viterbo, the Hellenistic Babylonian writer Berossus had stated that the sons' wives were Pandora, Noela, and Noegla, and that Noah's wife was Tytea. However, Annio's manuscript is widely regarded today as having been a forgery.[9]

    Nonetheless, later writers made use of this "information", sometimes even combining it with other traditions. The Portuguese friar Gaspar Rodriguez de S. Bernardino wrote in Itinerario da India por terra ate a ilha de Chypre in 1842 that the wives of Noah, Shem, Ham and Japheth were named Tytea or Phuarphara, Pandora or Parphia, Noela or Cataflua, and Noegla, Eliua or Arca. In Robert Southey's Common-place Book from around the same time, similar names are given, with the information attributed to the "Comte de Mora Toledo": Titea Magna; Pandora; Noala or Cataflua; and Noegla, Funda or Afia, respectively.

    Comte de Gabalis
    A cabalistic work that appeared in 1670, known as Comte de Gabalis, considered sacred in Rosicrucianism, maintains that the name of Noah's wife was Vesta.

    This name for Noah's wife had earlier been found in Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa's History of the Incas (c. 1550), where the names Prusia or Persia, Cataflua and Funda are also given for Shem, Ham, and Japheth's wives respectively.

    Miautso traditions
    The Miautso people of China preserved in their traditions the name of Noah's wife as Gaw Bo-lu-en.[10]

    The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
    The LDS Book of Abraham, first published in 1842, mentions the name of Egyptus (Abraham 1:23) as being Ham's wife; his daughter apparently has the same name (v. 25).

    References
    1.^ Lexicon Results for Cham (Strong's 02526)
    2.^ Lexicon Results for Shem (Strong's 08035)
    3.^ Lexicon Results for Yepheth (Strong's 03315)
    4.^ Ethnology or The History & genealogy of the human race. By John Thomas Painter
    5.^ JAPHETH Websters Online Dictionary
    6.^ a b c d Mungello, David E. (1989). Curious land: Jesuit accommodation and the origins of Sinology. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 179, 336–337. ISBN 0824812190. http://books.google.com/?id=wb4yPw4ZgZQC&printsec=frontcover&q=Noah#v=snippet&q=Shem&f=false;. "there are more references in that book on the early Jesuits' and others' opinions on Noah's Connection to China"
    7.^ Hebrew word #486 in Strong's
    8.^ Rene Noorbergen (2001). Secrets of the Lost Races: New Discoveries of Advanced Technology in Ancient Civilizations. TEACH Services, Inc.. ISBN 1572581980.
    9.^ Roswell Dwight Hitchcock, Nathaniel West, Alexander Cruden (1870). Hitchcock's New and Complete Analysis of the Holy Bible. A.J. Johnson. ISBN 0837017424. http://christianthings.com/reading/biblena.html.
    10.^ "Almodad". International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 1915.
    11.^ Thomas Inman (2002). "Almodad". Ancient Faiths Embodied in Ancient Names Part 1. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 231. ISBN 0766126684.
    12.^ Alfred J. Kolatch (2005). "Almodad". The Comprehensive Dictionary of English & Hebrew First Names. Jonathan David Company. pp. p39. ISBN 0824604555.
    13.^ David K. Stabnow (2006). "Almodad". HCSB Super Giant Print Dictionary and Concordance. Broadman & Holman. pp. 47. ISBN 0805494898.
    14.^ Antiquities of the Jews – Book I
    15.^ Die Chronik des Hippolytus
    16.^ Etymologies of Isidore, English translation
    17.^ This was observed as early as 1734, in George Sale's Commentary on the Quran.
    18.^ Seth in Jewish, Christian, and Gnostic Literature p. 54
    19.^ S.P. Brock notes that the earliest Greek texts of Pseudo-Methodius read Moneton, while the Syriac versions have Ionton (Armenian Apocrypha, p. 117)
    20.^ Travels of Noah into Europe

    Child of EMZARA and NOAH is:
    13. i. JAPHET11.

    12. NOAH10 (LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) He married EMZARA, daughter of RAKE'EL.

    Notes for NOAH:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Noah divided the world amongst his three sons, begotten of his wife Titea [Emzara]: viz., to Shem he gave Asia, within the Euphrates, to the Indian Ocean; to Ham he gave Syria, Arabia, and Africa; and to Japhet, the rest of Asia beyond the Euphrates, together with Europe to Gadea (or Cadiz).

    Although the Book of Genesis in the Bible does not give any further information about the four women it says were aboard Noah's Ark during the Flood, there exist substantial extra-Biblical traditions regarding these women and their names.

    In the Book of Jubilees, known to have been in use from the late 2nd century BC, the names of the wives of Noah, Shem, Ham and Japheth are as follows:

    Wife of Noah - Emzara, daughter of Rake'el, son of Methuselah
    Wife of Shem - Sedeqetelebab
    Wife of Ham - Ne'elatama'uk or Na'eltama'uk
    Wife of Japheth - 'Adataneses
    It adds that the three sons after some years struck out in different directions from the original camp near Mount Ararat and founded three villages bearing the names of these three mothers of the human race.

    According to the Sibylline Oracles the wives of Shem, Ham and Japheth enjoyed fantastically long lifespans, living for centuries, while speaking prophecy to each generation they saw come and go. (These are not considered to be the Sibylline books of the Greeks and Romans, which were lost in antiquity, but rather pseudo-Oracles dating from the middle of the 2nd century BC at the earliest to the 5th century AD, composed by Alexandrian Jews and revised and enriched by later Christian editors, all adding texts in the interests of their respective religions.) According to the anonymous preface of the Judeo-Christian Sibylline Oracles, the Sibyl author was a daughter-in-law of Noah: the "Babylonian Sibyl", Sambethe — who, 900 years after the Deluge, allegedly moved to Greece and began writing the Oracles. The writings attributed to her (at the end of Book III) also hint at possible names of her family who would have lived before the Flood — father Gnostos, mother Circe; elsewhere (in book V) she calls Isis her sister. Other early sources similarly name one of the Sibyls as Sabba (see Sibyl in Jewish Encyclopedia).

    The early Christian writer St. Hippolytus (d. 235 AD) recounted a tradition of their names according to the Syriac Targum that is similar to Jubilees, although apparently switching the names of Shem's and Ham's wives. He wrote: The names of the wives of the sons of Noah are these: the name of the wife of Sem, Nahalath Mahnuk; and the name of the wife of Cham, Zedkat Nabu; and the name of the wife of Japheth, Arathka. He also recounts a quaint legend concerning the wife of Ham: God having instructed Noah to destroy the first person who announced that the deluge was beginning, Ham's wife at that moment was baking bread, when water suddenly rushed forth from the oven, destroying the bread. When she exclaimed then that the deluge was commencing, God suddenly cancels his former command lest Noah destroy his own daughter-in-law who was to be saved[1][2].

    An early Arabic work known as Kitab al-Magall or the Book of Rolls (part of Clementine literature), the Syriac Book of the Cave of Treasures (ca. 350), and Patriarch Eutychius of Alexandria (ca. 930) all agree in naming Noah's wife as "Haykêl, the daughter of Namûs (or Namousa), the daughter of Enoch, the brother of Methuselah"; the first of these sources elsewhere calls Haikal "the daughter of Mashamos, son of Enoch", while stating that Shem's wife is called "Leah, daughter of Nasih".

    Furthermore, the Panarion of Epiphanius (ca. 375) names Noah's wife as Barthenos, while the ca. 5th century Ge'ez work Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan calls Noah's wife "Haikal, the daughter of Abaraz, of the daughters of the sons of Enos" — whom some authors have connected with Epiphanius' Barthenos (i.e., Bath-Enos, daughter of Enos)[3]. However, Jubilees makes "Betenos" the name of Noah's mother. The word haykal is Syriac for "temple" or "church"; in the Georgian copy of Cave of Treasures, we find instead the name T'ajar, which is the Georgian word for the same[4].

    Armenian tradition give the name of Noah's wife as Nemzar, Noyemzar or Noyanzar.

    Patriarch Eutychius of Alexandria, writing in Arabic, also states that Shem's wife was Salit, Ham's Nahlat and Japheth's Arisisah, all daughters of Methuselah. The theologian John Gill (1697–1771) wrote in his Exposition of the Bible of this tradition "that the name of Shem's wife was Zalbeth, or, as other copies, Zalith or Salit; that the name of Ham's Nahalath; and of Japheth's Aresisia."

    A manuscript of the 8th century Latin work Inventiones Nominum, copies of which have been found at the Abbey of St. Gall in Switzerland, and in a library at Albi, SW France, lists as Noah's wife Set, as Shem's wife Nora, as Ham's wife Sare, and as Japeth's wife Serac[5].

    Jewish Rabbinic literatureThe Genesis Rabba midrash lists Naamah, the daughter of Lamech and sister of Tubal-Cain, as the wife of Noah, as does the 11th century Jewish commentator Rashi in his commentary on Sefer Bereishis 4:22.

    In the medieval midrash Book of Jasher Chapter 5:15, the name of Noah's wife is said to be Naamah, daughter of Enoch[6].

    Islamic traditions
    The Persian historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (c. 915) recounts that Japheth's wife was Arbasisah, daughter of Marazil, son of al-Darmasil, son of Mehujael, son of Enoch, son of Cain; that Ham's wife was Na?lab, daughter of Marib, another son of al-Darmasil; and that Shem's wife was ?alib, daughter of Batawil, another son of Mehujael. He says Noah's wife was Amzurah, daughter of Barakil, another son of Mehujael.

    (According to George Sale's Commentary on the Quran (1734), some Muslim commentators asserted that Noah had had an infidel wife named Waila, who perished in the deluge, and was thus not aboard the Ark.)

    Irish and Anglo-Saxon traditions
    Irish folklore is rich in traditions and legends regarding the three sons and their wives. Here the wives are usually named Olla, Olliva, and Ollivani (or variations thereof), names possibly derived from the Anglo-Saxon Codex Junius (ca. 700 AD), a Bible paraphrase written in the fashion of Germanic sagas, and often attributed to the poet Caedmon. The wife of Noah is given as Percoba in Codex Junius.

    The Anglo-Saxon "Solomon and Saturn" dialogue gives for Noah's wife Dalila, for Ham's, Jaitarecta, and for Japheth's Catafluvia, while giving Olla, Ollina and Ollibana as alternatives. The name of Shem's wife is missing. Some versions of the Gaelic Lebor Gabala also name Shem's, Ham's and Japheth's wives as Cata Rechta, Cata Flauia and Cata Chasta respectively. Similar traditions seem to have endured for several centuries in some form, for in Petrus Comestor, we read that the wives of Noah, Shem, Ham and Japheth are Phuarpara, Pharphia, Cataflua and Fliva respectively, and in a 15th century Middle English catechism, we find written "What hicht Noes wyf?" "Dalida; and the wif of Sem, Cateslinna; and the wif of Cam, Laterecta; and the wif of Japheth, Aurca. And other 3 names, Ollia, Olina, and Olybana."

    Ælfric of Eynsham's Anglo-Saxon translation of the Heptateuch (ca. 1000) included illustrations with the wives' names recorded in the captions. One such illustration (fol. 17) names Noah's wife as Phiapphara, Shem's as Parsia, Ham's as Cataphua, and Japheth's as Fura[7]. Another (fol. 14) includes one wife, presumably Noah's, named Sphiarphara[8]. A Middle English illustrated version of Genesis dating to the 13th century also gives Puarphara as Noah's wife.

    Mandaeism
    Mandaean literature, of uncertain antiquity, refers to Noah's wife by the name Nuraita (or Nhuraitha, Anhuraita, various other spellings).

    Gnostic literature
    Gnostic literature of the first few centuries AD calls Noah's wife Norea, including texts ascribed to her, as reported by Epiphanius, and confirmed in modern times with the discovery of these texts at Nag Hammadi.

    Képes Krónika
    Hungarian folklore has several tales about Japheth and his wife called Eneh, attributing this information to the Chronicles of Sigilbert, Bishop of Antioch in the 14th century Képes Krónika.

    Pseudo-Berossus
    According to the 15th century monk Annio da Viterbo, the Hellenistic Babylonian writer Berossus had stated that the sons' wives were Pandora, Noela, and Noegla, and that Noah's wife was Tytea. However, Annio's manuscript is widely regarded today as having been a forgery.[9]

    Nonetheless, later writers made use of this "information", sometimes even combining it with other traditions. The Portuguese friar Gaspar Rodriguez de S. Bernardino wrote in Itinerario da India por terra ate a ilha de Chypre in 1842 that the wives of Noah, Shem, Ham and Japheth were named Tytea or Phuarphara, Pandora or Parphia, Noela or Cataflua, and Noegla, Eliua or Arca. In Robert Southey's Common-place Book from around the same time, similar names are given, with the information attributed to the "Comte de Mora Toledo": Titea Magna; Pandora; Noala or Cataflua; and Noegla, Funda or Afia, respectively.

    Comte de Gabalis
    A cabalistic work that appeared in 1670, known as Comte de Gabalis, considered sacred in Rosicrucianism, maintains that the name of Noah's wife was Vesta.

    This name for Noah's wife had earlier been found in Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa's History of the Incas (c. 1550), where the names Prusia or Persia, Cataflua and Funda are also given for Shem, Ham, and Japheth's wives respectively.

    Miautso traditions
    The Miautso people of China preserved in their traditions the name of Noah's wife as Gaw Bo-lu-en.[10]

    The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
    The LDS Book of Abraham, first published in 1842, mentions the name of Egyptus (Abraham 1:23) as being Ham's wife; his daughter apparently has the same name (v. 25).

    References
    1.^ Lexicon Results for Cham (Strong's 02526)
    2.^ Lexicon Results for Shem (Strong's 08035)
    3.^ Lexicon Results for Yepheth (Strong's 03315)
    4.^ Ethnology or The History & genealogy of the human race. By John Thomas Painter
    5.^ JAPHETH Websters Online Dictionary
    6.^ a b c d Mungello, David E. (1989). Curious land: Jesuit accommodation and the origins of Sinology. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 179, 336–337. ISBN 0824812190. http://books.google.com/?id=wb4yPw4ZgZQC&printsec=frontcover&q=Noah#v=snippet&q=Shem&f=false;. "there are more references in that book on the early Jesuits' and others' opinions on Noah's Connection to China"
    7.^ Hebrew word #486 in Strong's
    8.^ Rene Noorbergen (2001). Secrets of the Lost Races: New Discoveries of Advanced Technology in Ancient Civilizations. TEACH Services, Inc.. ISBN 1572581980.
    9.^ Roswell Dwight Hitchcock, Nathaniel West, Alexander Cruden (1870). Hitchcock's New and Complete Analysis of the Holy Bible. A.J. Johnson. ISBN 0837017424. http://christianthings.com/reading/biblena.html.
    10.^ "Almodad". International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 1915.
    11.^ Thomas Inman (2002). "Almodad". Ancient Faiths Embodied in Ancient Names Part 1. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 231. ISBN 0766126684.
    12.^ Alfred J. Kolatch (2005). "Almodad". The Comprehensive Dictionary of English & Hebrew First Names. Jonathan David Company. pp. p39. ISBN 0824604555.
    13.^ David K. Stabnow (2006). "Almodad". HCSB Super Giant Print Dictionary and Concordance. Broadman & Holman. pp. 47. ISBN 0805494898.
    14.^ Antiquities of the Jews – Book I
    15.^ Die Chronik des Hippolytus
    16.^ Etymologies of Isidore, English translation
    17.^ This was observed as early as 1734, in George Sale's Commentary on the Quran.
    18.^ Seth in Jewish, Christian, and Gnostic Literature p. 54
    19.^ S.P. Brock notes that the earliest Greek texts of Pseudo-Methodius read Moneton, while the Syriac versions have Ionton (Armenian Apocrypha, p. 117)
    20.^ Travels of Noah into Europe

    Child is listed above under (11) Emzara.

    Generation No. 11

    13. JAPHET11 (NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) He married ADATANESES.

    Notes for JAPHET:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Japhet was the eldest son of Noah. He had fifteen sons, amongst whom he divided Europe and the part of Asia which his father had allotted to him.

    Japheth ( /'d?e?fe?/; Hebrew ???, Yapheth, Modern Hebrew: Yafet; Greek ??fe?, Turkish Yafes, Iapheth, Latin Iafeth or Iapetus, Arabic ????) is one of the sons of Noah in the Abrahamic tradition. In Arabic citations, his name is normally given as Yafeth bin Nuh (Japheth son of Noah).

    Japheth is often regarded as the youngest son, though some traditions regard him as the eldest. They are listed in the order Shem, Ham, and Japheth in Genesis 5:32 and 9:18, but treated in the reverse order in chapter 10.

    Genesis 10:21 refers to relative ages of Japheth and his brother Shem, but with sufficient ambiguity to have given rise to different translations. The verse is translated in the KJV as follows, "Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were children born". However, the Revised Standard Version reads, "To Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the elder brother of Japheth, children were born." The differing interpretations depend on whether the Hebrew word ha-gadol ("the elder") is taken as grammatically referring to Japheth, or Shem.

    Genesis 5:32 states that Noah had three sons when he was five hundred years old. Genesis 11:10 records that Shem was one hundred years old when his son Arphaxad was born, two years after the Flood. If Noah was six hundred years old (Genesis 7:13), then Shem was ninety-eight years old at the Flood. Ham is further implied to be the middle son in Gen. 9:24 (which says Noah realized what his "younger son" had done to him.)

    The Book of Jubilees indicates in 4:33 that Shem was born in the year of the world (after creation) 1205, Ham in 1209, and Japheth in 1211.

    For those who take the genealogies of Genesis to be historically accurate, Japheth is commonly believed to be the father of the Europeans. The link between Japheth and the Europeans stems from Genesis 10:5, which states," By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands. According to that book, Japheth and his two brothers formed the three major races:

    Japheth is the father of the Japhetic race
    Ham is the father of the Hamitic race
    Shem is the father of the Semitic race
    William Shakespeare's play Henry IV, Part II contains a wry comment about people who claim to be related to royal families. Prince Hal notes of such people,

    ...they will be kin to us, or they will fetch it from Japhet. (II.ii 117-18)
    Genesis 10:5 was often interpreted to mean that the peoples of Europe were descended from Japheth. Clearly, then, any two Englishmen must have at least this one ancestor in common, and thus any individual could claim kinship with the king.

    In the Bible, Japheth is ascribed seven sons: Gomer, Magog, Tiras, Javan, Meshech, Tubal, and Madai. According to Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews I.6):

    "Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tanais (Don), and along Europe to Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names."
    Josephus subsequently detailed the nations supposed to have descended from the seven sons of Japheth. Among the nations various later writers have attempted to assign to them are as follows:[citation needed]

    Gomer: Armenians, Cimmerians, Scythians, Cimbri, Welsh (Cymru), Irish, Germans, Huns, Franks, Turks.
    Magog: Scythians, Slavs, Mongols, Hungarians (Magyar), Irish, Finns, Pamiris,
    Madai: Medes, Indo-Iranians, Mitanni, Mannai, Persian, Tajiks, Balochis, Talishis, Mazandaris, Sengesaris and Tati. According to the Book of Jubilees (10:35-36), Madai had married a daughter of Shem, and preferred to live among Shem's descendants, rather than dwell in Japheth's allotted inheritance beyond the Black Sea; so he begged his brothers-in-law, Elam, Asshur and Arphaxad, until he finally received from them the land that was named after him, Media.
    Javan: Greeks (Ionians)
    Tubal: Tabal, Tibareni, Georgians, Italics, Iberians, Basques
    Tiras: Thracians, Getae, Goths, Jutes, Teutons, Etruscans
    Meshech: Phrygians, Illyrians, Caucasian Iberia, Russians, Georgians
    The "Book of Jasher", published in the 17th century, provides some new names for Japheth's grandchildren not seen in the Bible or any other source, and provided a much more detailed genealogy (see Japhetic).

    Japheth is not mentioned by name in the Qur'an but is referred to indirectly in the narrative of Noah (VII: 64, X: 73, XI: 40, XXIII: 27, XXVI: 119). Muslim exegesis, however, names all of Noah's sons, and these include Japheth[2]. Japheth's descendants in Muslim exegesis more-or-less agrees with the Biblical traditions[3]. He is usually regarded as the ancestor of the Gog and Magog tribes, and, at times, of the Turks and Khazars. Some traditions narrated that 36 languages of the world could be traced back to Japheth[4].

    In the seventh century, Isidore of Seville published his noted history, in which he traces the origins of most of the nations of Europe back to Japheth.[5] Scholars in almost every European nation continuted to repeat and improve upon Saint Isidore's assertion of descent from Noah through Japheth into the nineteenth century.[6]

    Georgian nationalist histories associate Japheth's sons with certain ancient tribes, called Tubals (Tabals, Tibarenoi in Greek) and Meshechs (Meshekhs/Mosokhs, Moschoi in Greek), who they claim represent non-Indo-European and non-Semitic, possibly "Proto-Iberian" tribes of Asia Minor of the 3rd-1st millennia BC.

    In the Polish tradition of Sarmatism, the Sarmatians were said to be descended from Japheth, son of Noah, enabling the Polish nobility to imagine themselves able to trace their ancestry directly to Noah.[6]

    In Scotland, histories tracing the Scottish people to Japheth were published as late as George Chalmers well received Caledonia, published in 3 volumes from 1807 to 1824.[7]

    In the 19th century, Biblical syncretists associated the sons of Noah with ancient pagan gods. Japheth was identified by some scholars with figures from other mythologies, including Iapetus, the Greek Titan; the Indian figures Dyaus Pitar[citation needed] and Pra-Japati[citation needed], and the Roman Iu-Pater or "Father Jove", which became Jupiter.

    Notes
    1.^ The 1557 Anno Mundi birthdate for Japheth is based on the standard Massoretic text as represented in the Authorized Version. Septuagint and Samaritan texts have different values. See Chronology of the Bible.
    2.^ Tabari, Volume I: Prophets and Patriarchs, 222
    3.^ Tabari, Volume I: Prophets and Patriarchs, 217
    4.^ Encyclopedia of Islam, Yafith, 236
    5.^ Susan Reynolds, "Medieval origines gentium and the community of the realm," History, 68, 1983, pp. 375-90
    6.^ a b Colin Kidd, British Identities before Nationalism; Ethnicity and Nationhood in the Atlantic World, 1600-1800, Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 29
    7.^ Colin Kidd, British Identities before Nationalism; Ethnicity and Nationhood in the Atlantic World, 1600-1800, Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 52

    Children of JAPHET and ADATANESES are:
    14. i. MAGOG12.
    15. ii. MADAIOF UR.

    Generation No. 12

    14. MAGOG12 (JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1)

    Notes for MAGOG:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Magog: From whom descended the Parthians, Bactrians, Amazons, etc.; Parthalon, the first planter of Ireland, about three hundred years after the Flood; and also the rest of the colonies that planted there, viz., the Nemedians, who planted Ireland, Anno Mundi three thousand and forty-six, or three hundred and eighteen years after the birth of Abraham, and two thousand one hundred and fifty-three years before Christ. The Nemedians continued in Ireland for two hundred and seventeen years; within which time a colony of theirs went into the northern parts of Scotland, under the conduct of their leader Briottan Maol, from whom Britain takes its name, and not from "Brutus," as some persons believed. From Magog were also descended the Belgarian, Belgian, Firbolgian or Firvolgian colony that succeeded the Nemedians, Anno Mundi, three thousand two hundred and sixty-six, and who first erected Ireland into a Monarchy. [According to some writers, the Fomorians invaded Ireland next after the Nemedians.] This Belgarian of Firvolgian colony continued in Ireland for thirty-six years, under nine of their Kings; when they were supplanted by the Tuatha-de-Danann (which means, according to some authorities, "the people of the god Dan," whom they adored), who possessed Ireland for one hundred and ninety-seven years, during the reigns of nine of their kings; and who were then conquered by the Gaelic, Milesian, or Scotic Nation (the three names by which the Irish people were known), Anno Mundi three thousand five hundred. This Milesian or Scotic Irish Nation possessed and enjoyed the Kingdom of Ireland for two thousand eight hundred and eighty-five years, under one hundred and eighty-three Monarchs; until their submission to King Henry the Second of England, Anno Domini one thousand one hundred and eighty-six.

    Magog, Hebrew ????, Greek ?a???, [ ma'gog ], is the second of the seven sons of Japheth mentioned in the Table of Nations in Genesis 10. It may represent Hebrew for "from Gog", though this is far from certain.

    Magog is often associated with apocalyptic traditions, mainly in connection with Ezekiel 38 and 39 which mentions "Gog of the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal" (Ezek 38:2 NIV); on the basis of this mention, "Gog and Magog" over time became associated with each other as a pair.

    Josephus identified the offspring of Magog as the Scythians, a name used in antiquity for peoples north of the Black Sea.[1] According to him, the Greeks called Scythia Magogia (Ant., bk. I, 6).

    Illustration of Magog as the first king of Sweden, from Iohannes Magnus' Gothorum Suenorumque, 1554 ed.Jordanes' Getica (551) mentions Magog as ancestor of the Goths, as does the Historia Brittonum, but Isidore of Seville (c. 635) asserts that this identification was popular "because of the similarity of the last syllable" (Etymologiae, IX, 89). Johannes Magnus (1488–1544) stated that Magog migrated to Scandinavia (via Finland) 88 years after the flood, and that his five sons were Suenno (ancestor of the Swedes), Gethar (or Gog, ancestor of the Goths), Ubbo (who later ruled the Swedes and built Uppsala), Thor, and German.[2] Magnus' accounts became accepted at the Swedish court for a long time, and even caused the dynastic numerals of the Swedish monarchs to be renumbered accordingly. Queen Christina of Sweden reckoned herself as number 249 in a list of kings going back to Magog. Magnus also influenced several later historians such as Daniel Juslenius (1676–1752), who derived the roots of the Finns from Magog.

    According to several mediaeval Irish chronicles, most notably the Auraicept na n-Éces and Lebor Gabála Érenn, the Irish race are a composite including descendants of Japheth's son Magog from "Scythia". Baath (Boath), Jobhath, and Fathochta are the three sons of Magog. Fenius Farsa, Partholón, and Nemed are among Magog's descendants. Magog was also supposed to have had a grandson called Heber, whose offspring spread throughout the Mediterranean.

    There is also a medieval Hungarian legend that says the Huns, as well as the Magyars, are descended from twin brothers named Hunor and Magor respectively, who lived by the sea of Azov in the years after the flood, and took wives from the Alans. The version of this legend in the 14th century Chronicon Pictum equates this Magor with Magog, son of Japheth.

    Footnotes
    1.^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book I, Chapter 6., Interhack Library, http://www.interhack.net/projects/library/antiquities-jews/b1c6.html#pref
    2.^ Johannes Magnus, Historia de omnibus Gothorum Sveonumque regibus, 1554, I, Chapters 4–5, GMC., Cambridge Mass, oclc 27775895

    Child of MAGOG is:
    16. i. BOATH13.

    15. MADAIOF12 UR (JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1)

    Child of MADAIOF UR is:
    17. i. MELKAOF13 UR.

    Generation No. 13

    16. BOATH13 (MAGOG12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1)

    Notes for BOATH:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    [House of Morney.FTW]

    Boath, one of the sons of Magog; to whom Scythia came as his lot, upon the division of the Earth by Noah amongst his sons, and by Japhet of his part thereof amongst his sons.

    Child of BOATH is:
    18. i. PHOENIUSA14 FARSAIDH.

    17. MELKAOF13 UR (MADAIOF12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) She married CAINAN, son of ARPHAXAD and RASU'EJA UR.

    Child of MELKA UR and CAINAN is:
    19. i. SALAH14.

    Generation No. 14

    18. PHOENIUSA14 FARSAIDH (BOATH13, MAGOG12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1)

    Notes for PHOENIUSA FARSAIDH:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    [House of Morney.FTW]

    Phoeniusa Farsaidh (or Fenius Farsa) was King of Scythia, at the time when Ninus ruled the Assyrian Empire; and, being a wise man and desirous to learn the languages that not long before confounded the builders of the Tower of Babel, employed able and learned men to go among the dispersed multitude to learn their several languages; who sometime after returning well skilled in what they went for, Phœniusa Farsaidh erected a school in the valley of Senaar, near the city of Æothena, in the forty-second year of the reign of Ninus; whereupon, having continued there with his younger son Niul for twenty years, he returned home to his kingdom, which, at his death, he left to the oldest son Nenuall; leaving to Niul no other patrimony than his learning and the benefit of the said school.

    Fénius Farsaid (also Phoeniusa, Phenius, Féinius; Farsa, Farsaidh, many variant spellings) is a legendary king of Scythia who shows up in different versions of Irish folklore. According to some traditions, he was the creator of the Ogham alphabet and the Gaelic language.

    According to recensions M and A of the Lebor Gabála Érenn, Fénius and his son Nél journeyed to the Tower of Babel (in recension B, it is Rifath Scot son of Gomer instead). Nél, who was trained in many languages, married Scota, daughter of Pharaoh, and their son was Góedel Glas.

    In the Lebor Gabála Érenn (11th C), he is said to be one of the 72 chieftains who built Nimrod's Tower of Babel, but travelled to Scythia after the tower collapsed.

    According to the Auraicept na n-Éces, Fenius journeyed from Scythia together with Goídel mac Ethéoir, Íar mac Nema and a retinue of 72 scholars. They came to the plain of Shinar to study the confused languages at Nimrod's tower. Finding that they had already been dispersed, Fenius sent his scholars to study them, staying at the tower, coordinating the effort. After ten years, the investigations were complete, and Fenius created in Bérla tóbaide "the selected language", taking the best of each of the confused tongues, which he called Goídelc, Goidelic, after Goídel mac Ethéoir. He also created extensions of Goídelc, called Bérla Féne, after himself, Íarmberla, after Íar mac Nema, and others, and the Beithe-luis-nuin (the Ogham) as a perfected writing system for his languages. The names he gave to the letters were those of his 25 best scholars.

    Auraicept claims that Fenius Farsaidh discovered four alphabets, the Hebrew, Greek and Latin ones, and finally the Ogham, and that the Ogham is the most perfected because it was discovered last.

    [edit] ReferencesGeorge Calder, Auraicept na n-éces: the scholars' primer; being the texts of the Ogham tract from the Book of Ballymote and the Yellow book of Lecan, and the text of the Trefhocul from the Book of Leinster, Edinburgh, J. Grant, 1917.
    [edit] Further readingCarey, John (1990). "The Ancestry of Fénius Farsaid". Celtica 21: 104–12. http://www.ucc.ie/academic/smg/CDI/PDFs_articles/Carey_AncestryofFeniusFarsaid.pdf.
    Jaski, Bart (2003). "'We are of the Greeks in our origin': New Perspectives on the Irish Origin Legend". CMCS 46: 1–53.
    McLaughlin, Róisín (2009). "Fénius Farsaid and the Alphabets". Ériu 59: 1–24.
    Lebor Gabála Érenn ("The Book of the Taking of Ireland"), ed. and tr. R.A.S. Macalister (1938-1956 and 2009). Lebor Gabála Érenn. The Book of the Taking of Ireland. Irish Texts Society 34-5, 39, 41, 44, 63. 5 vols and index of names. Dublin: RIA.

    Child of PHOENIUSA FARSAIDH is:
    20. i. NIULOF15 SCYTHIA.

    19. SALAH14 (MELKAOF13 UR, MADAIOF12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) He married MU'AKOF UR.

    Notes for SALAH:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Salah (???, Shelach, ISO 259-3 Šel? Hebrew word #7974 in Strong's) is an ancestor of the Israelites according to the Table of Nations in Genesis 10. He is thus one of the table's "seventy names". He is called Shelah in 1 Chronicles 1:18 and Sala (Greek word #4527 in Strong's) in the Septuagint and Luke 3:35.

    In the ancestral line from Noah to Abraham, he is the son of Arpachshad (in the Masoretic Text) or Cainan (in the Septuagint) and the father of Eber. The name "Eber" for his son is the original eponym of the Hebrew people, from the root 'abar (???, Hebrew word #5674 in Strong's), "to cross over".

    Salah's age at death is given as 433 (Masoretic) or 466 (Septuagint).

    Henry M. Morris states that (even though nothing is known of Arpachshad personally and he presumably had more than one son) Arpachshad, Salah, and Eber are listed as the most important sons since they were in the line of the promised Seed of the Woman.[1]

    1.^ Morris, Henry M. (1976). The Genesis Record: A Scientific and Devotional Commentary on the Book of Beginnings. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House. p. 259.

    Child of SALAH and MU'AK UR is:
    21. i. EBERIBN15 SALAH.
     
  8. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Generation No. 22

    35. TAIT22 (OGAMAN21, KINGOF SCYTHIA20 BEMAN, EIMHAR19, SRU18, ASRUTHOF17 SCYTHIA, GAODHAL GLAS OF16, NIULOF15, PHOENIUSA14 FARSAIDH, BOATH13, MAGOG12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1)

    Child of TAIT is:
    38. i. AGNOMAN23.

    36. ISAAC22 (ABRAHAM21, TERAH20, NAHOR19, SERUG18, REU17, PELEGIBN16 SALAH, EBERIBN15, SALAH14, MELKAOF13 UR, MADAIOF12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) He married REBEKAH, daughter of BETHUEL.

    Notes for ISAAC:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Isaac (English pronunciation: /'a?z?k/;[1] Hebrew: ???????, Modern Yits?ak Tiberian Yi??aq, ISO 259-3 Yiç?aq, "he will laugh"; Yiddish: ????, Yitskhok; Ancient Greek: ?sa??, Isaak; Latin: Isaac; Arabic: ?????? or Arabic: ?????? 'Is?aq) as described in the Hebrew Bible, was the only son Abraham had with his wife Sarah, and was the father of Jacob and Esau. Isaac was one of the three patriarchs of the Israelites. According to the Book of Genesis, Abraham was 100 years old when Isaac was born, and Sarah was beyond childbearing years.

    Isaac was the only Biblical patriarch whose name was not changed, and the only one who did not leave Canaan. Compared to those of Abraham and Jacob, Isaac's story relates fewer incidents of his life. He died when he was 180 years old, making him the longest-lived patriarch.

    Isaac (Arabic:??????, Ishaq) is revered by Muslims to be a prophet and the patriarch of Islam. Isaac, along with Ishmael, is highly important for Muslims for continuing to preach the message of monotheism after his father Abraham. Among Isaac's children was the follow-up Israelite patriarch Jacob, who too is venerated an Islamic prophet.

    Isaac is mentioned fifteen times by name in the Qur'an, often with his father and his son, Jacob.[36] The Qur'an states that Abraham received "good tidings of Isaac, a prophet, of the righteous", and that God blessed them both (XXXVII: 12). In a fuller description, when angels came to Abraham to tell him of the future punishment to be imposed on Sodom and Gomorrah, his wife, Sarah, "laughed, and We gave her good tidings of Isaac, and after Isaac of (a grandson) Jacob" (XI: 71-74); and it is further explained that this event will take place despite Abraham and Sarah's old age. Several verses speak of Isaac as a "gift" to Abraham (VI: 84; XIX: 49-50), and XXIX: 26-27 adds that God made "prophethood and the Book to be among his offspring", which has been interpreted to refer to Abraham's two prophetic sons, his prophetic grandson Jacob, and his prophetic great-grandson Joseph. In the Qur'an, it later narrates that Abraham also praised God for giving him Ishmael and Isaac in his old age (XIV: 39-41).

    Elsewhere in the Qur'an, Isaac is mentioned in lists: Joseph follows the religion of his forefathers Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (XII: 38) and speaks of God's favor to them (XII: 6); Jacob's sons all testify their faith and promise to worship the God that their forefathers, "Abraham, Ishmael and Isaac", worshiped (II: 127); and the Qur'an commands Muslims to believe in the revelations that were given to "Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and the Patriarchs" (II: 136; III: 84). In the Qur'an's narrative of Abraham's near-sacrifice of his son (XXXVII: 102), the name of the son is not mentioned and debate has continued over the son's identity, though many feel that the identity is the least important element in a story which is given to show the courage that one develops through faith.[37]

    Notes for REBEKAH:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Rebecca (also spelt Rebekah) (Hebrew: ???????, Modern Rivkah Tiberian Ri?qah ISO 259-3 Ribqa, from the Hebrew ribhqeh (lit., "connection"), from Semitic root r-b-q, "to tie, couple or join"[1] or "to secure"[2]) appears in the Hebrew Bible as a prophetess and one of the four Jewish matriarchs. She was the wife of Isaac and the mother of Jacob and Esau. Rebecca and Isaac were one of the three couples buried in the Cave of the Patriarchs, the other two being Abraham and Sarah, and Jacob and Leah.

    According to the account in the Book of Genesis, Rebecca was the wife of Isaac and the sister of Laban, who would later become the father of Rachel and Leah, two of the wives of Rebecca's son Jacob.

    The news of her birth was told to her great-uncle Abraham after the latter returned from Akeidat Yitzchak (the Binding of Isaac), the episode in which Abraham was told by God to bring Isaac as a sacrifice on a mountain.

    After the Binding of Isaac, Sarah, Abraham's wife, died. After taking care of her burial, Abraham went about finding a wife for his son Isaac, who was already thirty-seven years old. He commanded his servant (whom the Torah commentators identify as Eliezer of Damascus)[3] to journey to his birthplace of Aram Naharaim to select a bride from his own family, rather than engage Isaac to a local Canaanite girl. Abraham sent along expensive jewelry, clothing and dainties as gifts to the bride and her family. If the girl had refused to follow him, Abraham stated that Eliezer would be absolved of his responsibility.

    Child of ISAAC and REBEKAH is:
    39. i. JACOB23.

    37. MILCAH22 (HARAN21, TERAH20, NAHOR19, SERUG18, REU17, PELEGIBN16 SALAH, EBERIBN15, SALAH14, MELKAOF13 UR, MADAIOF12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1)

    Notes for MILCAH:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Milcah (related to the Hebrew word for "queen") was the daughter of Haran and the wife of Nahor in Genesis.

    Milcah was a woman of ancient Mesopotamia and an ancestor of the patriarch Jacob. Milcah was born to the man Haran, who also had another daughter, Iscah, and a son, Lot. (Gen. 11:27, 29.) Milcah’s father Haran died in Ur before his father Terah. (Gen. 11:28.) Milcah married her uncle Nahor, Haran’s brother. (Gen. 11:29.)

    Although Leviticus would later outlaw marriages between aunt and nephew (Lev. 18:14, 20:19), it did not rule out marriage between uncle and niece. (See, e.g., Gunther Plaut, The Torah: a Modern Commentary, 881. New York: UAHC, 1981.) The Talmud approved of a man who married his sister’s daughter. (Yevamot 62b-63a.) And in the Talmud, Rabbi Isaac equates Milcah’s sister Iscah with Sarah (then Sarai), who married Abraham (then Abram), who was also their uncle. (Sanhedrin 69b.) Thus, according to Rabbi Isaac, the two sisters, Milcah and Iscah, married the two brothers, Nahor and Abraham.

    Milcah and Nahor had eight children, Uz, Buz, Kemuel, Chesed, Hazo, Pildash, Jidlaph, and Bethuel. (Gen. 22:21.) Targum Jonathan says that Providence granted Milcah conception in the merit of her sister Sarah. (Targum Jonathan to Gen. 22:20.) Nahor also had four children by his concubine, Reumah. (Gen. 22:24.)

    Milcah’s son Bethuel moved to Padan-aram and fathered Rebekah. (Gen. 22:23; 24:15, 24, 47.) Milcah’s granddaughter Rebekah then married Milcah’s nephew Isaac (Gen. 24:67; 25:20), and gave birth to Jacob (Gen. 25:21–26), who became Israel. (Gen. 32:28; 35:10. According to a Midrash, Milcah was the forbearer of all the prophets in the world. (Yalkut Shimoni Balak 22:20.)

    Child of MILCAH is:
    40. i. BETHUEL23.

    Generation No. 23

    38. AGNOMAN23 (TAIT22, OGAMAN21, KINGOF SCYTHIA20 BEMAN, EIMHAR19, SRU18, ASRUTHOF17 SCYTHIA, GAODHAL GLAS OF16, NIULOF15, PHOENIUSA14 FARSAIDH, BOATH13, MAGOG12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1)

    Child of AGNOMAN is:
    41. i. LAMHFION24 MCAGNON.

    39. JACOB23 (ISAAC22, ABRAHAM21, TERAH20, NAHOR19, SERUG18, REU17, PELEGIBN16 SALAH, EBERIBN15, SALAH14, MELKAOF13 UR, MADAIOF12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) He married (1) LEAH. He married (2) RACHEL.

    Notes for JACOB:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Jacob ( /'d?e?k?b/; ??????? (help·info), Standard Ya?akov, Tiberian Ya?aqo?; Septuagint Greek: ?a??ß Iakob; Arabic: ????????? Ya?qub) "heel" or "leg-puller"), also later known as Israel (Hebrew: ????????????, Standard Yisra?el, Tiberian Yisra?el; Septuagint Greek: ?s?a?? Israel; Arabic: ???????????? Isra?il; "persevere with God"[1]), as described in the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud, the New Testament and the Qur'an was the third patriarch of the Hebrew people with whom God made a covenant, and ancestor of the tribes of Israel, which were named after his descendants.

    In the Hebrew Bible, he is the son of Isaac and Rebekah, the grandson of Abraham and Sarah and of Bethuel, and the younger twin brother of Esau. He had twelve sons and at least one daughter, by his two wives, Leah and Rachel, and by their maidservants, whom he also married, Bilhah and Zilpah. The children named in Genesis were Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, daughter Dinah, Joseph, and Benjamin,[2][3] although Genesis 46:15 suggests that he had thirty-three children total.

    Before the birth of Benjamin, Jacob is renamed "Israel" by an angel (Genesis 32:28-29 and 35:10). The name "Israel" can be translated as "God contended",[4] but other meanings have also been suggested. Some commentators say the name comes from the verb sœarar ("to rule, be strong, have authority over"), thereby making the name mean "God rules" or "God judges".[5] Other possible meanings include "the prince of God" (from the King James Version) or "El fights/struggles".[6]

    As a result of a severe drought in Canaan, Jacob moved to Egypt at the time when his son Joseph was viceroy. Jacob died there 17 years later, and Joseph carried Jacob's remains to the land of Canaan, where he gave them stately burial in the same Cave of Machpelah as were buried Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Rebekah and Jacob's wife Leah (Genesis 49:29-50:14).

    In Islam, Jacob is revered as a prophet[7] who was guided by God.[8] The Qur'an describes Jacob as a faithful leader, a good-doer, a possessor of power and vision, a holder of prayer and a man in service to God.[9] In Muslim belief, Jacob taught the message of God to his twelve sons[10], who would eventually make up the Twelve Tribes of Israel.

    Jacob and his twin brother, Esau, were born to Isaac and Rebekah after 20 years of marriage, when Isaac was 60 (Genesis 25:20, 25:26). Rebekah was uncomfortable during her double pregnancy and went to inquire of God why she was suffering. She received the prophecy that twins were fighting in her womb and would continue to fight all their lives, and after they became two separate nations. The prophecy also said that the older would serve the younger; its statement "one people will be stronger than the other" has been taken to mean that the two nations would never gain power simultaneously: when one fell, the other would rise, and vice versa. Traditionally, Rebekah did not share the prophecy with her husband.

    When the time came for Rebekah to give birth, the first to come out emerged red and hairy all over, with his heel grasped by the hand of the second to come out. According to the traditional story, onlookers[citation needed] named the first ???, Esau (`Esav or `Esaw, meaning "hairy" or "rough", from Hebrew: ????, `asah, "do" or "make";[11] or "completely developed", from Hebrew: ?????, `assui[citation needed]). The second is named ????, Jacob (Ya`aqob or Ya`aqov, meaning "heel-catcher", "supplanter", "leg-puller", "he who follows upon the heels of one", from Hebrew: ????, `aqab or `aqav, "seize by the heel", "circumvent", "restrain", a wordplay upon Hebrew: ?????, `iqqebah or `iqqbah, "heel").[12]

    The boys displayed very different natures as they matured. "Esau became a hunter, a man of the field, but Jacob was a simple man, a dweller in tents" (Genesis 25:27). Moreover, the attitudes of their parents toward them also differ: "Isaac loved Esau because game was in his mouth, but Rebecca loved Jacob" (ibid., 25:28).

    Child of JACOB and LEAH is:
    42. i. JUDAHIBN24 JACOB.

    Child of JACOB and RACHEL is:
    43. ii. YUYA24.

    40. BETHUEL23 (MILCAH22, HARAN21, TERAH20, NAHOR19, SERUG18, REU17, PELEGIBN16 SALAH, EBERIBN15, SALAH14, MELKAOF13 UR, MADAIOF12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1)

    Notes for BETHUEL:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    The man Bethuel appears nine times in nine verses in the Hebrew Bible, all in Genesis. Adherents of the documentary hypothesis often attribute most of these verses to the Jahwist source,[9] and the remainder to the priestly source.[10]

    Bethuel lived in Padan-aram,[11] and is described as "Aramaean", although his Chaldean background is also indicated, as a descendant of Terah. Bethuel's uncle Abraham sent his senior servant to Padan-aram to find a wife for his son Isaac.[12] By the well outside the city of Nahor, in Aram-naharaim, the servant met Bethuel’s daughter Rebekah.[13] The servant told Rebekah’s household his good fortune in meeting Bethuel’s daughter, Abraham’s relative.[14] Laban and Bethuel answered, “The matter was decreed by the LORD; we cannot speak to you bad or good. Here is Rebekah before you; take her and go, and let her be a wife to your master’s son, as the LORD has spoken.”[15]

    After meeting Abraham’s servant, Rebekah “ran and told all this to her mother’s household”,[16] that Rebekah’s “brother and her mother said, ‘Let the maiden remain with us some ten days’”,[17] and that “they sent off their sister Rebekah and her nurse along with Abraham’s servant and his men. And they blessed Rebekah and said to her, ‘O sister! May you grow into thousands of myriads.”[18] Some scholars thus hypothesize that mention of Bethuel in Gen. 24:50 was a late addition to the preexisting story. Other scholars argue that these texts indicate that Bethuel was somehow incapacitated. Other scholars attribute the emphasis on the mother's role to a matralineal family structure.

    A generation later, Isaac sent Jacob back to Padan-aram to take a wife from among Bethuel’s granddaughters, rather than from among the Canaanites.[19]

    In the Talmud, Rabbi Isaac called Bethuel a wicked man.[20] The midrash identified Bethuel as a king.[21]

    In the Talmud, Rab in the name of Rabbi Reuben b. Estrobile cited Laban’s and Bethuel’s response to Abraham’s servant that “The matter was decreed by the Lord”[22] as a proof text for the proposition that God destines a woman and a man for each other in marriage.[23] Rabbi Joshua b. Rabbi Nehemiah in the name of Rabbi Hanina b. Isaac said that the decree with regard to Rebekah that Laban and Bethuel acknowledged came from Mount Moriah.[24]

    Noting that Genesis 24:55 reports that the next day, Rebekah’s “brother and her mother said, ‘Let the maiden remain with us some ten days’” (Gen. 24:55), the Rabbis asked: “Where was Bethuel?” The midrash concluded that Bethuel wished to hinder Rebekah’s marriage, and so he was smitten during the night. (Genesis Rabbah 60:12.) The Rabbis said that Abraham’s servant did not disclose Bethuel’s fate to Isaac.[25]

    In his retelling of the story, Josephus reported that Rebekah told Abraham’s servant, “my father was Bethuel, but he is dead; and Laban is my brother; and, together with my mother, takes care of all our family affairs, and is the guardian of my virginity.”[26]

    Bethuel was also a town in the territiory of the tribe of Simeon, west of the Dead Sea.[4] Some scholars[5] identify it with Bethul[6] and Bethel in southern Judah,[7] to which David gives booty.[8]

    Child of BETHUEL is:
    44. i. REBEKAH24.

    Generation No. 24

    41. LAMHFION24 MCAGNON (AGNOMAN23, TAIT22, OGAMAN21, KINGOF SCYTHIA20 BEMAN, EIMHAR19, SRU18, ASRUTHOF17 SCYTHIA, GAODHAL GLAS OF16, NIULOF15, PHOENIUSA14 FARSAIDH, BOATH13, MAGOG12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1)

    Notes for LAMHFION MCAGNON:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    [House of Morney.FTW]

    Lamhfionn and his fleet remained at sea for some time, after his father's death, resting and refreshing themselves upon such islands as they met with. It was then the Cachear, their magician or Druid, foretold that there would be no end of their peregrinations and travel until they should arrive at the Western Island of Europe, now called Ireland, which was the place destined for their future and lasting abode and settlement; and that not they but their posterity after three hundred years should arrive there. After many traverses of fortune at sea, this little fleet with their leader arrived at last and landed at Gothia or Geulia-more recently called Lybia, where Carthage was afterwards built; and, soon after, Lamhfionn died there.

    Lámfhind (Old Irish "White Hand"), son of Agnoman, was, according to medieval Irish historical traditions, an ancestor of the Milesians, who are said to have settled Ireland from the Iberian Peninsula and from whom the lineages of most of the traditional High Kings were traced.

    According to the Lebor Gabála Érenn,[1] the descendants of Goídel Glas, the eponymous ancestor of the Gaels, migrated from Egypt around the time of the Biblical Exodus, and settled in Scythia. Several generations later they were expelled from Scythia after Agnoman killed Refloir, the Scythian king, and spent the next seven years wandering by sea in three ships lashed together. After Agnoman died on the Caspian Sea, Lámfind took leadership of the exiles, along with his brother Allot and their cousin Caicher the druid. Caicher protected his people from the song of the Sirens by melting wax into their ears, and prophesied that in 300 years their descendants would settle in Ireland. Lámfhind led them to settle in the Macotic Marshes (Gothia, according to Geoffrey Keating),[2] where he had a son, Eber Glúnfhind. Eight generations later his descendant Brath would lead his people from there to Spain, where Brath's son Breogán would spy Ireland from the top of a tower

    Child of LAMHFION MCAGNON is:
    45. i. EIMHIR GUNFIONN25 MC LAMHFIONN.

    42. JUDAHIBN24 JACOB (JACOB23, ISAAC22, ABRAHAM21, TERAH20, NAHOR19, SERUG18, REU17, PELEGIBN16 SALAH, EBERIBN15, SALAH14, MELKAOF13 UR, MADAIOF12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) He married (2) MERYTATEN TA-SHERIT "THE YOUNGER", daughter of AMENHOTEP and NEFERTITI.

    Notes for JUDAHIBN JACOB:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Judah (Hebrew: Standard Yhuda Tiberian Y?hû?ah) was, according to the Book of Genesis, the fourth son of Jacob and Leah, and the founder of the Israelite Tribe of Judah. Biblical scholars, such as J. A. Emerton view the narrative of Judah as a postdiction, an eponymous metaphor providing an aetiology of the connectedness of the tribe to others in the Israelite confederation.[1]

    Judah is the fourth son of the patriarch Jacob and his first wife, Leah: his full brothers are Reuben, Simeon and Levi (all older), and Issachar and Zebulun (younger), and he has six half brothers.

    The brothers become jealous of the youngest, Joseph, who is favoured by their father Jacob and who tells them of dreams in which they bow down to him. One day while watching over their father's flocks they decide to murder Joseph, but Judah suggests that they sell him instead to some passing Ishmaelites who will sell him as a slave in Egypt.[2] The brothers dipped Joseph's coat in fresh goat's blood and showed it to Jacob, saying he had been killed by a lion.

    Judah married the daughter of Shua, a Canaanite.Genesis chapter 38 Judah and his wife had three children, Er, Onan, and Shelah. Er married Tamar, but God killed him because he was wicked. Tamar became Onan's wife in accordance with custom, but God killed him because he spilled his semen on the ground. Tamar should have married Shelah, the remaining brother, but Judah did not give him to her. She deceived Judah into having sex with her by pretending to be a prostitute, and when Judah discovered that Tamar was pregnant he prepared to have her killed, but when he discovered that he was the father, he recanted and confessed [3] that he had used a prostitute. Tamar's sons by her father-in-law were the twins Pharez and Zerah, the fourth and fifth sons of Judah and the ancestors of David.(Genesis 38:1-30)

    Joseph rises to a position of power in Egypt, and meets his brothers again without them recognising him. There is now a new youngest, Benjamin, who has remained in Canaan with Jacob, initially remains in Canaan, so Joseph takes Simeon hostage and insists that the brothers return with Benjamin.[4] Judah offers himself to Jacob as surety for Benjamin's safety, and manages to persuade Jacob to let them take Benjamin to Egypt. When the brothers return, Joseph tests whether them by demanding the enslavement of Benjamin.[5] Judah pleads for Benjamin, and Joseph reveals his identity.[6]

    Literary critics have focused on the relationship between the Judah story in chapter 38, and the Joseph story in chapters 37 and 39. Victor Hamilton notes some “intentional literary parallels” between the chapters, such as the exhortation to “identify” (38:25-26 and 37:32-33).[7] Emerton regards the connections as evidence for including chapter 38 in the J corpus, and suggests that the J writer dovetailed the Joseph and Judah traditions.[8] Derek Kidner points out that the insertion of chapter 38 “creates suspense for the reader ,”[9] but Robert Alter goes further and suggests it is a result of the “brilliant splicing of sources by a literary artist.” He notes that the same verb “identify” will play “a crucial thematic role in the dénouement of the Joseph story when he confronts his brothers in Egypt, he recognizing them, they failing to recognize him."[10] Similarly, J. P. Fokkelman notes that the "extra attention" for Judah in chapter 38, "sets him up for his major role as the brothers' spokesman in Genesis 44."[11]

    J. A. Emerton notes that it is “widely agreed” that the story of Judah and Tamar “reflects a period after the settlement of the Israelites in Canaan.”[12] He also suggests the possibility that it contains “aetiological motifs concerned with the eponymous ancestors of the clans of Judah.”[13] Emerton notes that Dillman and Noth considered the account of the deaths of Er and Onan to “reflect the dying out of two clans of Judah bearing their names, or at least of their failure to maintain a separate existence.” However, this view was “trenchantly criticized” by Thomas L. Thompson.[13]

    Jewish tradition
    The text of the Torah argues that the name of Judah, meaning to praise, refers to Leah's intent to praise Yahweh, on account of having achieved four children, and derived from odeh, meaning I will give praise. In classical rabbinical literature, the name is interpreted as a combination of Yahweh and a dalet (the letter d); in Gematria, the dalet has the numerical value 4, which these rabbinical sources argue refers to Judah being Jacob's fourth son.[14] Since Leah was matriarch, Jewish scholars think the text's authors believed the tribe was part of the original Israelite confederation; however, it is worthy of note [15] that the tribe of Judah was not purely Israelite, but contained a large admixture of non-Israelites, with a number of Kenizzite groups, the Jerahmeelites, and the Kenites, merging into the tribe at various points.[15]

    Classical rabbinical sources refer to the passage "... a ruler came from Judah", from 1 Chronicles 5:2, to imply that Judah was the leader of his brothers, terming him the king.[16][17] This passage also describes Judah as the strongest of his brothers in which rabbinical literature portray him as having had extraordinary physical strength, able to shout for over 400 parasangs, able to crush iron into dust by his mouth, and with hair that stiffened so much, when he became angry, that it pierced his clothes.[18]

    Classical rabbinical sources also allude to a war between the Canaanites and Judah's family (not mentioned in the Hebrew Bible), as a result of their destruction of Shechem in revenge for the rape of Dinah;[19][20][21][22][23] Judah features heavily as a protagonist in accounts of this war. In these accounts Judah kills Jashub, king of Tappuah, in hand-to-hand combat, after first having deposed Jashub from his horse by throwing an extremely heavy stone (60 shekels in weight) at him from a large distance away (the Midrash Wayissau states 177? cubits, while other sources have only 30 cubits);[15] the accounts say that Judah was able to achieve this even though he was himself under attack, from arrows which Jashub was shooting at him with both hands.[15] The accounts go on to state that while Judah was trying to remove Jashub's armour from his corpse, nine assistants of Jashub fell upon him in combat, but after Judah killed one, he scared away the others;[15] nevertheless, Judah killed several members of Jashub's army (42 men according to the midrashic Book of Jasher, but 1000 men according to the Testament of Judah).[15]

    according to some classical rabbinical sources, Jacob suspected that Judah had killed Joseph,[24] especially, according to the Midrash Tanhuma, when Judah was the one who had brought the blood stained coat to Jacob.[15]

    The children of Jacob sell their brother Joseph by Konstantin Flavitsky, 1855. Judah was the one who suggested that Joseph be sold, rather than killed.Since rabbinical sources held Judah to have been the leader of his brothers, these sources also hold him responsible for this deception, even if it was not Judah himself who brought the coat to Jacob.[15] Even if Judah had been trying to save Joseph, the classical rabbinical sources still regard him negatively for it; these sources argue that, as the leader of the brothers, Judah should have made more effort, and carried Joseph home to Jacob on his (Judah's) own shoulders.[25] These sources argue that Judah's brothers, after witnessing Jacob's grief at the loss of Joseph, deposed and excommunicated Judah, as the brothers held Judah entirely responsible, since they would have brought Joseph home if Judah had asked them to do so.[26] Divine punishment, according to such classical sources, was also inflicted on Judah in punishment; the death of Er and Onan, and of his wife, are portrayed in by such classical rabbis as being acts of divine retribution.[27]

    According to classical rabbinical literature, because Judah had proposed that he should bear any blame forever, this ultimately led to his bones being rolled around his coffin without cease, while it was being carried during the Exodus, until Moses interceded with God, by arguing that Judah's confession (in regard to cohabiting with Tamar) had led to Reuben confessing his own incest.[15]

    the Genesis Rabbah, and particularly the midrashic book of Jasher, expand on this by describing Judah's plea as much more extensive than given in the Torah, and more vehement.[28][29]

    The classical rabbinical literature argues that Judah reacted violently to the threat against Benjamin, shouting so loudly that Hushim, who was then in Canaan, was able to hear Judah ask him to travel to Egypt, to help Judah destroy it;[15] some sources have Judah angrily picking up an extremely heavy stone (400 shekels in weight), throwing it into the air, then grinding it to dust with his feet once it had landed.[30] These rabbinical sources argue that Judah had Naphtali enumerate the districts of Egypt, and after finding out that there were 12 (historically, there were actually 20 in Lower Egypt and 22 in Upper Egypt), he decided to destroy three himself, and have his brothers destroy one of the remaining districts each;[15] the threat of destroying Egypt was, according to these sources, what really motivated Joseph to reveal himself to his brothers.[15]

    Dating Judah
    According to Classical rabbinical literature, Judah was born on the 15th of Sivan;[15] classical sources differ on the date of death, with the Book of Jubilees advocating a death at age 119, 18 years before Levi,[31] but the midrashic Book of Jasher advocating a death at the age of 129.[32] The marriage of Judah and births of his children are described in a passage widely regarded as an abrupt change to the surrounding narrative.[33] The passage is often regarded as presenting a significant chronological issue, as the surrounding context appears to constrain the events of the passage to happening within 22 years,[34] and the context together with the passage itself requires the birth of the grandson of Judah and of his son's wife,[35] and the birth of that son,[36] to have happened within this time (to be consistent, this requires an average of less than 8 years gap per generation). According to textual scholars, the reason for the abrupt interruption this passage causes to the surrounding narrative, and the chronological anomaly it seems to present, is that it derives from the Jahwist source, while the immediately surrounding narrative is from the Elohist.[15][37][38]

    Notes for MERYTATEN TA-SHERIT "THE YOUNGER":
    Meritaten Tasherit, which means Meritaten the Younger was an ancient Egyptian princess of the 18th dynasty. She is likely to have been the daughter of Meritaten, eldest daughter of Pharaoh Akhenaten.

    The father of this child remains under debate. Many assume it to be none other than Meritaten's father, Akhenaten, or possibly her husband Smenkhkare. Since both Meritaten Tasherit and another princess, Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit appear only in texts that once mentioned Akhenaten's second wife Kiya, it is also possible that they were children of Akhenaten and Kiya, or that they were fictional, replacing the name of Kiya's daughter, who might have been Beketaten, more commonly thought to be Tiye's child.[1][2]

    The fate of this child is uncertain. The mention of the god Aten in her name suggests that she was indeed a daughter of Akhenaten, since his successors reverted his religious reforms, and reverted to the worship of Egypt's traditional gods. Meanwhile, the name Aten was dropped from popular use during this time.

    References
    1.^ Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004) ISBN 0-500-05128-3, p.148
    2.^ Dr. Marc Gabolde: The End of the Amarna Period
    Eyma, Aayko ed., A Delta-Man in Yebu: Occasional Volume of the Egyptologists' Electronic Forum No. 1, Universal-Publishers.com 2003, p. 54

    Child of JUDAHIBN JACOB is:
    46. i. PHAREZ'PEREZ' IBN25 JUDAH.

    Children of JUDAH JACOB and MERYTATEN YOUNGER" are:
    47. ii. ZERAHIBN25 JUDAH.
    48. iii. SCOTIAIBN JUDAH, PRINCESS OF EGYPT.

    43. YUYA24 (JACOB23, ISAAC22, ABRAHAM21, TERAH20, NAHOR19, SERUG18, REU17, PELEGIBN16 SALAH, EBERIBN15, SALAH14, MELKAOF13 UR, MADAIOF12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) He married TUYA, daughter of PRIEST POTIPHERAH and ZELEKHA.

    Notes for YUYA:
    Yuya (sometimes Iouiya, also known as Yaa, Ya, Yiya, Yayi, Yu, Yuyu, Yaya, Yiay, Yia, and Yuy)[1] was a powerful Egyptian courtier during the eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt (circa 1390 BC). He was married to Tjuyu, an Egyptian noblewoman associated with the royal family, who held high offices in the governmental and religious hierarchies. Their daughter, Tiye, became the Great Royal Wife of Amenhotep III.[2]

    They also may have been the parents of Ay,[3] an Egyptian courtier active during the reign of pharaoh Akhenaten, who eventually became pharaoh, as Kheperkheprure Ay. There is no conclusive evidence, however, regarding the kinship of Yuya and Ay, although certainly, both men came from the town of Akhmim.[4] Yuya and Tjuyu also are known to have had a son named Anen, who carried the titles Chancellor of Lower Egypt, Second Prophet of Amun, sm-priest of Heliopolis, and Divine Father.[5]

    The tomb of Yuya and Tjuyu was, until the discovery of Tutankhamun's, one of the most spectacular ever found in the Valley of the Kings despite Yuya not even being a pharaoh. Although the burial site was robbed in antiquity, many objects not considered valuable by the robbers still remained. Both the mummies were largely intact and were in an amazing state of preservation.

    Yuya came from the Upper Egyptian town of Akhmim, where he probably owned an estate and was a wealthy member of the town's local nobility. His origins remain unclear. The study of his mummy showed that Yuya had been a man of taller than average stature and the anatomist Grafton Elliot Smith considered that his appearance was not typically Egyptian.

    Taking into account his unusual name and features, some Egyptologists believe that Yuya was of foreign origin, although this is far from certain.[6] The name Yuya may be spelled in a number of different ways as Gaston Maspero noted in Theodore Davis's 1907 book—The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou.[7] These include "iAy", ywiA", yw [reed-leaf with walking feet]A, ywiw" and, in orthography—normally a sign of something foreign--"y[man with hand to mouth]iA".[8]

    It was not typical for an Egyptian person to have so many different ways to write his name; this may suggest that Yuya's ancestors had a foreign origin. In "The Hebrew Pharaohs of Egypt" (ISBN 1-59143-022-4) one solution is that Yuya had some Mitannian ancestry; this argument is based on the fact that the knowledge of horses and chariotry was introduced into Egypt from Asia and Yuya was the king’s "Master of the Horse." It was also suggested that Yuya was the brother of queen Mutemwiya, who was the mother of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and may have had Mitannian royal origins.[9] However, this hypothesis can not be substantiated, since nothing is known of Mutemwiya's background. While Yuya lived in Upper Egypt, an area that was predominantly native Egyptian, he could have been an assimilated descendant of Asiatic immigrants or slaves who rose to become a member of the local nobility at Akhmin. If he was not a foreigner, however, then Yuya would have been the native Egyptian whose daughter was married to Amenhotep III.

    Career
    Yuya served as a key adviser for Amenhotep III,[3] and held posts such as "King’s Lieutenant" and "Master of the Horse"; his title "Father-of-the-god" possibly referred specifically to his being Amenhotep's father-in-law. In his native town of Akhmin, Yuya was a prophet of Min, the chief god of the area, and served as this deity's "Superintendent of Cattle".[10]

    Tomb
    Mummies of Yuya (left) and Tjuyu (right), who were found in the same tombYuya and his wife were buried in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes, where their private KV46 tomb was discovered in 1905 [11] by James Quibell, who was working on behalf of Theodore M. Davis. Although the tomb had been penetrated by tomb-robbers, perhaps they were disturbed as Quibell found most of the funerary goods and the two mummies virtually intact.[10] As the Egyptologist Cyril Aldred noted:

    "Though the tomb had been rifled in antiquity, the [tomb's] opulent funerary furniture was largely intact, and there was no doubt as to the identity of the pair, who were found resting among their torn linen wrappings, within their nests of coffins."[12]
    [edit] Identified as biblical Joseph An editor has expressed a concern that this article lends undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, controversies or matters relative to the article subject as a whole. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. (January 2011)

    Journalist
    Ahmed Osman has suggested an identification between Joseph, the ancient Hebrew patriarch who led the tribe of Israel into Egypt during a famine, and Yuya. Through analysis of anomalous features of the mummy of Yuya as well as linguistic and chronological data, Osman points out how Yuya is the only Egyptian mummy to have his hands placed under his chin rather than across his chest, he has what appears to be Semitic features, and a beard style similar to that of the ancient Hebrews, whereas Egyptian officials were known to shave their facial hair. Additionally, Joseph in the Genesis 45:8 is called "a father of pharaoh" and Osman claims that Yuya is the only Egyptian official to ever have had this title (with the exception of his son, Ay, who held the similar title Itnetjer, or "father of the god").[13]

    This theory has not been accepted in mainstream Egyptology and as well contradicts the account regarding Joseph's burial location in Joshua (24, 32). Donald B. Redford wrote a scathing review of Stranger in the Valley of the Kings for Biblical Archaeology Review.[14] Similarly, Deborah Sweeney has expressed great doubt toward the proposed identification. Sweeney states that the title "God's father of the Lord of the Two Lands" is an extension of the title "God's Father," which is not exclusive to Yuya. The Bible states very clearly that Joseph's body was mummified body was exhumed transported to Canaan by the Israelites, while Yuya's remained undisturbed in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, where his mummy was discovered in 1906.[15] However, the biblical statement is proposed by Osman to be a later insertion based upon its placement with regard to the Documentary Hypothesis.

    Footnotes
    1.^ (Osman p. 113)
    2.^ Rice, Michael (1999). Who's Who in Ancient Egypt. Routledge. pp. p.207.
    3.^ a b Rice, p.222
    4.^ David, Anthony & Rosalie, A Biographical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, London: Seaby, 1992. p.167
    5.^ Rice, p.20
    6.^ David O'Connor & Eric Cline, Amenhotep: Perspectives on his Reign, University of Michigan, 1998, p.5
    7.^ O'Connor & Cline, p.5
    8.^ Maspero's analysis of Yuya's complex name is given on page xiii-xiv of The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou" by Theodore M. Davis, Archibald Constable and Co. Ltd, 1907
    9.^ Anthony David & Rosalie David, A Biographical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, London: Seaby, 1992, p.167 ISBN 1-85264-032-4
    10.^ a b David & David, p.167
    11.^ Cyril Aldred: Akhenaten, King of Egypt Thames and Hudson, 1989. p.96 ISBN 0-500-27621-8
    12.^ Aldred, p.96
    13.^ Osman, Ahmed Stranger in the Valley of the Kings, San Francisco: Harper & Row, (1987) ISBN 0-06-250674-9
    14.^ Redford, Donald B. Review of Stranger in the Valley of the Kings by Ahmed Osman. BAR 15/2 p.8
    15.^ Deborah Sweeney, Review: Osman, "Stranger in the Valley of the Kings", The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, Vol. 82, No. 3/4 (Jan. - Apr., 1992), pp. 575-579

    External links
    "Discussion and images of the mummies of Yuya and Tjuyu". Tripod homepage. http://anubis4_2000.tripod.com/mummypages1/18B.htm. Retrieved March 2, 2006.
    The Treasures of Yuya and Tuyu
    Who Was Joseph? The Mummy of the Patriarch Joseph in the Cairo Museum

    Notes for TUYA:
    Tjuyu (sometimes transliterated as Thuya or Thuyu) was an Egyptian noblewoman, and the mother of queen Tiye, wife of pharaoh Amenhotep III. She is the grandmother of Akhenaten, and great grandmother of Tutankhamun.

    Biography
    Tjuyu is believed to be a descendant of Queen Ahmose-Nefertari, and she held many official roles in the interwoven religion and government of Ancient Egypt. She was involved in many religious cults and her titles included, 'Singer of Hathor' and Chief of the Entertainers of both Amun and Min.[1] She also held the influential offices of Superintendent of the Harem of the god Min of Akhmin and of Amun of Thebes.[2] She married Yuya, a powerful Ancient Egyptian courtier of the eighteenth dynasty.

    Children
    Yuya and Thuya had a daughter named Tiye, who became the consort and Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Amenhotep III. The great royal wife was the highest Egyptian religious position, serving alongside of the pharaoh in official ceremonies and rituals.

    Inner coffin of TjuyuYuya and Thuya also had a son named Anen, who carried the titles Chancellor of Lower Egypt, Second Prophet of Amun, sm-priest of Heliopolis and Divine Father.[3]

    They also may have been the parents of Ay,[4] an Egyptian courtier active during the reign of pharaoh Akhenaten, who eventually became pharaoh, as Kheperkheprure Ay, however, there is no conclusive evidence regarding the kinship of Yuya and Ay, although certainly, both men came from Akhmim.[5]

    Tomb
    Together with her husband, Tjuyu was buried in the Valley of the Kings, in KV46, where their largely unpillaged remains were found in 1905. It was the best-preserved tomb discovered before that of Tutankhamun, Tjuyu's great-grandson.

    References
    1.^ Tyldesley, Joyce. Chronicles of the Queens of Egypt. Thames & Hudson, 2006. p.116
    2.^ Cyril Aldred: Akhenaten, King of Egypt Thames and Hudson, 1989. p.96
    3.^ Rice, Michael (1999). Who's Who in Ancient Egypt. Routledge, p.20
    4.^ Rice, p.222
    5.^ David, Anthony, E. and Rosalie David. A Biographical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. London: Seaby, 1992. p.167

    External links
    KV 46 (Yuya and Thuyu) - Theban Mapping Project
    The Theban Royal Mummy Project - View 18th Dynasty Mummies from the Theban Royal Necropolis
     
  9. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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  10. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Asenath (pronounced /'æs.?.næ?/; Hebrew: ???????, Modern As?nat Tiberian 'As?n??) or Asenith (in modern times sometimes transliterated as Osnat) is a figure in the Book of Genesis (41:45.50; 46,20), an Egyptian woman whom Pharaoh gave to Joseph son of Jacob to be his wife. The daughter of Potipherah, a priest of On, she bore Joseph two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim, who became the patriarchs of the Israelite tribes of Manasseh and Ephraim.

    Modern scholarship says her name derives from the Egyptian "holy to Anath", and that her name may be phonetically transliterated from the New Kingdom Egyptian hieroglyphs as Ns-Nt.[citation needed]

    Genesis records nothing more about Asenath, but her story is elaborated in the apocryphal Joseph and Asenath. There, she is a virgin who rejects several worthy suitors in favor of Joseph, but Joseph will not have a pagan for a wife. She locks herself in a tower and rejects her idolatry in favor of Joseph's God Yahweh, and receives a visit from an angel who accepts her conversion. A ritual involving a honeycomb follows. Bees cover her and sting her lips to remove the false prayers to the pagan gods of her past. Joseph now consents to marry her. She bears him their sons Mannaseh and Ephraim. Pharaoh's son wants Asenath for himself, however, and with the aid of Joseph's brothers Dan and Gad, he conspires to kill her husband. The loyal brother Benjamin interferes, and Pharaoh's son is ultimately slain. Asenath forgives the conspirators, and she and Joseph rule over Egypt for 48 years, after which they pass the crown to Pharaoh's grandson.

    The Midrash Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer records a view that Asenath was actually the daughter of Joseph's sister Dinah, conceived in her rape by Shechem.[1] Some of the circumstantial textual evidence supporting this view is laid out in an article by John Pratt.

    "Asenath" or "Osnat" (Hebrew: ???????, Modern As?nat Tiberian 'As?n??) is a commonly used female first name in present-day Israel.

    Asenath is the name of a character in H.P. Lovecraft's "The Thing on the Doorstep."

    Children of YUYA and TUYA are:
    49. i. TIYE25.
    50. ii. AY.
    iii. ANEN.

    Notes for ANEN:
    Anen - Second Prophet of Amun (during Amenhotep III), Priest at Heliopolis, Chief Seer (High Priest) in the Temple of Re at Karnak.

    Buried in Thebes (TT120), brother to Queen Tiye

    Scene from Anen's tomb - it shows Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye seated on thrones in a kiosk, only the lower portion of the image still remains. The kiosk itself is resting upon the bound enemies of Egypt - 'all foreign lands are under your sandals'.

    Anen was an Ancient Egyptian official during the late Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. He was the son of Yuya and Tjuyu and the brother of Queen Tiye, the wife of Pharaoh Amenhotep III. Under the rule of his brother-in-law, Anen became the Chancellor of Lower Egypt, Second Prophet of Amun, sem-priest of Heliopolis, and acquired the title Divine Father.

    Anen is depicted in a notable surviving statue (Turin 5484), now in Turin Italy. A shabti of his is now in Hague. Inscriptions on Anen's own monuments do not mention the fact that he was Amenhotep III's brother-in-law.[1] However, this relationship is established by a short but clear reference to him in his mother Tjuyu's coffin, which stated that her son Anen was the second prophet of Amun.[2]

    It is likely that he died before Year 30 of Amenhotep III, since he is not mentioned in texts relating to the pharaoh's sed-festival[3] and in the last decade of Amenhotep's reign another man, Simut takes over Anen's place as Second Prophet of Amun. Simut had been Fourth Prophet of Amun previously.

    Anen was buried in his tomb in the Theban Necropolis, on the west bank of the Nile opposite Thebes. His son and four daughters are depicted in his tomb, but their names didn't survive.[4]

    Some of his titles:
    Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, Second prophet of Amun, Sem Priest of Heliopolis, Divine Father, High priest of Re-Atum , Chancellor of King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Noble and hereditary prince, One who is close to his Lord, One whose reputation has been established at Palace, One who soothes the gods with his voice

    Family background:

    Anen was the son of Yuya and Tuya. Anen is mentioned on the coffin of his mother Tuya. He is said to be "her son, the second prophet of Amun, beloved of the good god, Anen". There is no direct mention of Yuya being Anen's father, but it is generally assumed that he is. Cyril Aldred has suggested that Yuya was a son of the Father of the God and Master of the Horse, Yey, whose shabti is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. If so, Anen came from a family with military connections. This family connection has not been confirmed by any real evidence though.

    Anen was a brother of Queen Tiye and thus brother-in-law to Amenhotep III. It is not clear when Anen rose to prominence, but his position as Second Priest of Amun in Thebes and his other priestly titles show that he found some favor at court.

    As the brother of Queen Tiye, he was also a maternal uncle of Akhenaten. Some have tried to connect Anen through his position as priest in Heliopolis and High priest of Re-Atum to some of the religious development of the time, but there is no direct evidence to suggest Anen had a real influence on Akhenaten.

    Anen's tomb is locatd in the Theban necropolis: TT 120. The tomb is much damaged. In the tomb there is mention of the wife, son and four daughters of Anen. Sadly, none of their names have been preserved.

    Anen's position as Second Prophet of Amun was taken over in ca year 34 of Amenhotep III's reign by Simut and this may point to the approximate time of Anen's death.

    Anen is attested:
    * On the coffin of Tuya.
    * In his tomb: TT120 in Thebes.
    * A statue in Turin.
    * A shabti, now in a museum in The Hague, the Netherlands.
    * Possibly a shabti in the Ashmolean Museum.

    Links:
    Alex Herrero Pardo's page about Anen This page is in Spanish. It contains a full length picture of the Turin statue of Anen and a picture of a scene in TT 120 showing Amenhotep III and Tiye.

    Ian Bolton's page. This site contains the same two images as the site mentioned above.

    Klaus Adams' description of TT120. In German. The page gives a plan of TT120. Translation of the description of the scenes in the tomb:
    "1. Grain "clusters", Amenhotep III at the Harvest Festival
    2. Two women
    3. Tiye, Amenhotep III,
    4. Anen, sitting
    5. Anen and his wife before list of offerings
    6. Three registers, funeral procession, scenes from the book of the gates, Anubis leading Anen to Osiris, goddess of the West, and Anubis."

    Some resources:

    [1] The End of the El-'Amarna Period by Cyril Aldred (The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 43 (Dec., 1957), pp. 30-41)
    [2] The Shabti of Anen in the Hague by F. J. E. Boddens Hosang (The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 76 (1990), pp. 178-179)
    .

    44. REBEKAH24 (BETHUEL23, MILCAH22, HARAN21, TERAH20, NAHOR19, SERUG18, REU17, PELEGIBN16 SALAH, EBERIBN15, SALAH14, MELKAOF13 UR, MADAIOF12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) She married ISAAC, son of ABRAHAM and SARAH.

    Notes for REBEKAH:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Rebecca (also spelt Rebekah) (Hebrew: ???????, Modern Rivkah Tiberian Ri?qah ISO 259-3 Ribqa, from the Hebrew ribhqeh (lit., "connection"), from Semitic root r-b-q, "to tie, couple or join"[1] or "to secure"[2]) appears in the Hebrew Bible as a prophetess and one of the four Jewish matriarchs. She was the wife of Isaac and the mother of Jacob and Esau. Rebecca and Isaac were one of the three couples buried in the Cave of the Patriarchs, the other two being Abraham and Sarah, and Jacob and Leah.

    According to the account in the Book of Genesis, Rebecca was the wife of Isaac and the sister of Laban, who would later become the father of Rachel and Leah, two of the wives of Rebecca's son Jacob.

    The news of her birth was told to her great-uncle Abraham after the latter returned from Akeidat Yitzchak (the Binding of Isaac), the episode in which Abraham was told by God to bring Isaac as a sacrifice on a mountain.

    After the Binding of Isaac, Sarah, Abraham's wife, died. After taking care of her burial, Abraham went about finding a wife for his son Isaac, who was already thirty-seven years old. He commanded his servant (whom the Torah commentators identify as Eliezer of Damascus)[3] to journey to his birthplace of Aram Naharaim to select a bride from his own family, rather than engage Isaac to a local Canaanite girl. Abraham sent along expensive jewelry, clothing and dainties as gifts to the bride and her family. If the girl had refused to follow him, Abraham stated that Eliezer would be absolved of his responsibility.

    Notes for ISAAC:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Isaac (English pronunciation: /'a?z?k/;[1] Hebrew: ???????, Modern Yits?ak Tiberian Yi??aq, ISO 259-3 Yiç?aq, "he will laugh"; Yiddish: ????, Yitskhok; Ancient Greek: ?sa??, Isaak; Latin: Isaac; Arabic: ?????? or Arabic: ?????? 'Is?aq) as described in the Hebrew Bible, was the only son Abraham had with his wife Sarah, and was the father of Jacob and Esau. Isaac was one of the three patriarchs of the Israelites. According to the Book of Genesis, Abraham was 100 years old when Isaac was born, and Sarah was beyond childbearing years.

    Isaac was the only Biblical patriarch whose name was not changed, and the only one who did not leave Canaan. Compared to those of Abraham and Jacob, Isaac's story relates fewer incidents of his life. He died when he was 180 years old, making him the longest-lived patriarch.

    Isaac (Arabic:??????, Ishaq) is revered by Muslims to be a prophet and the patriarch of Islam. Isaac, along with Ishmael, is highly important for Muslims for continuing to preach the message of monotheism after his father Abraham. Among Isaac's children was the follow-up Israelite patriarch Jacob, who too is venerated an Islamic prophet.

    Isaac is mentioned fifteen times by name in the Qur'an, often with his father and his son, Jacob.[36] The Qur'an states that Abraham received "good tidings of Isaac, a prophet, of the righteous", and that God blessed them both (XXXVII: 12). In a fuller description, when angels came to Abraham to tell him of the future punishment to be imposed on Sodom and Gomorrah, his wife, Sarah, "laughed, and We gave her good tidings of Isaac, and after Isaac of (a grandson) Jacob" (XI: 71-74); and it is further explained that this event will take place despite Abraham and Sarah's old age. Several verses speak of Isaac as a "gift" to Abraham (VI: 84; XIX: 49-50), and XXIX: 26-27 adds that God made "prophethood and the Book to be among his offspring", which has been interpreted to refer to Abraham's two prophetic sons, his prophetic grandson Jacob, and his prophetic great-grandson Joseph. In the Qur'an, it later narrates that Abraham also praised God for giving him Ishmael and Isaac in his old age (XIV: 39-41).

    Elsewhere in the Qur'an, Isaac is mentioned in lists: Joseph follows the religion of his forefathers Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (XII: 38) and speaks of God's favor to them (XII: 6); Jacob's sons all testify their faith and promise to worship the God that their forefathers, "Abraham, Ishmael and Isaac", worshiped (II: 127); and the Qur'an commands Muslims to believe in the revelations that were given to "Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and the Patriarchs" (II: 136; III: 84). In the Qur'an's narrative of Abraham's near-sacrifice of his son (XXXVII: 102), the name of the son is not mentioned and debate has continued over the son's identity, though many feel that the identity is the least important element in a story which is given to show the courage that one develops through faith.[37]

    Child is listed above under (36) Isaac.

    Generation No. 25

    45. EIMHIR GUNFIONN25 MC LAMHFIONN (LAMHFION24 MCAGNON, AGNOMAN23, TAIT22, OGAMAN21, KINGOF SCYTHIA20 BEMAN, EIMHAR19, SRU18, ASRUTHOF17 SCYTHIA, GAODHAL GLAS OF16, NIULOF15, PHOENIUSA14 FARSAIDH, BOATH13, MAGOG12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1)

    Notes for EIMHIR GUNFIONN MC LAMHFIONN:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    [House of Morney.FTW]

    Heber Glunfionn was born in Gothia, where he died. His posterity continued there to the eighth generation; and were kings or chief rulers there for one hundred and fifty years-some say three hundred years.

    Child of EIMHIR GUNFIONN MC LAMHFIONN is:
    51. i. AGNAN26 FIONN.

    46. PHAREZ'PEREZ' IBN25 JUDAH (JUDAHIBN24 JACOB, JACOB23, ISAAC22, ABRAHAM21, TERAH20, NAHOR19, SERUG18, REU17, PELEGIBN16 SALAH, EBERIBN15, SALAH14, MELKAOF13 UR, MADAIOF12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1)

    Notes for PHAREZ'PEREZ' IBN JUDAH:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    The line of Judah ran through 'Perez' to David and thus became the messianic line. (Luke 3:30; Judas, KJV).

    Child of PHAREZ'PEREZ' IBN JUDAH is:
    52. i. EZROM26.

    47. ZERAHIBN25 JUDAH (JUDAHIBN24 JACOB, JACOB23, ISAAC22, ABRAHAM21, TERAH20, NAHOR19, SERUG18, REU17, PELEGIBN16 SALAH, EBERIBN15, SALAH14, MELKAOF13 UR, MADAIOF12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) He married ELECTRA.

    Notes for ZERAHIBN JUDAH:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    According to the Book of Genesis, Zerah was the son of Tamar and of Judah, and was the twin of Pharez.The text says that he was called Zerah because when he had stuck his hand out before being born, the midwife tied a bright scarlet thread around his wrist; although all other biblical uses of the word zerah translate as rise, here the name is implied to derive from the colour of the bright thread - scarlet - which is similar to the initial colour of sunrise.

    The bible also identifies Zerah as the name of the founder of one of the Simeonite clans.

    Just after the time of Solomon, Zerah, an Ethiopian commander of a million soldiers and three hundred chariots, attacked the weaker forces of Asa, King of Judah. Asa, a righteous king, prayed to God for deliverance and the forces of the Ethiopians were turned back. (2 Chr. 14:9-13).

    The Ethiopians attained their greatest strength during the time of Hezekiah (c. 700 BCE). This was possible because of internal disunty within Egypt.

    Egypt was defeated and an Ethiopian dynasty ruled Egypt for 60 years. During this period, Sennacherib, King of Assyria, attacked Hezekiah in Jerusalem.The Assyrian commander discouraged any hope that the Egyptians would come to the aid of Hezekiah. But Tirhakah (c. 689-664 BCE), King of Ethiopia and Egypt, did attack the Assyrian forces.

    Although the Ethiopians were defeated, God delivered Hezekiah by sending an angel to kill 185,000 of the Assyrian troops.

    Child of ZERAH JUDAH and ELECTRA is:
    53. i. DARDANUS26.

    48. SCOTIAIBN25 JUDAH, PRINCESS OF EGYPT (JUDAHIBN24 JACOB, JACOB23, ISAAC22, ABRAHAM21, TERAH20, NAHOR19, SERUG18, REU17, PELEGIBN16 SALAH, EBERIBN15, SALAH14, MELKAOF13 UR, MADAIOF12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) She married (2) NIULOF SCYTHIA, son of PHOENIUSA FARSAIDH.

    Notes for NIULOF SCYTHIA:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    [House of Morney.FTW]

    Niul, after his father returned to Scythia, continued some time at œothena, teaching the languages and other laudable sciences, until upon report of his great learning he was invited into Egypt by Pharaoh, the King; who gave him the land of Campus Cyrunt, near the Red Sea to inhabit, and his daughter Scota in marriage; from whom their posterity are ever since called Scots; but, according to some annalists, the name "Scots" is derived from the word Scythia. It was this Niul that employed Gaodhal [Gael], son of Ethor, a learned and skilful man, to compose or rather refine and adorn the language, called Bearla Tobbai, which was common to all Niul's posterity, and afterwards called Gaodhilg (or Gaelic), from the said Gaodhal who composed or refined it; and for his sake also Niul called his own eldest son "Gaodhal."

    Of the journeying of Niul to Egypt from Scythia, and of his doings there until his death as follows:

    Before we speak of the journeying of Niul from Scythia to Egypt, we may observe that Herodotus says that it was from Babylon the Greeks derived the knowledge of the position of the north star, and the division of the hours; and Solon asserts that the Greeks had not a knowledge of history until they obtained it from the Egyptians. Josephus says, in the first book of his History, that the Greeks had not an alphabet till the time of Homer. From these authors it appears that it was not from Greece, so named to-day, that Isis or anyone else went to teach the sciences to the Egyptians; but it was Niul, the son of Feinius Farsaidh, who went from Scythia to teach the sciences there. And whoever should say that there was not learning in Scythia, from whence Niul came, earlier than in Egypt, would not be stating truth, according to Polydorus, in the first book he has written, "De rerum inventoribus," where he says: "There was a long dispute between the Egyptians and the Scythians; and, in that struggle, the Egyptians having been overcome, it appeared that the Scythians were more ancient than they were."[434] From this it may be inferred that the Scythians possessed education and learning earlier than the Egyptians, and since, according to the above authors, learning was earlier in Egypt than in Greece, it was not Isis of Greece or any such person who went from Greece to Egypt to conduct schools, but Niul son of Feinius Farsaidh from Scythia, who was born in the Plain of Seanair, and was then trained in learning in the first school that was established in the country of Babylon; and this was the first school after the confusion of the languages of the world, as we have stated above.

    When Niul had been a long time conducting the public schools in Scythia, his fame for knowledge and wisdom spread through the nations generally, so that on account of his great reputation Pharao Cincris, king of Egypt, sent envoys to him, inviting him to Egypt to teach the sciences and the various languages to the youths of that country. Niul accordingly proceeded to Egypt, as the poet says in this stanza, which is taken from the poem beginning, "Let us relate the origin of the Gaels":

    Tidings reached Forann
    With great acclaim
    Of Niul son of Feinius knowing
    The languages of the world.

    Niul then went to Egypt with the envoys of Pharao; and the king gave him the land called Capacyront (or Campus Circit) beside the Red Sea. He also gave his own daughter Scota in marriage to Niul, as Giolla Caomhain says in the poem beginning "Gaedheal Glas, from whom are the Gaels ":

    He then went into Egypt
    And reached the mighty Forann,
    And married Scota of charms not few,
    The generous, clever daughter of Forann.

    When Niul had married Scota, he established schools at Campus Circit for teaching the sciences and the various languages to the youths of Egypt. And it was there that Scota gave birth to Gaedheal son of Niul. Perhaps some one might wonder how Niul, the fifth in descent from Japhet, could be a contemporary of Moses, seeing that seven hundred and ninety-seven years elapsed between the Deluge and the assuming by Moses of the leadership of the children of Israel. My reply to that is that it is not incredible that Niul should live several hundred years; for people used to live a long time at that period; witness Eibear son of Saile the fourth in descent from Seim who lived four hundred and sixty-four years, and Seim who lived five hundred years after Arphaxad was born to him, as we read in the eleventh chapter of Genesis; that it is not to be doubted, therefore, that Niul might have lived from the forty-second year of the reign of Nion son of Beil, as we have said, to the time of Moses. And moreover, the length of life granted to Niul and that he should have survived till the time of Moses in Egypt is still less to be wondered at, if what Marianus Scotus states be true; for he says that it was three hundred and thirty-one years after the Deluge that the Confusion of Tongues took place at Babylon, while, according to what we have stated above, it was long after the Babylonian Confusion that Niul was born. From what we have said, we should trust the authors of the seanchus of the Scotic race as regards the age of Niul son of Feinius Farsaidh, and believe that he was a contemporary of Moses in Egypt.

    As to Niul, it was when he was sojourning at Capacyront beside the Red Sea, and when Scota had given birth to Gaedheal, that the children of Israel escaped from Pharao and marched to the shore of the Red Sea, and made an encampment beside Capacyront where Niul dwelt. When Niul heard of this, he went to meet them and discourse with them, and to find out who they were. At the outposts of the host he met Aaron who told him the story of the children of Israel and of Moses and the witness-bearing miracles that God had wrought against Pharao and his army, because of the bondage of the children of Israel. Now Niul and Aaron entered into an alliance and friendship with one another; and Niul inquired of Aaron whether they had food or provisions, and further informed him that whatever corn and means he had would all be at their service. For this Aaron was grateful to him. Then night came on; and Aaron went to Moses and told him of the offers which Niul had made to them; and Moses and Aaron were grateful to him accordingly.

    Now Niul went to his own people after this, and told them that the children of Israel were nigh unto them; and he told them all that had befallen the children of Israel. And that same night a serpent came upon Gaedheal as he was swimming, and wounded him so that he was at the point of death; and others say that it was from the desert it came and wounded him in bed. His people told Niul to take the lad to Moses; and he took Gaedheal into the presence of Moses. Moses prayed to God, and applied the rod he held in his hand to the wound, and thus healed it. And Moses said that, in what place soever the stock of that youth would settle, there no serpent would ever have venom, and this is verified in Crete, an island in Greece, in which some of his posterity are; it is without serpents as Ireland is. And although there were serpents in Ireland up to the coming of Patrick, I do not think they had venom; or I imagine it is the demons that are called serpents in the life of Patrick.

    Some seanchas state that Moses fastened with a lock around the neck of Gaedheal the bracelet that he had on his own arm, and that it was from this he was called Gaedheal Glas. At that time each chieftain wore a bracelet on the arm as a mark of his tribal supremacy; and hence the head of a company is now called a noble fleascach or 'bracelet-bearer.' To set forth that it was from the trail of the serpent that clung to Gaedheal's neck that he is called Gaedheal Glas, and to show that it was Moses who healed him, we have the following stanzas:

    Gaedheal Glas, why was the name given
    To that brilliant, perfect man?
    The event whence Gaedheal is Glas,
    Few are those who know its history;

    While bathed in the strong stream
    Gaedheal son of Niul of good disposition,
    A serpent bit his skin;
    It was not easy to heal it;

    The grey-blue mark did not leave him
    Till Moses kindly healed it.
    What the learned understand from this
    Is that thence comes Gaedheal Glas.

    Others assert that he was called Gaedheal Glas from the grey-blue colour of his arms and armour. Hence someone has composed the following stanza:

    Scota bore a son to Niul the modest,
    From whom sprang many noble tribes;
    Gaedheal Glas was the name of the man,
    From the grey-blue colour of his arms and armour.

    And it is from this Gaedheal that all the Gaels are named. Hence the poet composed this stanza:

    The Feni are named from Feinius,
    The meaning is not difficult;
    The Gaels from comely Gaedheal Glas,
    The Scots from Scota.

    Others, however, say that the mother of Gaedheal was called Scota because his father was of the Scotic race from Scythia, and that it was their custom to call the women after their husbands. Understand that this is not the Scota who was wife of Galamh, who is called Milidh of Spain, and bore him six sons. For the mother of Gaedheal was daughter to Pharao Cincris; and it was he who held the children of Israel in bondage. But the Pharao whose daughter was wife of Milidh was the fifteenth Pharao after him. He was called Pharao Nectonibus.

    Now as to Niul, he told Moses that Pharao Cincris would be angry with himself for having welcomed him. "In that case," said Moses, "come along with us; and if we reach the land which God has fore-appointed to us, thou shalt get a share of it; or, if thou wilt, we will deliver the fleet of Pharao into thy hands, and do thou go on sea in it so that thou mayest learn how we shall separate from Pharao." Niul followed this latter counsel. A thousand armed men were sent with him to the ships; and these were delivered over to him; and he embarked in them, and beheld the events of the ensuing day, namely, the opening of the sea before the children of Israel, and its dispersion after them on Pharao and on his host, drowning them, as the poet says in this stanza, which is taken from the poem beginning, "O thou who believest not according to truth":

    Sixty thousand of them on foot,
    Fifty thousand on horseback,
    A storm of the Red Sea of Romhar
    Overwhelmed them all at once.

    Sixty thousand foot, then, and fifty thousand horse was their number. It was seven hundred and ninety-seven years after the Deluge that Pharao was drowned, as we have stated above. And Niul having seen Pharao and his host drown, remained in the same territory, as he was not afraid after the drowning of Pharao; and his children and progeny grew up until they were able to bear arms. Some time afterwards Niul died; and Gaedheal and his mother took possession of his lands. Thereafter a son was born to Gaedheal in Egypt, namely Easru son of Gaedheal, and some time after that a son was born to him in turn, Sru son of Easru, son of Gaedheal, and these possessed the same lands and dwelt thereon. Now, as to the Egyptians, Pharao Intuir assumed sovereignty over them after the drowning of Pharao Cincris. Pharao was a name given to every king who ruled over Egypt from Pharao Cincris who was drowned in the Red Sea to Pharao Nectonibus the fifteenth king after Pharao Cincris.

    Child is listed above under (20) Niul of Scythia.

    49. TIYE25 (YUYA24, JACOB23, ISAAC22, ABRAHAM21, TERAH20, NAHOR19, SERUG18, REU17, PELEGIBN16 SALAH, EBERIBN15, SALAH14, MELKAOF13 UR, MADAIOF12, JAPHET11, NOAH10, LAMECH9, METHUSALEH(MATHUSALE) (3317 BC - 23488 BC), ENOCH7, JARED6, MAHALELEL5, KENAN4, ENOSH3, THE GOD SET2 SETH, EVE1) She married 'AMENHOTEP III', son of 'THUTMOSE IV' and 'MUTEMWIYA' SETURA).

    Notes for TIYE:
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    [House of Morney.FTW]

    Tiye (c. 1398 BC – 1338 BC, also spelled Taia, Tiy and Tiyi) was the daughter of Yuya and Tjuyu (also spelled Thuyu). She became the Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III.

    Tiye's father, Yuya, was a wealthy landowner from the Upper Egyptian town of Akhmin,[1] where he served as a priest and superintendent of oxen. Tiye's mother, Thuya, was involved in many religious cults, as her different titles attested (Singer of Hathor, Chief of the Entertainers of both Amun and Min...),[2] which suggests that she was a member of the royal family.

    It sometimes is suggested that Tiye's father, Yuya, was of Asiatic or Nubian descent due to the features of his mummy and the many different spellings of his name, which might imply it was a non-Egyptian name in origin.[3] Some suggest that the queen's strong political and unconventional religious views might have been due not just to a strong character, but to foreign descent.[2]

    Tiye also had a brother, Anen, who was Second Prophet of Amun.[4] Other egyptologists speculated that Ay, a successor of Tutankhamen as pharaoh after the latter's death, also might have been descended from Tiye. No clear date or monument can confirm the link between the two, but these Egyptologists presumed this by Ay's origins, also from Akhmin, and because he inherited most of the titles that Tiye's father, Yuya, held during his lifetime, at the court of Amenhotep III.[2][5]

    Tiye was married to Amenhotep III by the second year of his reign. He had been born of a secondary wife of his father and needed a stronger tie to the royal lineage.[6] He appears to have been crowned while still a child, perhaps between the ages of six to twelve. They had at least six children, one of whom, Akhenaten, went on to become pharaoh. Tiye's eldest daughter, Sitamun, also is likely to have married her father, Amenhotep III, and become entitled, Royal Great Wife as well.[7] Recent works explain that it was mostly a symbolical marriage involving many religious and administrative duties, as it occurs during Tiye's lifetime and, probably, with her consent. Other than those two, Tiye also gave birth to Henuttaneb, Nebetiah, Isis, and Thutmose.[8] A fifth daughter, Baketaten, is presumed as attributed to Tiye, but the father still is not confirmed.[9]

    Recent DNA analysis sponsored by the Secretary General of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities Zahi Hawass published in February 2010, shows that Tutankhamun, the successor of Tiye's son Akhenaten, was born of a brother-sister union.[10] This rules out any possibility that Tutankhamun's mother was Akhenaten's secondary wife Kiya, because no known artifact accords Kiya the title or attribute "the king's daughter." Kiya was not, therefore, the daughter of a Pharaoh (and thus not a daughter of Queen Tiye) and could not have been Akhenaten's sister. An extant mummy, known as The Younger Lady and found in the same tomb (KV35) as Tiye's mummy, was identified through the same DNA testing as being Tutankhamun's mother, but it is unclear which of Akhenaten's sisters it might be; whether Henuttaneb, Nebetiah, Iset, Baketaten, or, if she was indeed Akhenaten's sister, Sitamun.

    MonumentsHer husband devoted a number of shrines to her and constructed a temple dedicated to her in Sedeinga in Nubia where she was worshipped as a form of the goddess Hathor-Tefnut.[11] He also had an artificial lake built for her in his Year 12.[12] As the American Egyptologists David O'Connor and Eric Cline note:

    “ The unprecedented thing about Tiyi. ... is not where she came from but what she became. No previous queen ever figured so prominently in her husband's lifetime. Tiyi regularly appeared besides Amenhotep III in statuary, tomb and temple reliefs, and stelae while her name is paired with his on numerous small objects, such as vessels and jewelry, not to mention the large commemorative scarabs, where her name regularly follows his in the dateline. New elements in her portraiture, such as the addition of cows' horns and sun disks—attributes of the goddess Hathor—to her headdress, and her representation in the form of a sphinx—an image formerly reserved for the king—emphasize her role as the king's divine, as well as earthly partner. Amenhotep III built a temple to her in Sedeinga in northern Sudan, where she was worshiped as a form of Hathor ... The temple at Sedeinga was the pendant to Amenhotep III's own, larger temple at Soleb, fifteen kilometres to the south (an arrangement followed a century later by Ramses II at Abu Simbel, where there are likewise two temples, the larger southern temple dedicated to the king, and the smaller, northern temple dedicated to the queen, Nefertiry, as Hathor).[13] ”

    Influence at court
    Fragmentary funerary mask of Queen Tiye - in the Ägyptisches Museum collection in BerlinTiye wielded a great deal of power during both her husband’s and son’s reigns. Amenhotep III became a fine sportsman, a lover of outdoor life, and a great statesman. He often had to consider claims for Egypt's gold and requests for his royal daughters in marriage from foreign kings such as Tushratta of Mitanni and Kadashman-Enlil I of Babylon. The royal lineage was carried by the women of Ancient Egypt and marriage to one would have been a path to the throne for their progeny. Tiye became her husband’s trusted adviser and confidant. Being wise, intelligent, strong, and fierce, she was able to gain the respect of foreign dignitaries. Foreign leaders were willing to deal directly through her. She continued to play an active role in foreign relations and was the first Egyptian queen to have her name recorded on official acts.[14]

    She may have continued to advise her son, Akhenaten, when he took the throne. Her son’s correspondence with Tushratta, the king of Mitanni, speaks highly of the political influence which Tiye wielded at court. In Amarna letter EA 26, Tushratta, king to Mitanni, corresponded directly with Tiye to reminisce about the good relations which he enjoyed with her then deceased husband and extended his wish to continue on friendly terms with her son, Akhenaten.[15]

    Amenhotep III died in Year 38 or Year 39 of his reign (1353 BC/1350 BC) and was buried in the Valley of the Kings in WV22, however, Tiye is known to have outlived him for as many as twelve years. Tiye continued to be mentioned in the Amarna letters and in inscriptions as queen and beloved of the king. Amarna letter EA 26 which is addressed to Tiye, dates to the reign of Akhenaten. She is known to have had a house at Amarna, Akhenaten's new capital and is shown on the walls of the tomb of Huya – a "steward in the house of the king's mother, the great royal wife Tiyi" – depicted at a dinner table with Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and their family and then being escorted by the king to her sunshade.[16] In an inscription approximately dated to November 21 of Year 12 of Akhenaten's reign (1338 BC), both she and her granddaughter Meketaten are mentioned for the last time. They are thought to have died shortly after that date.

    In 1898, Victor Loret discovered a mummy of Amenhotep III. Alongside it was the mummy of an "Elder Lady". The identification of the "Elder Lady" as Tiye, had found considerable support among scholars and was confirmed in February 2010 in a DNA project that also identified the body of Akhenaten.[17] A lock of Tiye's hair was found in a nest of miniature coffins in Tutankhamun's tomb which is stated as belonging explicitly to Tiye.[18]

    If Tiye died soon after Year 12 of Akhenaten's reign (1338 BC), this would place her birth around 1398 BC, her marriage to Amenhotep III at the age of eleven or twelve, and her becoming a widow at the age of forty-eight to forty-nine. Suggestions of a co-regency between Amenhotep III and his son Akhenaten lasting for up to twelve years continue, but most scholars today, either accept a brief co-regency lasting no more than one year at the most,[19] or no co-regency at all.[16]

    Burial
    Tiye is believed to have been originally buried in Akhenaten's royal tomb at Amarna alongside her son and granddaughter, Meketaten, as a fragment from the tomb not long ago was identified as being from her sarcophagus. Her gilded burial shrine (showing her with Akhenaten) ended up in KV55 while shabtis belonging to her were found in Amenhotep III's WV22 tomb.[20]

    In the tomb KV35, a mummy known as the Elder Lady was identified as hers. The British scholars Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton once stated that "it seems very unlikely that her mummy could be the so-called 'Elder Lady' in the tomb of Amenhotep II."[20] Evidence cited to support this view includes examinations stating that the Elder Lady's teeth look as if they were those of a twenty-nine year old rather than a fifty-nine year old. However, recent evidence (DNA analysis) of the Elder Woman's teeth and the lock of hair found in Tutankhamun's tomb proves that the body is Tiye[21] and is nearer to a middle aged woman. This was further proven in February 2010, when the mummy was officially identified via DNA testing along with multiple other Amarna era mummies.[22]

    References
    1.^ Joyce Tyldesley, Chronicles of the Queens of Egypt. Thames & Hudson: London, 2006. p.115
    2.^ a b c Joyce Tyldesley, Chronicles of the Queens of Egypt. Thames & Hudson: London, 2006. p.116
    3.^ David O'Connor & Eric Cline, Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign, University of Michigan, 1998, p.5
    4.^ David O'Connor & Eric Cline, Amenhotep III: Perspectives on his reign, University of Michigan Press, 1998, pp.5-6
    5.^ Ian Shaw, The Oxford history of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press: London, 2003. p.253
    6.^ David O'Connor & Eric Cline, p.5
    7.^ Joyce Tyldesley, Chronicles of the Queens of Egypt. Thames & Hudson: London, 2006. p.121
    8.^ Ian Shaw, The Oxford history of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press: London, 2003. p.259
    9.^ Joyce Tyldesley, Chronicles of the Queens of Egypt. Thames & Hudson: London, 2006. p.120
    10.^ Hawass, Zahi et al. "Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family" The Journal of the American Medical Association p.640-641
    11.^ David O'Connor & Eric Cline, p.6
    12.^ Arielle Kozloff & Betsy Bryan, "Royal and Divine Statuary" in Egypt’s Dazzling Sun: Amenhotep III and his World, Cleveland: 1992, no.2
    13.^ David O'Connor & Eric Cline, pp.6-7.
    14.^ Joyce Tyldesley, Chronicles of the Queens of Egypt. Thames & Hudson: London, 2006. p.118
    15.^ [1] EA 26 - A Letter from Tushratta to Tiye
    16.^ a b David O'Connor & Eric Cline, p.23
    17.^ Hawass, Zahi et al. "Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family" The Journal of the American Medical Association p.640-641
    18.^ Dodson & Hilton, The Royal Families of Ancient Egypt p.157
    19.^ Nicholas Reeves, Akhenaten: The False Prophet, pp.75-78
    20.^ a b Dodson & Hilton, p.157
    21.^ http://web.archive.org/web/20091025065506/http://geocities.com/scribelist/tiye.doc accessed 27 June 2009
    22.^ Hawass, Zahi et al. "Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family" The Journal of the American Medical Association p.640-641

    Notes for 'AMENHOTEP III':
    [Stem of the House of Connor.FTW]

    Midian (son of Abraham)
    According to the Hebrew Bible, Midian is the fourth son of Abraham by Keturah,[1] the woman Abraham married after Sarah's death. His brothers are Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Ishbak and Shuah.

    See Amenhotep III c. 1405-1367 BCE.

    Apparent and approximate emigration patterns of Abraham’s children by Katurah, excepting those about whom not enough is known to draw a conclusion.Josephus records that "Abraham contrived to settle them in colonies; and they took possession of Troglodytis and the country of Arabia the Happy, as far as it reaches to the Red Sea."[2] Abraham in all probability, tried to keep them apart from Isaac to avoid conflict while fulfilling God's commission to spread out and inhabit the globe.[3][4][5]

    References:
    1.^ 1 Chronicles 1.32
    2.^ Josephus, Flavius, Antiquities, 1.15.1
    3.^ Genesis 1:27,28
    4.^ Genesis 9:1
    5.^ Josephus, Flavius, Antiquities, 1.4.1-3

    Amenhotep III (sometimes read as Amenophis III; Egyptian Amana-?atpa; meaning Amun is Satisfied) also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. According to different authors, he ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC or June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC[4] after his father Thutmose IV died. Amenhotep III was the son of Thutmose by Mutemwia, a minor wife of Amenhotep's father.[5]

    His reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of her artistic and international power. When he died (probably in the 39th year of his reign), his son initially ruled as Amenhotep IV, but later changed his own royal name to Akhenaten.

    The son of the future Thutmose IV (the son of Amenhotep II) and a minor wife Mutemwiya, Amenhotep was born around 1388 BC.[6] He was a member of the Thutmosid family that had ruled Egypt for almost 150 years since the reign of Thutmose I.

    Amenhotep III was the father of two sons with his Great Royal Wife Tiye, a queen who could be considered as the progenitor of monotheism[7] through her first son, Crown Prince Thutmose, who predeceased his father, and her second son, Akhenaten, who ultimately succeeded Amenhotep III to the throne. Amenhotep III also may have been the father of a third child called Smenkhkare, who later would succeed Akhenaten, briefly rule Egypt as pharaoh, and who is thought to have been a woman.[7]

    Amenhotep III and Tiye may also have had four daughters: Sitamun, Henuttaneb, Isis or Iset, and Nebetah.[8] They appear frequently on statues and reliefs during the reign of their father and also are represented by smaller objects—with the exception of Nebetah.[9] Nebetah is attested only once in the known historical records on a colossal limestone group of statues from Medinet Habu.[10] This huge sculpture, that is seven meters high, shows Amenhotep III and Tiye seated side by side, "with three of their daughters standing in front of the throne--Henuttaneb, the largest and best preserved, in the centre; Nebetah on the right; and another, whose name is destroyed, on the left."[8]

    Vase in the Louvre with the names Amenohotep III and Tiye written in the cartouches on the left, (and Tiye's on the right).Amenhotep III elevated two of his four daughters Sitamun and Isis to the office of "great royal wife" during the last decade of his reign. Evidence that Sitamun already was promoted to this office by Year 30 of his reign, is known from jar-label inscriptions uncovered from the royal palace at Malkata.[8] It should be noted that Egypt's theological paradigm encouraged a male pharaoh to accept royal women from several different generations as wives to strengthen the chances of his offspring succeeding him.[11] The goddess Hathor herself was related to Ra as first the mother and later wife and daughter of the god when he rose to prominence in the pantheon of the Ancient Egyptian religion.[8] Hence, Amenhotep III's marriage to his two daughters should not be considered unlikely based on contemporary views of marriage.

    Amenhotep III is known to have married several foreign women:

    Gilukhepa, the daughter of Shuttarna II of Mitanni, in the tenth year of his reign.[12]
    Tadukhepa, the daughter of his ally Tushratta of Mitanni, Around Year 36 of his reign. [13] [14]
    A daughter of Kurigalzu, king of Babylon. [14]
    A daughter of Kadashman-Enlil, king of Babylon.[14]
    A daughter of Tarhundaradu, ruler of Arzawa.[14]
    A daughter of the ruler of Ammia (in modern Syria).[14]

    Life
    Amenhotep III enjoyed the distinction of having the most surviving statues of any Egyptian pharaoh, with over 250 of his statues having been discovered and identified. Since these statues span his entire life, they provide a series of portraits covering the entire length of his reign.

    Another striking characteristic of Amenhotep III's reign is the series of over 200 large commemorative stone scarabs that have been discovered over a large geographic area ranging from Syria (Ras Shamra) through to Soleb in Nubia.[15] Their lengthy inscribed texts extol the accomplishments of the pharaoh. For instance, 123 of these commemorative scarabs record the large number of lions (either 102 or 110 depending on the reading) that Amenhotep III killed "with his own arrows" from his first regnal year up to his tenth year.[16] Similarly, five other scarabs state that the foreign princess who would become a wife to him, Gilukhepa, arrived in Egypt with a retinue of 317 women. She was the first of many such princesses who would enter the pharaoh's household.[16]

    Queen Tiye, whose husband, Amenhotep III, may have been depicted to her right in this broken statueAnother eleven scarabs record the excavation of an artificial lake he had built for his royal wife, Queen Tiye, in his eleventh regnal year,

    “ "Regnal Year 11 under the Majesty of...Amenhotep (III), ruler of Thebes, given life, and the great royal wife Tiyi; may she live; her father's name was Yuya, her mother's name Tuya. His Majesty commanded the making of a lake for the great royal wife Tiyi--may she live--in her town of Djakaru. (near Akhmin). Its length is 3,700 (cubits) and its width is 700 (cubits). (His Majesty) celebrated the Festival of Opening the Lake in the third month of Inundation, day sixteen. His Majesty was rowed in the royal barge Aten-tjehen in it [the lake]."[17] ”

    Amenhotep appears to have been crowned while still a child, perhaps between the ages of 6 and 12. It is likely that a regent acted for him if he was made pharaoh at that early age. He married Tiye two years later and she lived twelve years after his death. His lengthy reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of her artistic and international power. Proof of this is shown by the diplomatic correspondence from the rulers of Assyria, Mitanni, Babylon, and Hatti which is preserved in the archive of Amarna Letters; these letters document frequent requests by these rulers for gold and numerous other gifts from the pharaoh. The letters cover the period from Year 30 of Amenhotep III until at least the end of Akhenaten's reign. In one famous correspondence—Amarna letter EA 4--Amenhotep III is quoted by the Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil I in firmly rejecting the latter's entreaty to marry one of this pharaoh's daughters:

    “ "From time immemorial, no daughter of the king of Egy[pt] is given to anyone."[18] ”

    Amenhotep III's refusal to allow one of his daughters to be married to the Babylonian monarch may indeed be connected with Egyptian traditional royal practices that could provide a claim upon the throne through marriage to a royal princess, or, it be viewed as a shrewd attempt on his part to enhance Egypt's prestige over those of her neighbours in the international world.

    The pharaoh's reign was relatively peaceful and uneventful. The only recorded military activity by the king is commemorated by three rock-carved stelas from his fifth year found near Aswan and Sai Island in Nubia. The official account of Amenhotep III's military victory emphasizes his martial prowess with the typical hyperbole used by all pharaohs.

    "Regnal Year 5, third month of Inundation, day 2. Appearance under the Majesty of Horus: Strong bull, appearing in truth; Two Ladies: Who establishes laws and pacifies the Two Lands;...King of Upper and Lower Egypt: Nebmaatra, heir of Ra; Son of Ra: [Amenhotep, ruler of Thebes], beloved of [Amon]-Ra, King of the Gods, and Khnum, lord of the cataract, given life. One came to tell His Majesty, "The fallen one of vile Kush has plotted rebellion in his heart." His Majesty led on to victory; he completed it in his first campaign of victory. His Majesty reached them like the wing stroke of a falcon, like Menthu (war god of Thebes) in his transformation...Ikheny, the boaster in the midst of the army, did not know the lion that was before him. Nebmaatra was the fierce-eyed lion whose claws seized vile Kush, who trampled down all its chiefs in their valleys, they being cast down in their blood, one on top of the other."[19]

    Amenhotep III celebrated three Jubilee Sed festivals, in his Year 30, Year 34, and Year 37 respectively at his Malkata summer palace in Western Thebes.[20] The palace, called Per-Hay or "House of Rejoicing" in ancient times, comprised a temple of Amun and a festival hall built especially for this occasion.[20] One of the king's most popular epithets was Aten-tjehen which means "the Dazzling Sun Disk"; it appears in his titulary at Luxor temple and, more frequently, was used as the name for one of his palaces as well as the Year 11 royal barge, and denotes a company of men in Amenhotep's army.[21]

    Proposed co-regency by Akhenaten
    Amenhotep III and Sobek, from Dahamsha, now in the Luxor Museum
    There is currently no conclusive evidence of a co-regency between Amenhotep III and his son, Akhenaten. A letter from the Amarna palace archives dated to Year 2 rather than Year 12 of Akhenaten's reign from the Mitannian king, Tushratta, (Amarna letter EA 27) preserves a complaint about the fact that Akhenaten did not honor his father's promise to forward Tushratta statues made of solid gold as part of a marriage dowry for sending his daughter, Tadukhepa, into the pharaoh's household.[22] This correspondence implies that if any co-regency occurred between Amenhotep III and Akhenaten, it lasted no more than a year at the most.[23] Lawrence Berman observes in a 1998 biography of Amenhotep III that,

    "It is significant that the proponents of the coregency theory have tended to be art historians [ie: Raymond Johnson], whereas historians [such as Donald Redford and William Murnane] have largely remained unconvinced. Recognizing that the problem admits no easy solution, the present writer has gradually come to believe that it is unnecessary to propose a coregency to explain the production of art in the reign of Amenhotep III. Rather the perceived problems appear to derive from the interpretation of mortuary objects."[24]
    [edit] Final yearsReliefs from the wall of the temple of Soleb in Nubia and scenes from the Theban tomb of Kheruef, Steward of the King's Great Wife, Tiye, depict Amenhotep as a visibly weak and sick figure.[25] Scientists believe that in his final years he suffered from arthritis and became obese. It has generally been assumed by some scholars that Amenhotep requested and received from his father-in-law Tushratta of Mitanni, a statue of Ishtar of Nineveh--a healing goddess—in order to cure him of his various ailments which included painful abscesses in his teeth.[26] A forensic examination of his mummy shows that he was probably in constant pain during his final years due to his worn, and cavity-pitted teeth. However, more recent analysis of Amarna letter EA 23 by William L. Moran, which recounts the dispatch of the statue of the goddess to Thebes, does not support this popular theory. The arrival of the statue is known to have coincided with Amenhotep III's marriage with Tadukhepa, Tushratta's daughter, in the pharaoh's 36th year; letter EA 23's arrival in Egypt is dated to "regnal year 36, the fourth month of winter, day 1" of his reign.[27] Furthermore, Tushratta never mentions in EA 23 that the statue's dispatch was meant to heal Amenhotep from his maladies. Instead, Tushratta merely writes,

    " Say to Nimmureya (ie: Amenhotep III), the king of Egypt, my brother, my son-in-law, whom I love and who loves me: Thus Tušratta, the king of Mitanni, who loves you, your father-in-law. For me all goes well. For you may all go well. For your household for Tadu-Heba (ie: Tadukhepa), my daughter, your wife, who you love, may all go well. For your wives, for your sons, for your magnates, for your chariots, for your horses, for your troops, for your country, and for whatever else belongs to you, may all go very, very well.
    Thus Šauška of Nineveh, mistress of all lands: "I wish to go to Egypt, a country that I love, and then return." Now I herewith send her, and she is on her way. Now, in the time, too, of my father,...[she] went to this country, and just as earlier she dwelt there and they honored her, may my brother now honor her 10 times more than before. May my brother honor her, (then) at (his) pleasure let her go so that she may come back. May Šauška (ie: Ishtar), the mistress of heaven, protect us, my brother and me, a 100,000 years, and may our mistress grant both of us great joy. And let us act as friends. Is Šauška for me alone my god(dess), and for my brother not his god(dess)?[28]"

    The likeliest explanation is that the statue was sent to Egypt "to shed her blessings on the wedding of Amenhotep III and Tadukhepa, as she had been sent previously for Amenhotep III and Gilukhepa."[29] As Moran writes: "One explanation of the goddess' visit is that she was to heal the aged and ailing Egyptian king, but this explanation rests purely on analogy and finds no support in this letter... More likely, it seems, is a connection with the solemnities associated with the marriage of Tušratta's daughter; sf. the previous visit mentioned in lines 18f., perhaps on the occasion of the marriage of Kelu-Heba (i.e.: Gilukhepa)...and note, too, Šauška's role along with Aman, of making Tadu-Heba answer to the king's desires."[30]

    The contents of Amarna letter EA21 from Tushratta to his "brother" Amenhotep III strongly affirms this solution. In this correspondence, Tushratta explicitly states,

    “ I have given...my daughter (Tadukhepa) to be the wife of my brother, whom I love. May Šimige and Šauška go before her. May they m[ake he]r the image of my brother's desire. May my brother rejoice on t[hat] day. May Šimige and Šauška grant my brother a gre[at] blessing, exquisi[te] joy. May they bless him and may you, my brother, li[ve] forever.[31] ”

    Death
    An authentic sphinx of Amenhotep III, now adorning Universitetskaya Embankment in Saint Petersburg, RussiaAmenhotep III's highest attested reign date comes from a pair of Year 38 wine jar-label dockets from Malkata;[32] though he may have lived briefly into an unrecorded 39th Year and died before the wine harvest for that year arrived.[33]

    Amenhotep III was buried in the Western Valley of the Valley of the Kings, in Tomb WV22. Sometime during the Third Intermediate Period his mummy was moved from this tomb and was placed in a side-chamber of KV35 along with several other pharaohs of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth dynasties where it lay until discovered by Victor Loret in 1898.

    An examination of his mummy by the Australian anatomist Grafton Elliot Smith concluded that the pharaoh was aged between forty and fifty years old at death.[34] His chief wife, Tiye, is known to have outlived him for at least twelve years as she is mentioned in several Amarna letters dated from her son's reign as well as depicted at a dinner table with Akhenaten and his royal family in scenes from the tomb of Huya, which were made during Year 9 and Year 12 of her son's reign.[35][36]

    Foreign leaders communicated their grief at the pharaoh's death, with Tushratta saying:

    "When I heard that my brother Nimmureya had gone to his fate, on that day I sat down and wept. On that day I took no food, I took no water." [37]

    When Amenhotep III died, he left behind a country that was at the very height of its power and influence, commanding immense respect in the international world; however, he also bequeathed an Egypt that was wedded to its traditional political and religious certainties under the Amun priesthood.[38]

    The resulting upheavals from his son Akhenaten's reforming zeal would shake these old certainties to their very foundations and bring forth the central question of whether a pharaoh was more powerful than the existing domestic order as represented by the Amun priests and their numerous temple estates. Akhenaten even moved the capital away from the city of Thebes in an effort to break the influence of that powerful temple and assert his own preferred choice of deities, the local deity of Akhetaten ('Horizon of Aten'), at the site known today as Amarna, and eventually suppressing the worship of Amun.[39]

    The Court
    There were many important individuals in the court of Amenhotep III. Viziers were Ramose, Amenhotep, Aperel and Ptahmose. They are known from a remarkable series of monuments, including the well known tomb of Ramose at Thebes. Treasurers were another Ptahmose and Merire. High stewards were Amenemhat Surer and Amenhotep (Huy). Viceroy of Kush was Merimose. He was a leading figure in the military campaigns of the king in Nubia. Perhaps the most famous official of the king was Amenhotep, son of Hapu. He never had high titles but was later worshipped as god and main architect of some of the king's temples.[40]

    Monuments
    The northern Colossus of MemnonAmenhotep III built extensively at the temple of Karnak including the Luxor temple which consisted of two pylons, a colonnade behind the new temple entrance, and a new temple to the goddess Ma'at. Amenhotep III dismantled the fourth pylon of the Temple of Amun at Karnak to construct a new pylon—the third pylon—and created a new entrance to this structure where he erected "two rows of columns with open papyrus capital" down the centre of this newly formed forecourt.[41] The forecourt between the third and fourth pylons of Egypt, sometimes called an obelisk court, was also decorated with scenes of the sacred barque of the deities Amun, Mut, and Khonsu being carried in funerary boats.[42] The king also started work on the Tenth pylon at the Temple of Amun there. Amenhotep III's first recorded act as king—in his Years 1 and 2—was to open new limestone quarries at Tura, just south of Cairo and at Dayr al-Barsha in Middle Egypt in order to herald his great building projects.[43] He oversaw construction of another temple to Ma'at at Luxor and virtually covered Nubia with numerous monuments.

    "...including a small temple with a colonnade (dedicated to Thutmose III) at Elephantine, a rock temple dedicated to Amun 'Lord of the Ways' at Wadi es-Sebuam, and the temple of Horus of Miam at Aniba...[as well as founding] additional temples at Kawa and Sesebi."[44]

    Luxor Temple of Amenhotep IIIHis enormous mortuary temple on the west bank of the Nile was, in its day, the largest religious complex in Thebes, but unfortunately, the king chose to build it too close to the floodplain and less than two hundred years later, it stood in ruins. Much of the masonry was purloined by Merneptah and later pharaohs for their own construction projects.[45] The Colossi of Memnon—two massive stone statues, eighteen meters high, of Amenhotep that stood at the gateway of his mortuary temple—are the only elements of the complex that remained standing. Amenhotep III also built the Third Pylon at Karnak and erected 600 statues of the goddess Sekhmet in the Temple of Mut, south of Karnak.[46] Some of the most magnificent statues of New Kingdom Egypt date to his reign "such as the two outstanding couchant rose granite lions originally set before the temple at Soleb in Nubia" as well as a large series of royal sculptures.[47] Several beautiful black granite seated statues of Amenhotep wearing the nemes headress have come from excavations behind the Colossi of Memnon as well as from Tanis in the Delta.[47]

    One of the most stunning finds of royal statues dating to his reign was made as recently as 1989 in the courtyard of Amenhotep III's colonnade of the Temple of Luxor where a cache of statues was found, including a 6 feet (1.8 m)-high pink quartzite statue of the king wearing the Double Crown found in near-perfect condition.[47] It was mounted on a sled, and may have been a cult statue.[47] The only damage it had sustained was that the name of the god Amun had been hacked out wherever it appeared in the pharaoh's cartouche, clearly done as part of the systematic effort to eliminate any mention of this god during the reign of his successor, Akhenaton.[47]
     
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