Black People : Gene studies confirm "out of Africa" theories

Khai Tau

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Feb 8, 2007
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By Maggie Fox, Health and Science Editor

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Two big genetic studies confirm theories that modern humans evolved in Africa and then migrated through Europe and Asia to reach the Pacific and Americas.


The two studies also show that Africans have the most diverse DNA, and the fewest potentially harmful genetic mutations.

One of the studies shows European-Americans have more small mutations, while the others show Native Americans, Polynesians and others who populated Australia and Oceania have more big genetic changes.

The studies, published in the journal Nature on Wednesday, paint a picture of a population of humans migrating off the African continent, and then shrinking at some point because of unknown adversity.

Later populations grew and spread from this smaller genetic pool of founder ancestors -- a phenomenon known as a bottleneck.

Populations that remained in Africa kept their genetic diversity -- something seen in many other studies.

"The one thing that I think we cannot say from this study is that any one person's genome is any healthier or evolutionarily fit than another person's genome," said Carlos Bustamante of Cornell University in New York, who worked on one study.

"You have to think of this at the population level," Bustamante said in a telephone interview.

Bustamante's team has been looking at the DNA sequences of 15 African-Americans and 20 European-Americans, examining tiny one-letter changes in the DNA code called single-nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs (pronounced "snips").

FIT OR EXTINCT

They tested these changes to qualify them as benign, or potentially affecting genes, amino acids and eventually proteins in a way that could damage health or make people less "fit" -- in evolutionary terms, less likely to survive and reproduce.

"Like every other study ... the African-American panel as a whole showed more variation than the European-American panel," Bustamante said.

Then his team did a computer simulation of a bottleneck, and found it predicted this pattern.

Bustamante said it is possible some of the SNPs are beneficial, and he said his team and others should compare the genetic changes they found to known genetic changes linked with diseases.

"I wish we had done that (already)," he admitted.

In the other study, Noah Rosenberg and colleagues at the University of Michigan and the National Institute on Aging analyzed DNA from 485 people around the world.

They looked for three types of genetic variation, including SNPs and larger changes that involve duplications, deletions and repetitions of large segments of DNA.

The patterns they found produced what they call the highest-resolution map yet of human genetic variation.

They also reinforce the idea that humans originated in Africa, then spread into the Middle East, followed by Europe and Asia, the Pacific Islands and finally to the Americas.

"Diversity has been eroded through the migration process," Rosenberg said in a statement.

People of African descent are the most genetically diverse, followed by people from the Middle East, and then Asians and Europeans. Native Americans resemble one another the most on a DNA level.

The study also found it is sometimes possible to trace a person's ancestry to a small group within a geographic region.
 

Omowale Jabali

The Cosmic Journeyman
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Verbatim said:
By Maggie Fox, Health and Science Editor

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Two big genetic studies confirm theories that modern humans evolved in Africa and then migrated through Europe and Asia to reach the Pacific and Americas.


The two studies also show that Africans have the most diverse DNA, and the fewest potentially harmful genetic mutations.

One of the studies shows European-Americans have more small mutations, while the others show Native Americans, Polynesians and others who populated Australia and Oceania have more big genetic changes.

The studies, published in the journal Nature on Wednesday, paint a picture of a population of humans migrating off the African continent, and then shrinking at some point because of unknown adversity.

Later populations grew and spread from this smaller genetic pool of founder ancestors -- a phenomenon known as a bottleneck.

Populations that remained in Africa kept their genetic diversity -- something seen in many other studies.

"The one thing that I think we cannot say from this study is that any one person's genome is any healthier or evolutionarily fit than another person's genome," said Carlos Bustamante of Cornell University in New York, who worked on one study.

"You have to think of this at the population level," Bustamante said in a telephone interview.

Bustamante's team has been looking at the DNA sequences of 15 African-Americans and 20 European-Americans, examining tiny one-letter changes in the DNA code called single-nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs (pronounced "snips").

FIT OR EXTINCT

They tested these changes to qualify them as benign, or potentially affecting genes, amino acids and eventually proteins in a way that could damage health or make people less "fit" -- in evolutionary terms, less likely to survive and reproduce.

"Like every other study ... the African-American panel as a whole showed more variation than the European-American panel," Bustamante said.

Then his team did a computer simulation of a bottleneck, and found it predicted this pattern.

Bustamante said it is possible some of the SNPs are beneficial, and he said his team and others should compare the genetic changes they found to known genetic changes linked with diseases.

"I wish we had done that (already)," he admitted.

In the other study, Noah Rosenberg and colleagues at the University of Michigan and the National Institute on Aging analyzed DNA from 485 people around the world.

They looked for three types of genetic variation, including SNPs and larger changes that involve duplications, deletions and repetitions of large segments of DNA.

The patterns they found produced what they call the highest-resolution map yet of human genetic variation.

They also reinforce the idea that humans originated in Africa, then spread into the Middle East, followed by Europe and Asia, the Pacific Islands and finally to the Americas.

"Diversity has been eroded through the migration process," Rosenberg said in a statement.

People of African descent are the most genetically diverse, followed by people from the Middle East, and then Asians and Europeans. Native Americans resemble one another the most on a DNA level.

The study also found it is sometimes possible to trace a person's ancestry to a small group within a geographic region.


Can you please provide the date and/or link for this article?
 

Desert Storm

Well-Known Member
MEMBER
Mar 31, 2001
1,661
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wow, you're the second one to post something like this. However, I'm not surprised! hee,hee,hee!

all I can say is

BLACK POWER! (Im making a fist) hee,hee,hee...

Thanks for the info.

Much Love
Heart to Heart
Desert Storm
 

PurpleMoons

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Apr 22, 2003
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I'm not sure I'm understanding this. What does this mean in terms of Black People? How does Black people benefit from knowing this?When they say most diverse, does that mean we are most multicultural? Will someone break this done in laymen terms for me?

:heart:
 

Clyde C Coger Jr

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PurpleMoons said:
I'm not sure I'm understanding this. What does this mean in terms of Black People? How does Black people benefit from knowing this?When they say most diverse, does that mean we are most multicultural? Will someone break this done in laymen terms for me?

:heart:

PurpleMoons, Administrator:

Because of my dislike for unanswered posts (hanging posts), I will try and help you understand the study of “Genome.”

Of all the so-called groups of people, from the various regions of the world, Africa, the Middle East (North Africa), Europe, Asia, the Pacific Islands and the Americas; the terminology, “diverse DNA,” now identifies the founder ancestor of all humanity.

In other words, Black People (original Africans) become the group of people, out of which, all other groups of people, originate. This is to say, humans originate in Africa, only!

Now, in order for this fact to be true, the other groups of people must show an erosion of this “diversity,” which occurred through/during the migration process from Africa to the other world regions. So, the term, “bottleneck,” is used to show that later populations of people, from Africans, grew and spread from the smaller genetic “diversity” of the founder ancestors. Again, “bottleneck” shows less diversity in the other groups than in the African group.

Remember, the genetic “diversity” of the founder ancestor simply decayed/mutated with their migration from Africa to, the Middle East (North Africa), Europe, Asia, the Pacific Islands and finally the Americas.

To the answer of your other questions, what this does for Black People is to provide the final argument or panacea with which to destroy Racism. Unfortunately, we are too busy in our search for God to recognize this truth that God has allowed to be revealed by the very enemy of the Church, Science!

I strongly suggest you read, for background, the below post:

http://destee.com/forums/showpost.php?p=487606&postcount=2
 

PurpleMoons

Administrator
STAFF
Apr 22, 2003
9,174
1,115
PurpleMoons, Administrator:

Because of my dislike for unanswered posts (hanging posts), I will try and help you understand the study of “Genome.”

Of all the so-called groups of people, from the various regions of the world, Africa, the Middle East (North Africa), Europe, Asia, the Pacific Islands and the Americas; the terminology, “diverse DNA,” now identifies the founder ancestor of all humanity.

In other words, Black People (original Africans) become the group of people, out of which, all other groups of people, originate. This is to say, humans originate in Africa, only!

Now, in order for this fact to be true, the other groups of people must show an erosion of this “diversity,” which occurred through/during the migration process from Africa to the other world regions. So, the term, “bottleneck,” is used to show that later populations of people, from Africans, grew and spread from the smaller genetic “diversity” of the founder ancestors. Again, “bottleneck” shows less diversity in the other groups than in the African group.

Remember, the genetic “diversity” of the founder ancestor simply decayed/mutated with their migration from Africa to, the Middle East (North Africa), Europe, Asia, the Pacific Islands and finally the Americas.

To the answer of your other questions, what this does for Black People is to provide the final argument or panacea with which to destroy Racism. Unfortunately, we are too busy in our search for God to recognize this truth that God has allowed to be revealed by the very enemy of the Church, Science!

I strongly suggest you read, for background, the below post:

http://destee.com/forums/showpost.php?p=487606&postcount=2
I've totally missed this response. Probably due to some computer issues way back. Anywho, Thank you very much for the response and the link. I'm gonna have to read this one again to fully take advantage of the information shared.

Thank you Brother!

:heart:
 

Clyde C Coger Jr

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In the Spirit of Sankofa!

I've totally missed this response. Probably due to some computer issues way back. Anywho, Thank you very much for the response and the link. I'm gonna have to read this one again to fully take advantage of the information shared.

Thank you Brother!

:heart:



The PurpleMoons,

Yes, you are very welcome, my Friend! The questions you asked are very significant, or at least, I certainly thought so. I hope you enjoy the read!

 

cherryblossom

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Feb 28, 2009
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Chinese challenge to 'out of Africa' theory

00:01 03 November 2009 by Phil McKenna

The discovery of an early human fossil in southern China may challenge the commonly held idea that modern humans originated out of Africa.

Jin Changzhu and colleagues of the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology in Beijing, announced to Chinese media last week that they have uncovered a 110,000-year-old putative Homo sapiens jawbone from a cave in southern China's Guangxi province.

The mandible has a protruding chin like that of Homo sapiens, but the thickness of the jaw is indicative of more primitive hominins, suggesting that the fossil could derive from interbreeding.

If confirmed, the finding would lend support to the "multiregional hypothesis". This says that modern humans descend from Homo sapiens coming out of Africa who then interbred with more primitive humans on other continents.....

READ COMPLETE ARTICLE HERE
 

Clyde C Coger Jr

going above and beyond
PREMIUM MEMBER
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Chinese challenge to 'out of Africa' theory

00:01 03 November 2009 by Phil McKenna

The discovery of an early human fossil in southern China may challenge the commonly held idea that modern humans originated out of Africa.

Jin Changzhu and colleagues of the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology in Beijing, announced to Chinese media last week that they have uncovered a 110,000-year-old putative Homo sapiens jawbone from a cave in southern China's Guangxi province.

The mandible has a protruding chin like that of Homo sapiens, but the thickness of the jaw is indicative of more primitive hominins, suggesting that the fossil could derive from interbreeding.

If confirmed, the finding would lend support to the "multiregional hypothesis". This says that modern humans descend from Homo sapiens coming out of Africa who then interbred with more primitive humans on other continents.....

READ COMPLETE ARTICLE HERE



From the same article is the counter-point portion, below:


Others disagreed. Erik Trinkaus, an anthropologist at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri, questioned whether the find was a true Homo sapiens.

"You need to keep in mind that 'Homo sapiens' for most Chinese scholars is not limited to anatomically modern humans," he says. "For many of them, it is all 'post Homo erectus,' humans."

Chris Stringer of London's Natural History Museum said that it was too early to make far-reaching conclusions. "From the parts preserved, this fossil could just as likely be related to preceding archaic humans, or even to the Neanderthals, who at times seem to have extended their range towards China."

The present analysis of the mandible focused almost exclusively on determining the fossil's age. The researchers said a follow-up study would give a more complete treatment on what exactly the find represents.

READ COMPLETE ARTICLE HERE


 

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