Facts re: Cocaine and Crack...

Discussion in 'Black Health and Wellness' started by Aqil, Jan 3, 2004.

  1. Aqil

    Aqil Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    "The major routes of administration of cocaine are sniffing or snorting, injecting, and smoking (including free-base and crack cocaine). Snorting is the process of inhaling cocaine powder through the nose where it is absorbed into the bloodstream through the nasal tissues. Injecting is the act of using a needle to release the drug directly into the bloodstream. Smoking involves inhaling cocaine vapor or smoke into the lungs where absorption into the bloodstream is as rapid as by injection."

    Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse, Infofax: Cocaine No. 13546 (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/cocaine.html

    "'Crack' is the street name given to cocaine that has been processed from cocaine hydrochloride to a free base for smoking. Rather than requiring the more volatile method of processing cocaine using ether, crack cocaine is processed with ammonia or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and water and heated to remove the hydrochloride, thus producing a form of cocaine that can be smoked. The term 'crack' refers to the crackling sound heard when the mixture is smoked (heated), presumably from the sodium bicarbonate."

    Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse, Infofax: Cocaine No. 13546 (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/cocaine.html

    "Although most cocaine in the USA is snorted intranasally, smoking crack cocaine has become widely publicized. The imported hydrochloride salt is converted to a more volatile form, usually by adding sodium bicarbonate, water, and heat. The converted material is combusted, and the resultant smoke inhaled. Onset of effect is quicker, and intensity of the 'high' is magnified. Use of crack by the urban poor and the criminal market for crack have become the most feared problems of drug abuse. Despite frequent predictions, crack use has not expanded to the suburbs or the urban middle class. Its continued use still occurs primarily in poor Americans."

    Source: "Cocaine Dependence", The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Section 15.Psychiatric Disorders, Chapter 195.Drug Use and Dependence, Merck & Co. Inc.http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/section15/chapter195/195f.htm

    "There is great risk whether cocaine is ingested by inhalation (snorting), injection, or smoking. It appears that compulsive cocaine use may develop even more rapidly if the substance is smoked rather than snorted. Smoking allows extremely high doses of cocaine to reach the brain very quickly and brings an intense and immediate high. The injecting drug user is at risk for transmitting or acquiring HIV infection/AIDS if needles or other injection equipment are shared."

    Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse, Infofax: Cocaine No. 13546 (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/cocaine.html

    "Some users of cocaine report feelings of restlessness, irritability, and anxiety. An appreciable tolerance to the high may be developed, and many addicts report that they seek but fail to achieve as much pleasure as they did from their first exposure. Scientific evidence suggests that the powerful neuropsychologic reinforcing property of cocaine is responsible for an individual's continued use, despite harmful physical and social consequences. In rare instances, sudden death can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly thereafter. However, there is no way to determine who is prone to sudden death."

    Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse, Infofax: Cocaine No. 13546 (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/cocaine.html

    "Because cocaine is very short-acting, heavy users may inject it intravenously or smoke it 10 to 15 minutes. This repetition produces toxic effects, such as tachycardia, hypertension, mydriasis, muscle twitching, sleeplessness, and extreme nervousness. If hallucinations, paranoid delusions, and aggressive behavior develop, the person may be dangerous. Pupils are maximally dilated, and the drug's sympathomimetic effect increases heart and respiration rates and blood pressure."

    Source: "Cocaine Dependence", The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Section 15.Psychiatric Disorders, Chapter 195.Drug Use and Dependence, Merck & Co. Inc. http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/s...om/pubs/mmanual/section15/chapter195/195f.htm

    "When people mix cocaine and alcohol consumption, they are compounding the danger each drug poses and unknowingly forming a complex chemical experiment within their bodies. NIDA-funded researchers have found that the human liver combines cocaine and alcohol and manufactures a third substance, cocaethylene, that intensifies cocaine's euphoric effects, while possibly increasing the risk of sudden death."

    Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse, Infofax: Cocaine No. 13546 (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/cocaine.html

    Research funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the Albert Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia states: "Although numerous animal experiments and some human data show potent effects of cocaine on the central nervous system, we were unable to detect any difference in Performance, Verbal or Full Scale IQ scores between cocaine-exposed and control children at age 4 years."

    Source: Hallam Hurt, MD; Elsa Malmud, PhD; Laura Betancourt; Leonard E. Braitman, PhD; Nancy L. Brodsky, Phd; Joan Giannetta, "Children with In Utero Cocaine Exposure Do Not Differ from Control Subjects on Intelligence Testing," Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 151: 1237-1241 (American Medical Association, 1997).

    Well-controlled studies find minimal or no increased risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) among cocaine-exposed infants.

    Sources: Bauchner, H., Zuckerman, B., McClain, M., Frank, D., Fried, L.E., & Kayne, H., "Risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome among Infants with In Utero Exposure to Cocaine," Journal of Pediatrics, 113: 831-834 (1988). (Note: Early studies reporting increased risk of SIDS did not control for socioeconomic characteristics and other unhealthy behaviors. See, e.g., Chasnoff, I.J., Hunt, C., & Kletter, R., et al., "Increased Risk of SIDS and Respiratory Pattern Abnormalities in Cocaine-Exposed Infants," Pediatric Research, 20: 425A (1986); Riley, J.G., Brodsky, N.L. & Porat, R., "Risk for SIDS in Infants with In Utero Cocaine Exposure: a Prospective Study," Pediatric Research, 23: 454A (1988).

    Among the general population there has been no detectable increase in birth defects which may be associated with cocaine use during pregnancy.

    Source: Martin, M.L., Khoury, M.J., Cordero, J.F. & Waters, G.D., "Trends in Rates of Multiple Vascular Disruption Defects, Atlanta, 1968-1989: Is There Evidence of a Cocaine Teratogenic Epidemic?" Teratology, 45: 647-653 (1992).

    The lack of quality prenatal care is associated with undesirable effects often attributed to cocaine exposure: prematurity, low birth weight, and fetal or infant death.

    Sources: Klein, L., & Goldenberg, R.L., "Prenatal Care and its Effect on Pre-Term Birth and Low Birth Weight," in Merkatz, I.R. & Thompson, J.E. (eds.), New Perspectives on Prenatal Care (New York, NY: Elsevier, 1990), pp. 511-513; MacGregor, S.N., Keith, L.G., Bachicha, J.A. & Chasnoff, I.J., "Cocaine Abuse during Pregnancy: Correlation between Prenatal Care and Perinatal Outcome," Obstetrics and Gynecology, 74: 882-885 (1989).

    "The proportion of high school seniors who have used cocaine at least once in their lifetimes has increased from a low of 5.9% in 1994 to 9.8% in 1999. However, this is lower than its peak of 17.3% in 1985. Current use of cocaine by seniors decreased from a high of 6.7% in 1985 to 2.6% in 1999. Also in 1999, 7.7% of 10th-graders had tried cocaine at least once, up from a low of 3.3% in 1992. The percentage of 8th-graders who had ever tried cocaine has increased from a low of 2.3% in 1991 to 4.7% in 1999."

    Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse, Infofax: Cocaine No. 13546 (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/cocaine.html

    "Of college students 1 to 4 years beyond high school, in 1995, 3.6% had used cocaine within the past year, and 0.7% had used cocaine in the past month."

    Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse, Infofax: Cocaine No. 13546 (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/cocaine.html

    "In 1998, about 1.7 million Americans were current (at least once per month) cocaine users. This is about 0.8% of the population age 12 and older; about 437,000 of these used crack. The rate of current cocaine use in 1998 was highest among Americans ages 18 to 25 (2%). The rate of use for this age group was significantly higher in 1998 than in 1997, when it was 1.2%."

    Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse, Infofax: Cocaine No. 13546 (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/cocaine.html

    "Discontinuing sustained use of cocaine requires considerable assistance, and the depression that may result requires close supervision and treatment. Many nonspecific therapies, including support and self-help groups and cocaine hot lines, exist. Extremely expensive inpatient therapy is available."

    Source: "Cocaine Dependence", The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Section 15.Psychiatric Disorders, Chapter 195. Drug Use and Dependence, Merck & Co. Inc.
    http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/section15/chapter195/195f.htm
     
  2. $$RICH$$

    $$RICH$$ Lyon King Admin. STAFF

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    this was very well broken down to all facts of it and what it does
    the main stream that is world wide and taking control of many mindz and souls this something we all need to hear , know and watch for in our love one , friends , the actions and affects it has and do to a body .Thanks for adding this thread here so the blind
    can see and know the truth of what they call the death angel
     
  3. Aqil

    Aqil Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    COCA/COCAINE TIMELINE:

    ca. 3000 BC - Coca-chewing is practiced throughout South America. Coca is believed to be a gift from God.

    15th Century - Coca plantations are operated by Incas in Peru.

    1505 - First hand accounts of coca use made their way back to Europe. Amerigo Vespucci (1505), G Frenandez de Oviedo (1535), and Nicholas Monardes (1565).

    Early 1500s - Incan coca plantations are taken over by holders of Spanish land grants. Spanish tax laws are revised to allow land owners to make their tax payments in coca leaves.

    1539 - The Bishop of Cuzco tithes coca, taking 1/10 of the value of each crop in taxes.

    Mid-1500s - Inca Empire. Pizarro invades and destroys the Inca Empire (1553); Coca production in Peru expands quickly causing a glut of leaf on the market which in turn precipitated a drop in the price of coca. Nicolas Monardes reports an increase in coca chewing particularly among lower classes of Andean Indians, as traditional controls disappear (1569).

    1574 - Monardes' text on Coca is first translated into other European languages from Spanish; Latin (1574), Italian (1576), English (1577).

    ca.1575 - Forced laborers working in the Spanish silver mines were kept well supplied with coca leaves. Roughly 8% of the Europeans living in Peru were involved in the Coca trade.

    1580 - Europe. Monardes brings coca leaves to Europe; unlike tobacco, it fails to generate interest or use, probably because most coca leaves lost their potency during the long voyage.

    1662 - Abraham Cowley writes a poem titled "A Legend of Coca." This is the first independent mention of coca in English literature.

    1708 - Coca is first mentioned in a materia medica, "Institutiones Medicae," written by German physician and botanist Herman Boerhaave.

    1835 - First accurate drawing of coca appears in popular English press. The illustration, by Sir William Hooker, director of the Kew Gardens, was published in Companion to the Botanical Magazine.

    ca.1850 - Coca tinctures used in throat surgery.

    ca.1855 - Cocaine first extracted from coca leaves.

    1862 - Merck produces 1/4-pound of cocaine.

    1863 - Angelo Mariani patents a preparation of coca extract and Bordeaux wine called "Vin Mariani."

    1869 - Seeds from the commercial variety of coca arrived at Kew Gardens.

    1870 - "Vin Mariani" (coca wine) is for sale throughout France, containing 6 mg of cocaine per ounce of wine. Exported Vin Mariani contained 7.2 mg per ounce to compete with the higher cocaine content of American competitors.

    1870s - Parke-Davis manufactures a fluid extract of coca.

    1876-1885 - Race walkers in England chew coca leaves to improve their performance.

    1883 - Merck produces 3/4 pounds of cocaine.

    1883 - German physician Theodor Aschenbrandt administered cocaine to members of the Bavarian army to enhance their endurance on maneuvers. Aschenbrandt's study, published in a German medical journal, would be read by a young Viennese neurologist named Sigmund Freud.

    1884 - Cocaine's use as a local anesthetic in eye surgery is popularized.

    1884 - Freud publishes "On Coca," in which he recommends the use of cocaine to treat a variety of conditions including morphine addiction.

    1884 - Merck produces 3,179 pounds of cocaine.

    1886 - Merck produces 158,352 pounds of Cocaine.

    1886 - Coca-Cola is first introduced by John Pemberton, containing cocaine-laced syrup and caffeine.

    Late 1880s - Parke-Davis starts to manufacture refined cocaine.

    ca. 1901 - Coca-Cola removed coca from their formula.

    1903 - The expiration of a patent on the cocaine-extraction process increases demand for coca.

    ca. 1905 - Snorting cocaine becomes popular.

    1906 - Pure Food and Drug Act is passed, regulating the labelling of products containing alcohol, opiates, cocaine and cannabis, among others. The law went into effect Jan 1, 1907.

    1910 - First cases of nasal damage from cocaine-snorting are written of in medical literature.

    1910 - First cases of nasal damage from cocaine-snorting are seen in hospitals.

    1912 - U.S. government reports 5,000 cocaine-related fatalities in one year.

    1914 - The Harrison Narcotics Tax Act is passed, regulating and imposing a tax upon the sale of opium, heroin and cocaine for the first time. The Act took effect March 1, 1915.

    Early 1930s - Japan is the world's leading cocaine producer (23.3%) followed by the United States (21.3%), Germany (15%), England (9.9%), and France (8.3%).

    1920-1970 - Cocaine use subsides in the U.S. One Bureau of Narcotics supervisor in New York City reported in 1940 that they "rarely hear of cocaine being used".

    1970 - The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act is passed. Part II of this is the Controlled Substance Act (CSA) which defines a scheduling system for drugs. It places most of the known hallucinogens (LSD, psilocybin, psilocin, mescaline, peyote, cannabis, & MDA) in Schedule I. It places coca, cocaine and injectable methamphetamine in Schedule II. Other amphetamines and stimulants, including non-injectable methamphetamine are placed in Schedule III.

    ca. 1976 - Freebase cocaine first developed (probably in California). It would soon be popularized by dealers and glamorized by the Hollywood media.

    1981 - Wholesale cost of 1 kg. of cocaine is $55,000.

    1984 - Wholesale cost of 1 kg. cocaine is $25,000.

    Mid-1980s - Freebase cocaine becomes popular.

    Mid-1980s-present - Enter "crack," the street name given to cocaine that has been processed from cocaine hydrochloride to a free-base for smoking. Rather than requiring the more volatile method of processing cocaine using ether, crack-cocaine is processed with ammonia or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and water and heated to remove the hydrochloride, thus producing a form of cocaine that can be smoked. The term "crack" refers to the crackling sound heard when the mixture is heated, presumably from the sodium bicarbonate.
     
  4. $$RICH$$

    $$RICH$$ Lyon King Admin. STAFF

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    this is a great awareness to our people the true facts
    of a killer to our community or mental mindz and the
    hopes of dreams of our children
    this what we need to learn and know how it all break
    down and how this additive drug was created born
    in the cities pushed upon our people as a used controller
    this was a very valuable infomation to know and understand
    as we continue forward cleaning our systems
    thanks for this knowledge givin
     
  5. Aqil

    Aqil Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Tru dat, Rich...and thank you for your comments...
     
  6. Ralfa'il

    Ralfa'il Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    I wonder what gives crack that "soapy" smell that one usually detects on a crack-addict or crack-house.

    Could it be the soda?

    Other chemicals?
     
  7. Nisa

    Nisa Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    1884 - Merck produces 3,179 pounds of cocaine.

    1886 - Merck produces 158,352 pounds of Cocaine.



    Merck like the merck that produces prescription drugs?
     
  8. Aqil

    Aqil Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    That's them, Nisa...
     
  9. Nisa

    Nisa Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Aint that some mess
     
  10. Aqil

    Aqil Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Cocaine was legal up until 1914...they used to put it in soft drinks...that's how "Coca-Cola" got its name...
     
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