GREEK COMIC ARISTOPHANES COMMENTARY ON INO-LEUKOTHEA By Andre Austin Aristophanes (445-380BC) lived during the time of Socrates and contributed to the climate that lead to Socrates being executed. Aristophanes had the privilege of knowing what Euripides (485-406) wrote in his lost play of Ino. I believe the Christians destroyed it after 120AD when Plutarch died. I believe he wrote a commentary on the play in one of his essays and hand the entire text of the play on hand From the play The Acharnians (410-456) DICAEOPOLIS You perch aloft to compose tragedies, when you might just as well do them on the ground. No wonder you introduce cripples on the stage. And why do you dress in these miserable tragic rags? No wonder your heroes are beggars. But, Euripides, on my knees I beseech you, give me the tatters of some old piece; for I have to treat the Chorus to a long speech, and if I do it badly it is all over with me. EURIPIDES What rags do you prefer? Those in which I rigged out Oeneus on the stage, that unhappy, miserable old man? DICAEOPOLIS No, I want those of some hero still more unfortunate. EURIPIDES Of Phoenix, the blind man? DICAEOPOLIS No, not of Phoenix, you have another hero more unfortunate than him. EURIPIDES to himself Now, what tatters does he want? to DICAEOPOLIS Do you mean those of the beggar Philoctetes? DICAEOPOLIS No, of another far more beggarly. EURIPIDES Is it the filthy dress of the lame fellow, Bellerophon? DICAEOPOLIS No, not Bellerophon; the one I mean was not only lame and a beggar, but boastful and a fine speaker. EURIPIDES Ah! I know, it is Telephus, the Mysian. DICAEOPOLIS Yes, Telephus. Give me his rags, I beg of you. EURIPIDES Slave! give him Telephus' tatters; they are on top of the rags of Thyestes and mixed with those below poor of Ino-Leukothea’s robe. There they are; take them. DICAEOPOLIS holding up the costume for the audience to see Oh! Zeus, whose eye pierces everywhere and embraces all, permit me to assume the most wretcbed dress on earth. Euripides, cap your kindness by giving me the little Mysian hat, that goes so well with these tatters. I must to-day have the look of a beggar; "be what I am, but not appear to be"; the audience will know well who I am, but the Chorus will be fools enough not to, and I shall dupe them with my subtle phrases. EURIPIDES I will give you the hat; I love the clever tricks of an ingenious brain like yours. The notes from the Penguin classic edition states: “Ino having been given up for dead by her husband (Athamas), suddenly reappeared after he had remarried. Preferring her to his new wife (Themisto), he brought Ino back into his house under pretense of being a servant-whence presumably the rags” (Penguin classics on Aristophanes by Betty Radice p.242 Ino-Leukothea learned that Themisto (Hesiod calls a Themis lady justice), wanted to kill Ino-children by putting them in black clothes. Ino switched her kids clothes from black to white and saved her kids but regretted/repented of the deed. When Homer (Odyssey 5:333-500 & Illiad 4:489-500) wrote of her she saves Odysseus life by striping her clothes and giving it so it can be used as a sail. In both cases her clothes save. Ino-Leukothea (white foam) is the equivalent of the spit of Lukewarm or Leukwarm in Rev 3:14-22. In my opinion the Christians using the works of Euripides and Homer reformulated the story of Ino-Leukothea from its time and place over to the Lukewarm church in Laodicea, Turkey. These Lukewarm souls where doing good deeds and looking for the judgement but preoccupied with selling products for eye-care and selling glossy black wool. Rev 3:14-22 starts out like Aristophanes ends his conversation to Euripides talking about Zeus (Amen) having been a “true witness” seeing whats going on. Luke which can be a pun for Leuk (look) are called blind, poor and naked when they are the opposite selling eye-care and running a medical school, they are Rich and everybody wants to buy their clothes. The request is made that they put on righteous white (Leukos) clothes. No one can walk away and not see the correlation between Ino-Leukothea with Luke/Leuke/Leukos and her either switching clothes or taking them off to have. Rev is engaging in some literary inversions. Note: “Amen is the Egyptian name for Zeus” Herodotus Book 2:42 Aristophanes even refers to the people as Wretched and Miserable to the people the same as Rev 3 does because they are not wearing righteous clothes. Euripides also equates Spit with white foam in his play of Medea where he rebukes Ino-Leukothea (white-foam). This is Lukewarm being spit out in Rev.