Here are the facts, based on African tradition and writings, as well as recent discoveries, (not the dates given by the foreign historians) 1. Semlike River Valley, Congo: First sophisticated, polished tools, weapons and culture dates back to about 100,000 to 70,000 years ago. 2. Blombos Cave, South Africa: Sophisticated, polished Tools of stone and bone and geometric markings found dating back to about 70,000 years ago Later on, paintings of identical style and "school," found from South Africa to France, drawn and painted by the same people. 3. The Zingh Empire; (in the area of Sahara, Mauritania, Mali, Ghana, Burkina Faso) 15,000 B.C. 4. Nile Corridor: 17000 B.C. (Sphinx is said to be about 10,000 years old 5. Upper Nile: (Nagau, Punt) 20,000 B.C. 6. Ta Seti (Prehistoric Nubia) civilization exists (article in Times Magazine, 1999; pottery, glassware, artwork) Prehistoric Cu****e Empire, founded by Descendnts of Cush, stretches from Sudan to Cambodia. Civilizations in Africa and Asia founded by Cu****es between 10,000 B.C. to 1000 A.D. are; Africa: Cush (Sudan),Sabea (Ethiopia, South Arabia). in Asia: Elam, Susia, Sumer, Indus Valley (Cu****es and Dravidians), Cambodia, Shia and Shang China. (See this site for more information http://www.cwo.com/lucumi/runoko.html 7. Huge astronomical observatory made of stone, found in Sudan; date; approx. 7000 B.C. 8. Natufian and Badarian Cultures begin in Lower Egypt about 5000 to 6000 B.C. (Delta was previously covered with water and swampland according to ancient Egyptian sources). 9. First series of Nubian rulers begin. Kingship that later spreads to Egypt, begins in Nubia. COMMONLY PRESENTED AFRICAN CIVILIZATIONS: (European Version) 9. Egyptian -- 3500 B.C. 10. Nubia-Kush --1000 B.C. to 300 A.D. 11. Aksum -- 1 A.D. to 800 A.D. 12. Ghana -- 800's A.D. to 1000's A.D. 13. Songhai --700 to 1800 A.D. 14. Kanem Bornu --800's to 1800's A.D. 15. Mali 1200's to 1800's 16, Zanj (Swahili) 1000 A.D. to 1700's A.D. 17. Lake Kingdoms 1400's to the present 18. Benin -- 1100's to 1800's 19. Oyo -- 1200's to 1800's 20. Ashanti 1600's to present 21. Dahomey 1600's to 1900's 22. Kongo 1400's to 1700's 23. Mwene Mutapa (Zimbabwe) 1500'S TO 1600'S 24. Hova (Madagascar) 1700's to 1900's Note that all the above dates in regards to the time these African kingsoms/empires existed began with the time the Europeans first encountered them. African sources place the existance of kingdoms in Benin and parts of West Africa hundreds of years Before Christ. Ghana also existed hundreds of years before Christ but was first seen by Arabs in the 700's A.D. The Zanj states of East Africa existed back to the time of Queen Hatshepsut (1500 B.C.) and one of their queens was Ati, whose likeness is painted on Hatshepsut's temple's walls. The age of Zimbabwe extens to before 300 B.C.