Hellenosemitica’s Take on INO-Leukothea By Andre Austin INO-Leukothea (white goddess, White foam, personified scared coastal springs ) In 1967 Michael Astour wrote the masterpiece work Hellenosemitica. I first found out about it in an email exchange from the late great Martin Bernal. I read the book ten years ago but had to resubmit my library loan to read it again to refute Dennis MacDonald assertion that Ino was just a Nymph or a mermaid and not equated with water. This is what Bernal said on Ino: “Ino became a sea-goddess under the name of Leukothea, and a few shrines along the Laconian sea-coast (off of Greece), were consecrated to her. Among these was ‘the water of Ino”, a pond of the size of a small lake in Epidauros-limera; on the feast of Ino, special ritual barley cakes named maza were thrown into the water for divination” (Hellenosemitica p.205). sounds like a link to water to me. We know from fragments of Euripides play called Ino that she switches clothes of her kids from Black to white to save their lives. I was doing research on baby names of Luke and found out its Greek for Loukas meaning “From Lucania” an ancient city in Italy. Wikipedia stated that Lucania may relate to a word Leukos (white). Lucania did have something there named after Leukothea. I was troubled by a Greek name being related to an Italian town. I believe that there is a connection with Luke and Leukothea. I think its more to do with “From Laconian, sea coast off of Greece” than “From Lucania”. In Revelation 3:14-22 Lukewarm was a metaphor of Tepid warm water that was piped in Laodicea from cities from the North and South. Most likely had Leukothea in mind when it arrived being bad spelling and foaming up with bad taste. There are various ways to spell Luke. The Oxford English dictionary said Leuke=leagure, Luke and Lion. Some of the mythology of Ino-Leukothea has here switching clothes of her children from black to white (Leukos) to save their lives. Ino also takes off her clothes to save the life of Odysseus in Homer’s Odyssey 5:333. This is a strong prima-facie case for linking the Lukewarm church spiting out the nasty foam like water in Laodicea. They were rich in that city from selling black glossy wool clothes but were shameless naked and needed to put on some white (Leukos) clothes. In effect Lukewarm is a pun, and spoof of the male/female Luke in the Illiad 4:489-500 (Leukos) and Odysssey 5: 333 (Leukothea) and including the elements of Euripeds play on Ino. It’s a highly complex parable or a strange coincidence. Note: Luke/Leuke also has something to do with eyesight. Loukas could easily be a pun for Leukomas, the eye disorder of seeing white spots or clouds. Ino-Leukothea does have problems with one of her husband’s wife Nephele’s (cloud) children. The revenge of Leukos death in the Illiad 4:489-500 is done by placing a black cloud over the eyes of the guilty party. Rev chapter three does call the Lukewarm church spiritual blind and Luke/Leuke does relate also to eyesight. Because Rev chapter 3 starts out with Amen being an eyewitness I immediately recalled my beloved Acharya S equated : “In Revelation 3:14, Jesus is speaking and refers to himself as the amen. Amen-Ra is the name of an Egyptian sun God” (Suns of God by Acharya S. p.448). In Egyptian mythology the sun is called the eye of Ra and Tefnut (cloud) brings it up out of the water and covers the eye for a period of time with her clouds obscuring his view. Modern use In modern Greek folklore, the term "nereid" (νεράϊδα, neráïda) has come to be used for all nymphs, fairies, or mermaids, not merely nymphs of the sea. I don’t know why Dennis MacDonald couldn’t see Leukothea as both a nymph and personification of white water waves/foam or a mermaid as Homer called her a goddess of white foam.