Black History Culture : Ethnic Groups Of The Motherland

Discussion in 'Black History - Culture - Panafricanism' started by Chinelo, Feb 21, 2010.

  1. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

    Joined:
    Oct 19, 2009
    Messages:
    5,087
    Likes Received:
    1,631
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Removing LIES And Spreading The Truth
    Location:
    UNIVERSE
    Ratings:
    +1,632
    Amhara

    Primary language: Amharic (Afro-Asiatic{Semitic})
    Population: 19 Million
    Religion: Christianity(81%), Islam (18.1%)
    Ethnologue Code: AMH
    Related groups: Tigray



    The Amhara are the politically and culturally dominant 'super-ethnic' group of Ethiopia. They are located primarily in the central highland plateau of Ethiopia and comprise the major population element in the provinces of Begemder and Gojjam and in parts of Shoa and Wallo.

    Amhara (አማራ) is an ethnic group in the central highlands of Ethiopia, numbering about 19 million, making up 30.2% of the country's population according to the most recent 1994 census. They speak Amharic, the official language of Ethiopia, and culturally and politically dominant. Christianity, with the Ethiopian Orthodox


    RELIGION: Church playing a central role in the culture of the country and of the Amharic ethnic group. According to the 1994 census, 81.5% of the Amhara Region of Ethiopia were Ethiopian Orthodox, with 18.1% being Muslim, and 0.1% being Protestant. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church maintains close links with the Egyptian Coptic Church. Timkut, Meskel(commemorating the discovery of the True Cross by Queen Eleni in the fourth century), Genet (Xmas 7th Jan), Easter and Epiphany are the most important celebrations, marked with services, feasting and dancing. Most holidays are unique to Ethiopia.

    LANGUAGE: Amhara(አማርኛ āmariññā) It is the second most spoken Semitic language in the world, after Arabic.

    As well as the 2nd largest of the Afro-Asiatic languages (again after Arabic). Amharic has 27 million speakers as a first language, between 7-15 million more as a second language. It is written, with some adaptations, with the Ge'ez alphabet— called, in Ethiopian Semitic languages, ፊደል fidel ('alphabet,' 'letter,' or 'character') and አቡጊዳ abugida


    *********************************************************


    Afar

    The Afar people live primarily in Ethiopia and the areas of Eritrea, Djibouti, and Somalia in the Horn of Africa. They are know for their hostility to foreigners and for the notorious ritual of taken male genitalia as trophies. The Afar are an Islamic people related to the Oromo people.

    **********************************************************

    Asante

    Ashanti (people) or Asante, African people of the Twi (Tshi) linguistic stock, living principally in the Ashanti region of Ghana. The Ashanti people are composed of numerous tribes, notably the Dwaben, Mampon, Ofinsu, Nkwanta, Adansi, Daniassi, Nsuta, and Kumasi. Features of Ashanti tribal organization include ruling chieftains and common ownership of land.

    Ashanti religion is a mixture of animism and ancestor worship, and in the past human sacrifice was practiced. Renowned as warriors and as artisans—especially in cotton weaving, pottery making, and the manufacture of gold and silver ornaments—the Ashanti also are skillful farmers.

    *********************************************************

    Anlo-Ewe

    The Anlo-Ewe people are today in the southeastern corner of the Republic of Ghana. They settled here around 1474 after escaping from their past home of Notsie.

    *********************************************************
     
  2. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

    Joined:
    Oct 19, 2009
    Messages:
    5,087
    Likes Received:
    1,631
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Removing LIES And Spreading The Truth
    Location:
    UNIVERSE
    Ratings:
    +1,632
    B

    Bantu People (Zulu, Shona, etc)

    The Bantu first originated around the Benue-Cross rivers area in southeastern Nigeria and spread over Africa to the Zambia area. Sometime in the second millennium BC, perhaps triggered by the drying of the Sahara and pressure from the migration of people from the Sahara into the region, they were forced to expand into the rainforests of central Africa (phase I). In the 1st millennium BC, they began a more rapid second phase of expansion beyond the forests into southern and eastern Africa, and again in the 1st millennium AD as new agricultural techniques and plants were developed in Zambia.

    By about AD 1000 it had reached modern day Zimbabwe and South Africa. In Zimbabwe a major southern hemisphere empire was established, with its capital at Great Zimbabwe.

    ********************************************************

    Baka People

    A people of hunters and gatherers, Baka 'Pygmies' live in the rainforest of Cameroon, together with various ethnic groups of bantu farmers, with whom they exchange goods and have a symbiotic relationship from time immemorial.

    Like the other groups of African 'Pygmies' (BaKola, Aka, BaBongo, BaMbuti, etc.), the Baka are traditionally nomadic, even though they are undergoing a process of sedentariness under the influence of multiple factors. The first of these factors is massive deforestation, which deprives the Pygmies of the natural and symbolic resources essential for their biological and cultural survival.

    *********************************************************

    Dinka People

    Dinka, indigenous people of the Republic of Sudan in Africa, one of the largest indigenous groups in the south of the country. Since about the 10th century they have inhabited an area along both sides of the White Nile. Dinka people typically are tall and slim, have very dark skin, and almond-shaped eyes. Male Dinka between the ages of 10 and 16 have their foreheads marked with scarification (see Tattooing) during an initiation ceremony into their particular group.

    The Dinka speak five Dinka languages from the Eastern Sudanic branch of the Nilo-Saharan family. A pastoral people, they raise herds of cattle, sheep, and goats for their livelihood. Cattle are extremely important to the Dinka culture and a symbol of wealth; milk in many forms is hence a primary food. However, the long-running civil war in Sudan has resulted in much-reduced herds and consequential changes in some of their cultural practices.

    The traditional Dinka religion is a form of polytheistic animism, but some Christianity is practised. The religion is dominated by the god Nhialic (Sky), who speaks through spirits that take possession of individuals. The sacrifice of oxen, carried out by leaders known as the Spear-Masters, is an important aspect of the faith. The Spear-Masters guide the destiny of the people.
    The Dinkas social system is headed by chiefs who also serve as priests and peacemakers. Currently, about 500,000 Dinka live in Sudan. Famous Dinka include Alek Wek.

    *********************************************************

    Fulani

    Primary language: Fulfulde (90% speakers)
    Second language: Hausa
    Third language: Tamajaq

    People Name: Fulani
    Primary Language: Fulfulde
    Ethnologue Code: FUE
    Dialects: Kano-Katsina-Bororro (Cameroon, Niger, Nigeria), Bagirmi, Sokoto The Fulani people of West Africa are the largest nomadic group in the world.


    Total People: 15 million Fulani with 100,000 Wodaabe
    Urban Percent: 10% Fulani
    Countries: Niger 1 million; Mali 1 million; Cameroon 700,000; Burkina Faso 500,000; Benin 230,000; Sudan 100,000; Togo 50,000; Central African Republic 25,000; Ghana 5,000; Nigeria 11 million. (Wodaabe: more than 40,000 in Niger and about 25,000 in Chad).

    As a people group they actually contain a large number of people from diverse groups who were conquered and became a part of the Fulani through the spread of Islam. The Fulani were able to take over much of West Africa and establish themselves not only as a religious force but also as a political and economical force. The Fulani are a very proud people, they are the missionaries of Islam and ended up conquering much of West Africa.

    The Fulani are primarily nomadic herders and traders. Through their nomadic lifestyle, they established numerous trade routes in West Africa. Many times the Fulani go to local marketers and interact with the people there getting news and spreading it through much of West Africa.


    Fulani have a huge respect for beauty. Beauty is considered very important and one of the ways this is shown is through tattoos that are put all over the body. A distinguishing feature of a Fulani can be their lips, which are many times a blackish color from the use of Henna or tattooing done on the mouth.

    Being brave and fearless are very important for the Fulani as is seen by their numerous weapons. One tradition is that when 2 boys reach coming of age they two boys hit each other with their staffs not showing any pain but instead laughing. Many have died in these ceremonies which are now against the law in many countries but continue to be practiced.

    The Fulani normally raise large amounts of cattle and have therefore settled in large plain areas of Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso and Guinea. The Fulani hold to a strict caste system. The 4 caste subdivisions are the nobility, merchants, blacksmiths, and descendents of slaves of wealthy Fulani.

    The most important object in Fulani society is cattle, and there are many names, traditions, and taboos concerning cattle. The number of cows a person owns is a sign of his wealth. This has caused significant conflict in recent months between the Fulani and other ethnic groups. The reason for this is that the cows will many times go into the fields and eat the grain of local farmers. With increasing numbers of other transportation being used the Fulani are at risk of losing their identity as nomads and are being forced to settle in farms and villages. This sometimes creates other problems, because the Fulani are very proud people of their unique culture and used to ruling over the other people.
     
  3. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

    Joined:
    Oct 19, 2009
    Messages:
    5,087
    Likes Received:
    1,631
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Removing LIES And Spreading The Truth
    Location:
    UNIVERSE
    Ratings:
    +1,632
    Hadza

    The Hadzabe are a small groups of Hadzabe live around Lake Eyasi. Their language resembles the click languages of Khoisan further south in the Kalahari. Their small population was seriously threatened, in particular during the period when Julius Nyere tried to introduce his Ujuma policy.

    ********************************************************

    Hamer

    Population: 23,700. Ethiopia
    Language: Hamer-Banna. 42,838 Hammer language speakers
    Neighboring Peoples: Banna.
    History: They belong to a group of culturally distinct people known as the Sidamo.
    Economy: Most of the Hamer are cattle breeders.

    Religion: 95% Sunni Islam


    Social System:

    The Hamer live in camps that consist of several related families. The families live in tents arranged in a circle, and the cattleare brought into the center of the camp at night. When the campsite is being set up, beds for the women and young children are built first; then the tent frame is built around it. The tents are constructed with flexible poles set in the ground in a circular pattern.

    The poles are bent upward, joining at the top, then tied. The structures are covered with thatch during the dry season and canvas mats during the rainy season. Men and boys usually sleep on cots in the center of the camp, near the cattle. Herds belonging to the Hamer-Banna consist mainly of cattle, although there are some sheep and goats. Camels are used for riding and as pack animals.

    Most Hamer-Banna plant fields of sorghum at the beginning of the rainy season before leaving on their annual nomadic journey. Some households also plant sesame and beans. Because the crops are usually leftunattended, the yields are low. Few households grow enough grain to last through the year.

    One striking characteristic of the Hamer-Banna men and women is that they indulge in elaborate hair-dressing. They wear a clay "cap" that is painted and decorated with feathers and other ornaments. Much time is spent inpreparing the hair, and care must be taken to protect it from damage. This is one reason the men often sleep on small, cushioned stools.

    The women use the butter for the perfect look manteinance of their hair-dressing. A well-dressed man will wear a toga-like cloth and carry a spear and a stool. Women also commonly wear colorful toga-like garments. Men may marry as many women as they like, but only within their own ethnicity. A "bride price" of cattle and other goods is provided by the prospectivehusband and his near relatives. A typical household consists of a woman, her children, and a male protector. A man may be the protector of more than one household, depending on the number of wives he has.

    Also, men are sometimes assigned the responsibility of protecting a divorced woman, a widow, or the wife of an absent husband (usually his brother). Marriage celebrations include feasting and dancing. Young girls as well as boys are circumcised

    The Hamer-Banna are 95% Sunni Muslim. They observe the five basic teachings of Islam, which include acknowledging that Allah is the only god, praying, fasting, giving alms to the poor, and making a pilgrimage to Mecca. However, many elements of their traditional religion are still practiced. For instance, they believe that natural objects (rocks, trees, etc.) have spirits. They also believe in jinns, or spiritsthat are capable of assuming human or animal form and exercising
    supernatural influence over people.

    *********************************************************

    Hausa

    Population: 10-15 Million
    language: Nigeria, Niger, and other parts of eastern West Africa, belonging to the Chadic branch of Afro-Asiatic. 25 million.40 million.

    Religion: 100% Sunni Islam


    Originally organized into a group of feudal city-states, the Hausa were conquered from the 14th century on by a succession of West African kingdoms—among them, Mali, Songhai, Bornu, and Fulani. The Hausa occasionally attained enough power and unity, however, to throw off foreign domination and to engage in local conquest and slave raiding themselves. In the opening years of the 20th century, with the Hausa on the verge of overthrowing the Fulani, the British invaded northern Nigeria and instituted their policy of indirect rule. Under the British the Fulani were supported in their political supremacy, and the Hausa—Fulani ruling coalition, still dominant in northern Nigeria, was confirmed.

    The beginnings of this coalition were, however, much earlier, because the Fulani governed simply by assuming the highest hereditary positions in the well-organized Hausa political system. Many of the ruling Fulani have now become culturally and linguistically Hausa. Hausa culture manifests a greater degree of specialization and diversification than that of most of the surrounding peoples. Subsistence agriculture is the primary occupation of most, but other skills such as tanning, dyeing, weaving, and metalworking are also highly developed.


    The Hausa have long been famous for wide-ranging itinerant trading, and wealthy merchants share the highest social positions with the politically powerful and the highly educated. Hausa architecture is distinctive: houses are made from cone-shaped mud bricks with wooden beams (from palm trunks) for the roof. They often have a dome-shaped room constructed from wooden frames that form arches and are then covered in mud.

    The Hausa language is the largest and best-known member of the Chadic subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic family of languages. Hausa has borrowed freely from other languages, especially Arabic, and is adapting well to the demands of contemporary cultural change. It has become a common language for millions of non-Hausa West Africans, and sizeable Hausa-speaking communities exist in each major city of West and North Africa as well as along the trans-Saharan trade and pilgrimage routes. Extensive literature and several periodicals in Romanized script have been produced since the beginning of British rule. An Arabic-based writing system (ajami), developed before the British conquest, is still in limited use. Indigenous Hausa names are rare. Babies are named one week after birth.
     
  4. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

    Joined:
    Oct 19, 2009
    Messages:
    5,087
    Likes Received:
    1,631
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Removing LIES And Spreading The Truth
    Location:
    UNIVERSE
    Ratings:
    +1,632
    Igbo

    The Igbo of southeastern Nigeria traditionally live in small, independent villages, each with an elected council rather than a chief. Such democratic institutions notwithstanding, Igbo society is highly stratified along lines of wealth, achievement, and social rank. Overcrowding and degraded soil have forced many Igbo to migrate to nearby cities and other parts of Nigeria.

    *****************************************************

    Kanuri - Manga
    Region: Nigeria, southeast Niger, western Chad and northern Cameroon.

    Language: Kanuri (Nilo-Saharan), Hausa, Arabic or Fulfulde - Varies by country
    Third language: French

    Region: Islam

    Population Total People: 4 million (estimate)

    The Kanuri were Initially Pastoral Berber, the Kanuri were driven from North Africa by Arabs, moving to the area around Lake Chad in the late seventh century, and absorbed migrants from the Upper Nile. According to Kanuri tradition, Sef, son of Dhu Ifazan of Yemen, arrived in Kanem in the ninth century and united the population into the Sayfawa dynasty. The Kanuri are tall and very dark in appearance, with a stately, dignified look. This signifies their pride and appreciation for their past as rulers, as well as their present position of leadership and influence. Many Kanuri speak Hausa, Arabic, or another area language in addition to Kanuri.


    HISTORY: The Kanuri began losing power in this region when the British took control in 1914. Nevertheless, they have remained politically active and still have much influence on the surrounding people groups. In fact, aspects of Kanuri culture, language, and religion have been adopted by many of the neighboring groups.


    *********************************************************

    Khoisan/KhoiKhoi

    Khoisan (increasingly commonly spelled Khoesan or Khoe-San) is the name for two of the oldest ethnic groups of southern Africa and thus the entire human race. From the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period, hunting and gathering cultures known as the Sangoan occupied southern Africa in areas. Both the San and Khoikhoi (men of men) people resemble the ancient Sangoan skeletal remains.


    Both share physical and linguistic characteristics, and it seems clear that the Khoi branched forth from the San by adopting the practice of herding cattle and goats from neighbouring Bantu groups. The Khoisan people were the original inhabitants of much of southern Africa before the southward Bantu migrations (starting 1000 B.C.E)—coming down the east and west coasts of Africa—and later European colonization who called them ‘Bushmen’ and Hottentots, the later is considered obsolete and offensive, while Bushmen (a pejorative Colonial impression of these people) is diminishing in use. More commonly called San ( although this can be interpreted as derogatory as it is a word from the Khoikhoi to refer to the so-called San, just as Amhara call Beta-Israeli people Falasha (foreigner) and hence the word is un-academic)


    The Khoisan languages are noted for their click consonants. Which have no alphabetical equivalent in any script. Over the centuries the many branches of the Khoisan peoples were absorbed or displaced by the ‘colonial’ Bantu who were migrating south in search of new lands, most notably the Xhosa and Zulu, who both have adopted some Khoisan clicks and loan words into their respective languages. The Khoisan survived in the desert or in areas with winter rains which were not suitable for Bantu crops.


    During the colonial era they lived in South Africa, Namibia and Botswana, and were massacred in great numbers by Dutch, British, and German settlers in acts of genocide (e.g. the Herero and Namaqua Genocide). They contributed greatly to the ancestry of South Africa's coloured population. Today many of the San live in parts of the Kalahari Desert where they are better able to preserve much of their cherished culture.

    Genetically their Y-haplogroup A, the most diverse or oldest-diverging Y haplogroup transmitted purely by patrilineal descent, is today present in various Khoisan groups at frequencies of 12-44%, and the other Y-haplogroups present have been formed by recent admixture of Bantu male lineages E3a (18-54%), and in some groups, noticeable Pygmy traces are visible (B2b). The Khoisan also show the largest genetic diversity in matrilineally transmitted mtDNA of all human populations.

    Their original mtDNA haplogroups L1d and L1k are one of the oldest-diverging female lineages as well. However, analysis of neutral autosomal (inherited through either parent) genes finds that the Khoisan are similar to other African populations.


    The presence of Haplogroup A, especially the subclade A3b2, in East Africa suggests some ancient connection between those populations and the Khoisan. This may not be a simple migration in one direction, but the result of various movements of people in Eastern and Southern Africa over tens of thousands of years, followed by the recent Bantu expansion separating the two regions.One interpretation is that the Khoisan are the earliest-diverging human group, or even a group that has preserved the original human lifestyle along with genetics.

    *********************************************************

    Lemba

    The Lemba are members of an ancient Jewish sect who live in modern day Zimbabwe. Many of their cultural practice are of Jewish origin. Genetically they have more 'Jewish' DNA than most Israelis today.

    *********************************************************

    Masai

    The Masai are members of the Nilotic tribal group along with the Samburu. The Masai are a well known colorful people who are mainly cattle and goat herders. They like to adorn themselves with colorful cloth and beads. Wealth is measured in cattle. The traditional villages surround a central area. The young males go through a period of warriorhood before they marry.


    Men generally make the tribal decisions and care for the cattle. The women build the houses and talke care of the home. More and more villages are becoming less traditional. This can be seen by flat metal roofs instead of thatching, all wooden houses and even farm plots. Growing food is frowned upon by traditional Masai. There are even some homes with satellite dishes. In villages near lodges, income is supplemented by posing for photos, selling used spears or performing tradtional dances.

    Each family marks its cattle with a unique brand and ear slits to identify them. The Masai live in small clusters of huts (called kraals or bomas ) made of sticks sealed together with cow dung; these kraals also include enclosures for the cattle. Masai males are rigidly separated into five age groups: child, junior warrior, senior warrior, junior elder, and senior elder. Both boys and girls undergo circumcision ceremonies, which initiate them into adulthood. Marriages are often arranged, and polygamy is practiced. The Masai believe in a supreme god, Engai, who blesses them with children and cattle.

    Prior to European colonization of Africa, the Masai herded their cattle freely across the Great Rift Valley of East Africa. They first encountered Europeans in the 1840s. During the 1880s and 1890s, the Masai experienced severe droughts, famine, and disease, including smallpox, which was due to European contact. The Masai cattle herds were decimated by rinderpest, a highly infectious febrile disease.

    The weakened Masai fought against the encroachment of the Europeans but were defeated. The Europeans wanted farmland, and acquired large portions of Masai land in the treaties of 1904, 1911, and 1912, which confined the nomadic Masai to reserves and gave the Europeans fertile land. Today the Masai, who number approximately 250,000, live in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania. Despite government efforts to settle them, most are still nomadic.
     
  5. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

    Joined:
    Oct 19, 2009
    Messages:
    5,087
    Likes Received:
    1,631
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Removing LIES And Spreading The Truth
    Location:
    UNIVERSE
    Ratings:
    +1,632
    Mursi

    Region: Southern Ethiopia

    Language: Mursi Mursi (or Murzu)

    Population: 6-10,000.

    The Mursi (or Murzu) are an African nomadic cattle herder ethnicity located in the Omo valley in southwestern Ethiopia close to the Sudanese border. The estimated population of the Mursi is around 3900. Surrounded by mountains and three rivers, the home of the Mursi is one of the most isolated region of the country. Their neighbors include the Bodi, the Aari, the Banna, the Kara, the Bumi and the Chai.


    The Mursi have their own language, also called Mursi. Few are familiar with Amharic, the official language of Ethiopia, and their literacy level is very low. The religion of the Mursi ethnicity is classified as Animism, although about 15% are Christians. The Mursi women are famous of wearing plates in their lower lips. The reason of this "ornament" is for avoiding to be catched as slaves. These lip discs are made of clay. Girls are pierced in the age of 15 or 16. They remove the plate when eating. Similar body ornaments are worn by the Suyá people, a Brazilian ethnicity.

    **********************************************************

    The Mursi and Bodi live in the valley of the River Omo. They grow crops (mainly sorghum) using both rain and the retreating floodwaters of the river. They depend heavily on cattle herding. Men compose songs to their favourite ox or cow. The Konso number about 200,000 and live in the mountains south of Lake Chamo. They farm using a system of terraces, on which they grow cotton and other plants. They weave the cotton into cloth which is exported to other parts of Ethiopia.


    Culture

    The Mursi are survivors whose isolated geographic location, combined with the crises of drought, famine, war, migration, and epidemic diseases has shaped their identity. Cattle raids and civil instability between bordering ethnic groups is merely a means of survival. Every aspect of daily life revolves around cattle and crops, which set the economic standard among the Mursi. When they trade in the market, crops and cattle are exchanged as money. When a young Mursi girl reaches the age of 15 or 16, her lower lip is pierced so she can wear a lip plate. The larger the lip plate she can tolerate, the more cattle her bride price will bring for her father.

    Government

    As one of the most remote people groups in Ethiopia, the Mursi have remained relatively autonomous from the Ethiopian government. They alternate between peaceful and hostile relations with their neighbors, the Bodi and the Banna.The Mursi are in danger of displacement and denial of access to grazing and agricultural land, by African Parks Foundation. It is claimed that the Mursi were coerced into signing documents they could not read by government park officials. In 2005 463 homes were burned down by the Ethiopian Government in Nech Sar National Park Ethiopia after African Parks Foundation signed an agreement with the government.
     
  6. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

    Joined:
    Oct 19, 2009
    Messages:
    5,087
    Likes Received:
    1,631
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Removing LIES And Spreading The Truth
    Location:
    UNIVERSE
    Ratings:
    +1,632
    Nubian/Ancient Egyptian

    Language: Nubian and Arabic

    Region: Sudan and Egypt

    Related groups: Ancient Egyptians

    Religion: Islam


    The "Nubians" are those who either presently speak dialects of the Nubian language, or who trace their descent from these people. The Egyptian Nubians are called Kanuz; the northern Sudanese Nubians from the Second Cataract to the Third are called Mahas; and those in the south, in the vicinity of Dongola, Sudan, are called Danagla. Before the spread of Islam into the Sudan, about the fifteenth century, Nubian-speaking peoples occupied a much larger area, including the land southwards up the Blue Nile. Their descendants live there still, but today they speak only Arabic.

    Ancient Nubia, like modern Sudan, was a land of many different peoples who identified themselves primarily by ethnic group and probably spoke many different languages. We now refer to them all as "Nubians" but they were not all the same, nor were they unified.

    In Egypt the Nile, by its unobstructed flow from Aswan to the Mediterranean, formed a convenient water highway which at the dawn of history (about 3200 BC) tended to unify the Egyptians by language and culture; this early worked to break down tribal distinctions. In Nubia, however, the Nile had so many treacherous rapids ("cataracts") and so many long desolate stretches poorly suited to settled life that the peoples unified into smaller groups. This encouraged the growth of tribes, and, thus, many smaller independent cultures and political units were formed. Only with the emergence of the strong state in the third millennium BC could some of these tribes be brought together by force.

    The oversimplified concept of race ("black" and "white") is challenged along the Nile Valley, for nowhere is there a clear transition from one to the other. In America some people use these terms passionately to identify their own cultural or ethnic allegiances within our own society.


    In the first half of the twentieth century, most European and American scholars identified the Egyptians as "white" and primarily "Near Eastern" in order to remove them from the African cultural sphere and to serve their ignorant and bigoted views that high civilization could only have been created by non-Africans. In the latter twentieth century, Afrocentric scholars indignantly challenged this model, asserting the "blackness" and "African-ness" of the Egyptians. In each case the aim of these scholars was to claim "ownership" of the Egyptians for their own "race" within the context of the modern, primarily American racial debate. In fact, the Egyptians are certainly Africans, but they are neither "white" in the European sense nor "black" in the Congo-African sense.

    It can be argued that they were like the modern Ethiopians or Somali people with straight to curly hair and narrow bone structure. So from a modern racial context they would sit in the African world just as Ethiopians, Sudanese, Fulani and Somalis do today. The Egyptians really possessed a wide range of skin color and many differing physical characteristics, as did the ancient Nubians. But as time progressed an Egypt mixed more with outsiders with the final influx of modern Arabs the racial texture of Egypt became more complex with a higher percentage of “white skinned Arabs.” (As seen in lower Egypt today (North Egypt).

    *********************************************************

    Northern Egypt, being linked to Asia, also saw from very early times an influx of lighter-skinned, non-African peoples, who settled there, intermingled with the local people or drove them out. From Egyptian history we have clear evidence that northern Egypt was periodically settled by peoples of non-African origin, who invaded from the north or east. For example, during the Second Intermediate period (ca. 1700-1580 BC), all of northern Egypt and much of the eastern Mediterranean and coastal Palestine (modern Israel) was under the control of the so-called Hyksos kings. The word "Hyksos" comes from an Egyptian word meaning "rulers from foreign lands." These people were of Near Eastern origin and maintained their capital Avaris in the Nile Delta. Recent excavations at Avaris (modern Tell ed-Daba'a), have even revealed remains of a palace decorated in the style of those on Crete! This has suggested to the excavator, Dr. Manfred Bietak of the University of Vienna, the strong presence there of Minoan (Cretan) royalty. This palace appears to date to the period soon after the Egyptian king Ahmose drove the Hyksos into Palestine about 1550 BC. It is thought possibly to have belonged to a Minoan princess sent to marry the Egyptian king. Obviously she and her servants from Crete would have been very light-skinned.

    On the other hand, there were also certainly black-skinned people in the Delta at the same time. Nubian pottery has been found in one area of Tell ed-Daba'a, which strongly suggests that Nubian troops were also living there in large numbers. Dark African people were probably also living on Crete and mainland Greece at the same time, for at Pylos in Greece black-skinned warriors wearing contemporary Cretan and Mycenaean Greek armor are depicted in the palace frescoes, suggesting that African troops were being used not only by the Egyptian king but also by his European counterparts across the sea.

    http://www.africanholocaust.net/peopleofafrica.htm
     
  7. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

    Joined:
    Oct 19, 2009
    Messages:
    5,087
    Likes Received:
    1,631
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Removing LIES And Spreading The Truth
    Location:
    UNIVERSE
    Ratings:
    +1,632
    Ndebele (Matabele)

    Ndebele are a branch of 500 Zulus who split from King Shaka in the early 1820s under the leadership of Mzilikazi, a former general in Shaka's army. They founded a settlement near modern day Bulawayo where the made contact with the Tswana people who called these Zulus the name "Matabele". Tabele comes from tebela which means 'to chase away' The Ndebele were generally viewed by the Shona as unwanted raiders.

    They have a very vibrant art motif which is used in their houses and in their garments.

    *********************************************************

    Nuer

    The Nuer are highly dependent on their environment. They are pre-eminently pastoral, though they grow more millet and maize than is commonly supposed. Some ethnicitys cultivate more and some less, according to conditions of soil and surface water and their wealth in cattle, but all alike regard horticulture as toil forced on them by poverty of stock, for at heart they are herds-men, and the only labour in which they delight is care of cattle.


    They not only depend on cattle for many of life’s necessities but they have the herdsman’s outlook on the world. Cattle are their dearest possession and they gladly risk their lives to defend their herds or to pillage those of their neighbours. Most of their social activities concern cattle and cherchez la vache is the best advice that can be given to those who desire to understand Nuer behaviour.

    The attitude of Nuer towards, and their relations with, neighbouring peoples are influenced by their love of cattle and their desire to acquire them. They have profound contempt for peoples with few or no cattle, like the Anuak, while their wars against Dinka ethnicitys have been directed to seizure of cattle and control of pastures. Each Nuer ethnicity and tribal section has its own pastures and water-supplies, and political fission is closely related to distribution of these natural resources, ownership of which is generally expressed in terms of clans and lineages.

    Disputes between sections are very often about cattle, and cattle are the compensation for loss of life and limb that is so frequently their outcome. Leopard-skin chiefs and prophets are arbiters in questions in which cattle are the issue, or ritual agents in situations demanding sacrifice of ox or ram. Another ritual specialist is the wut ghok, the Man of the Cattle. Likewise, in speaking of age-sets and age-grades we find ourselves describing the relations of men to their cattle, for the change from boyhood to manhood is most clearly marked by a corresponding change in those relations at initiation.

    *********************************************************

    OROMO
    Language: Oromiyah (Afaan Oromo): Cu****ic linguistic group

    Population: 25 million (Ethiopia, Kenya)

    Related: Sidama, Hadiya, Kambata, Afar, Ogadni

    The largest Ethnic group in Ethiopia. Traditionally they migrated into modern day Ethiopia and from the South Settled and they started to integrate with their Amharic-speaking neighbors at least from the 17th century on. They speak an Afro-Asiatic language know as Afan Oromo. Most Oromo live in agricultural settlements, cultivating crops including wheat, barley, and coffee, and farming livestock, although some work in mines as there are gold, silver, and minerals to be found in Oromia. Historically they have meet with oppression at the hands of the Amhara group.


    Monogamy is generally the rule, but in some areas polygamy is practiced, the number of wives being dependent upon the economic status of the husband. Polygamy is more common among the Islamic Oromo.


    Eretcha Festival:2007
    47,5% are Islamic, 30,5% Orthodox Christians,17,7% Protestants, but a minority follow the traditional Oromo religion. Reecha is an Oromo ritual which is celebrated at Bishoftu in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.

    Few Ethiopian traditional celebrations are as shrouded in mystery and color as Eretcha - the premier Oromo cultural celebration that marks the end of the rainy season in the Ethiopian highlands. A mixture of the Oromo traditional monotheist religion of Waqaa and in occasions elements of the Ethiopian orthodox church, Eretcha is celebrated every year towards the end of the month of September. Lake Hora in Debre Zeit is the most widely respected location of this celebration even though Eretcha is celebrated through out the country at different locations.

    The ritual is performed over a 1 month period where a scared tree is anointed with gifts of food (kebe [butter], rice, etc). Followers and observers of this Oromo religion may also be Muslim and Christian and the religion is viewed as a culture more than a religion.Tradition has it that the Oromo people of Ethiopia annually give praise to the creator for the most valuable commodity on the Ethiopian highlands - water .

    Putting grass and green leaves below the great Oak tree, the traditional coffee ceremony, a warrior , beautiful Oromo girls in the Arsi leather outfits, more Oromo girls carrying Adey Abeba, Lake Hora, young men dancing towards the end of the celebrations, the great Oak tree that has stood for many many years.

    Among the most significant of the many Oromo clans are the warlike Tulama group, consisting of about 35 peoples, with traditions of caste and slaveholding, and the Wallo, consisting of about 25 peoples. However, today it is becoming increasingly difficult to determine differences between clans, particularly because of intermarriage.

    SCRIPT

    Unfortunately many Ormo have stopped using the indigenous African Ge'ez script after 1991 and began formally writing Oromoia in a latin format called called Qubee. Words are subsequently excessively long to accommodate for the inadequacies of latin. It is speculated that the motivation for the change was to create a distinctive cultural identify from the "semitic" groups who have historically suppressed their culture. Before the Ethiopian revolution in 1974 under Mengistu Ormo was banned from broadcast and print. There was a modern script know as the Saphalo script which was in use around the time of the Italian invasion. Arabic is also common among Muslim communities.
     
  8. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

    Joined:
    Oct 19, 2009
    Messages:
    5,087
    Likes Received:
    1,631
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Removing LIES And Spreading The Truth
    Location:
    UNIVERSE
    Ratings:
    +1,632
    SOMALI

    POPULATIONS: 17 Million

    LOCATION: Somalia, Djibouti, Ethiopia, , and Kenya

    RELIGION: Exclusively Islamic

    Languages: Somali, Arabic, Swahili. Cu****ic branch of the Afro-Asiatic (formerly Hamito-Semitic) family

    RELATED: Oromo


    Somalis are a mono-ethnic nomadic people who traded with Arabia and Kemet (Ancient Kingdom of Punt)

    Three great divisions of Somalis exist, roughly corresponding to the northern, central, and southern parts of the region, the Somalis demonstrate considerable cultural unity. The basis of Somali society is the rēr, or large, self-contained kinship group or clan, consisting of a number of families claiming common descent from a male ancestor. A Somali has obligations both to his rēr and to the loosely defined social unit of which his rēr is a part. Government of the rēr is markedly patriarchal, although the chief is chosen by a group of elders who counsel him.

    The Somalis are primarily nomadic herdsmen who, because of intense competition for scarce resources, have reputation for being aggressive and frequently involved in blood feuds or wars with neighbouring groups and peoples.


    A second category of Somalis are the townspeople and agriculturists of the urban centres, especially along the coast of the Horn of Africa, where intense and prolonged intimacy with the Islamic tradition has rendered the culture highly organized and religiously orthodox and where geographic position has turned the townspeople into commercial middlemen between the Arab wor ld and the nomadic peoples of the interior.

    CULTURE

    Somali people have a rich and distinctive Islamic culture. A favorite pastime is the controversial chewing of chat. Somali women wear very vibrant Islamic shawls and jilbabs. The musical traditions of Somalia are very similar to that of neighboring Ethiopia. Somali people are very passionate about poetry and food.


    LAW

    Somalis for centuries have practiced a form of customary law, which they call Xeer. Xeer is a polycentric l gal system where there is no monopolistic agent that determines what the law should be or how it should be interpreted.

    A guurti (court) is traditionally formed beneath an acacia tree, where judges arbitrate a dispute until both parties are satisfied. This process can sometimes lead to several days' worth of discussions. The Xeer legal system is assumed to have developed exclusively in the Horn of Africa since approximately the 7th century. There is no evidence that it developed elsewhere or was greatly influenced by any foreign legal system. The fact that Somali legal terminology is practically devoid of loan words from foreign languages suggests that Xeer is truly indigenous


    *********************************************************

    SHONA ( Karanga )

    POPULATIONS: 17 Million

    LOCATION: Zimbabwe, Mozambique

    RELIGION: Christian and African spritual

    Languages: Shona, English, Portuguese

    RELATED: Lemba, Ndebele


    The Shona are a cluster of peoples who have lived for about 2,000 years in a region of the southern Africa Plateau. Shona speaking migrants of the late 1800s also live in Zambia, in the Zambezi valley, in Chieftainess Chiawa's area. The Shona are the builders of Great Zimbabwe. Which is the largest stone Structure of pre-colonial Africa south of the equator.

    The word Zimbabwe literally means "stone dwelling" in the Shona language. Thus, Great Zimbabwe is appropriately named because it is indeed a great stone dwelling! The pictures below show parts of the ruins of Great Zimbabwe as they can be seen today by people who visit the country of Zimbabwe.

    The Torwa State and Munhumutapa states which succeeded the Great Zimbabwe state as well as the Rozvi state which succeeded the Torwa State and with the Mutapa state existed into the 19th century. The states were based on Kingship with certain dynasties being royals. The Kingdoms were destroyed by new groups moving onto the plateau. The Ndebele destroyed the Rozvi state in the 1830's and the Portuguese slowly eroded the Mutapa State which had extended to the coast of Mozambique. The British destroyed the traditional power in the 1890 and colonised the plateau which the named Rhodesia. In Mozambique the Portuguese colonial government fought the remnants of the Mutapa state until 1902.
     
  9. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

    Joined:
    Oct 19, 2009
    Messages:
    5,087
    Likes Received:
    1,631
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Removing LIES And Spreading The Truth
    Location:
    UNIVERSE
    Ratings:
    +1,632
    SAMBURU

    The Samburu are related to the Masai although they live just above the equator where the foothills of Mount Kenya merge into the northern desert and slightly south of Lake Turkana in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya.

    They are semi-nomadic pastoralists whose lives revolve around their cows, sheep, goats, and camels. Milk is their main stay; sometimes it is mixed with blood. Meat is only eaten on special occasions. Generally they make soups from roots and barks and eat vegetables if living in an area where they can be grown.


    Most dress in very traditional clothing of bright red material used like a skirt and multi-beaded necklaces, bracelets and earrings, especially when living away from the big cities.

    The Samburu developed from one of the later Nilotic migrations from the Sudan, as part of the Plains Nilotic movement. The broader grouping of the Maa-speaking people continued moving south, possibly under the pressure of the Borana expansion into their plains. Maa-speaking peoples have lived and fought from Mt. Elgon to Malindi and down the Rift Valley into Tanzania. The Samburu are in an early settlement area of the Maa group.

    Those who moved on south, however (called Maasai), have retained a more purely nomadic lifestyle until recently when they have also begun farming. The expanding Turkana ran into the Samburu around 1700 when they began expanding north and east.

    The language of the Samburu people is also called Samburu. It is a Maa language very close to the Maasai dialects. Linguists have debated the distinction between the Samburu and Maasai languages for decades.

    Generally between five and ten families set up encampments for five weeks and then move on to new pastures. Adult men care for the grazing cattle which are the major source of livelihood. Women are in charge of maintaining the portable huts, milking cows, obtaining water and gathering firewood. Their houses are of plastered mud or hides and grass mats stretched over a frame of poles. A fence of thorns surrounds each family's cattle yard and huts.

    *********************************************************

    TIGRINYA PEOPLE

    Population: 6,000,000
    Religion: Christian (Primary); Islam (Secondary)

    Registry of Peoples code
    Tigray-Tigrinya: 110050
    Registry of Languages code (Ethnologue)
    Tigrinya: tir



    Location:

    The Tigrinya (ti-GRIN-yuh) or Tigray (ti-GRAH-ee) people live in the southern highlands of Eritrea and the northern highlands of Ethiopia´s Tigray province. They also live in Ethiopia´s Gonder and Welo provinces. There are about 2 million in Eritrea and about 4 million in Ethiopia.

    The term Tigray is used in Ethiopia for both the people and their province. Tigrinya is used in Eritrea for the same people, so-called from the language they speak. Differences in terminology and spelling have led to a different political identity of this people group on each side of the border dividing the group. Culturally they are one people group. The terms Tigray, Tigrinya or Tigray-Tigrinya apply to the total people group, unless otherwise indicated.

    History:

    The history of the two countries--Ethiopia and Eritrea--is closely linked, although beginning in the late 1800s, Eritrea was colonized by Italy. Eritrea was an Italian colony until 1941, then the British controlled it until 1951. Following the British occupation, the United Nations made it a federated autonomous territory with Ethiopia, until Ethiopia decided to annex it as a province in 1962.

    The Tigray-Tigrinya (also referred to as Tigrean) people are descendants of early Semitic peoples who originally settled in the Horn of Africa about 1000 BC. It seems they are related to or descended from the Sabaean (Sheban) people. According to their traditions they trace their roots to Menelik I, the child born of the queen of Sheba and King Solomon. It is thought that the Sabaean (Sheban) people began to settle on the west coast of the Red Sea, from their home in southern Arabia, about 1000 BC.

    Menelik I was the first of the Solomonic line of rulers of Ethiopia that ended only with the deposing of Emperor Haile Selassie in 1974. By about 1500 BC their civilization became the Axum Empire, based on a mixture of the early Sabaean culture and the prior Cu****ic culture. The ruins of the ancient city of Axum can still be seen in Tigray Province. Except for a few notable exceptions, the Amhara have been the dominant people group in Ethiopia history. The strength of their culture is shown in this influence though they number only 15 million of the estimated 53 million population of modern Ethiopia.

    The Sabaeans are referred to in the Quran along with Christians and Jews as "People of the Book." The Tigray-Tigrinya were associated with the Amhara in the ancient kingdom of Abyssinia, called in the Tigrinya language Etiopia, the source of the modern name of Ethiopia. The area where they live in the mountains was the center of the ancient Cu****e empire of Axum. The name Abyssinia comes from an early name--Habash--of an early group of the Sabaean settlers who became the Tigrinya.

    Identity:

    Like the rest of Ethiopia, the majority of the Tigray people are subsistence farmers. They are generally considered very beautiful people. Among Ethiopians, they are some of the most industrious and determined people. During the 1985 famine, when Ethiopia filled the American news and volunteers from Live Aid and Southern Baptist missionaries were feeding millions of people, it was a film about famine-stricken Tigray that raised international consciousness. Tigray received almost no aid. The government was trying to break the will of the independent Tigray, so they kept aid workers out of the region.

    **********************************************************

    TUAREG (Kel Tamahaq - Kel Tamasheq - Kel Ajjer)

    PRONUNCIATION: TWAH-reg

    LOCATION: Saharan and Sahelian Africa (mostly Niger, Mali, Algeria, Libya, and Burkina Faso)

    RELIGION: Islam ( Maliki)

    Identity/Location
    People Name: Tuareg
    Primary Language: Tamajaq
    Ethnologue Code: TTQ, THZ, THV
    Other Names: Imjeghen, Blue men of the desert.
    Dialects: 4, each with sub-dialects


    Population
    Total People: approx. 1.25 million (Algeria 76,000; Mali 100,000; Libya 18,000; Niger 700,000; refugees in Mauritania and Burkina Faso).

    LANGUAGE: Tamacheq. They have an ancient written script known as tifinagh

    The Tuareg or "Blue Men of the Desert" have long been known as warriors, traders and travellers of the Sahara Desert - as a people of grace and nobility as well as fighters of fierce reputation.

    HISTORY:

    Tuareg is a term used to identify numerous diverse groups of people who share a common language and a common history. Tuareg camel caravans played the primary role in trans-Saharan trade until the mid-20th century when European trains and trucks took over. Goods that once were brought north to the edge of the Sahara are now taken to the coast by train and then shipped to Europe and beyond. Tuareg history begins in northern Africa where their presence was recorded by Herodotus. Many groups have slowly moved southward over the last 2,000 years in response to pressures from the north and the promise of a more prosperous land in the south. Today, many Tuareg live in sedentary communities in the cities bordering the Sahara that once were the great centers of trade for western Africa. Tuareg an Islamic people who perform their 5 daily prays.

    Tuareg is a term given to these people by the Arabs, as they initially resisted Islam. The name Tuareg means "abandoned by God". Individually the ethnicitys are recognised by area of origin or language: Kel Tamasheq (meaning the people who speak Tamasheq), Kel Tamashek, Kel Ajjer, Kel Tamahaq and there are other dialects and names they call themselves.

    ECONOMY:

    For thousands of years, Tuareg economy revolved around trans-Saharan trade. There are basically five trade routes which extend across the Sahara from the northern Mediterranean coast of Africa to the great cities on the southern edge of the Sahara. Tuareg merchants were responsible for bringing goods from these cities to the north. From there they were distributed throughout the world. Because of the nature of transport and the limited space available in caravans, Tuareg usually traded in luxury items, things which took up little space and on which a large profit could be made. Tuareg were also responsible for bringing enslaved people north from west Africa to be sold to Europeans and Middle Easterners. Many Tuareg settled into the communities with which they traded, serving as local merchants and representatives for their friends and family who continued to trade.

    Economics

    Occupations: Pastoralists, guards, domestic servants, blacksmiths
    Income sources: Cheese, livestock, transport of salt, dates
    Products/Crafts: Cheese, baskets, mats, leatherwork, knives, iron objects, jewelry

    Trade partners: Neighbouring peoples, Algeria, Mali, Nigeria. There is a mutual economic dependency of nomads and farmers, and a rivalry over administration of production means.

    Modernisation/Utilities: Many people were forced to give up their nomadic lifestyle and moved to the towns. Some villiages, also in remote areas, have one TV set with a solar panel (although maintainance is a problem).

    Historically, Tuareg society was divided between those who tended the land and those who did not. At one time, tilling the land was considered the work of the lower classes, while the upper classes reaped the benefits of trading. Usually groups of sedentary Tuareg would pay allegience to a locally appointed headman, who in turn would report to the noble who considered the village his domain.Historically, Tuareg society was divided between those who tended the land and those who did not. At one time, tilling the land was considered the work of the lower classes, while the upper classes reaped the benefits of trading.
     
  10. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

    Joined:
    Oct 19, 2009
    Messages:
    5,087
    Likes Received:
    1,631
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Removing LIES And Spreading The Truth
    Location:
    UNIVERSE
    Ratings:
    +1,632
    TUTSI

    POPULATIONS: 2.5 Million

    LOCATION: Rwanda, Congo, Brundi

    RELIGION: Christian and Islam (post genocide)

    Languages: Kirundi, Kinyarwanda, French


    Tutsi - The name of the ethnic group. Watutsi - One Tutsi (Wa means 'one' also in Ancient Egyptian.) Mututsi - Means the same as Watutsi. Batutsi - Means the Tutsi people as a whole. (Bah means 'men, people' in Ancient Egyptian.) Watusi - A breed of cattle.


    ISLAM AND TUTSI

    Rwandan Muslims converted in large numbers after the 1994 Genocide. One reason for this shift is that many Muslims had sheltered refugees - both Hutu and Tutsi - in Muslim homes, villages and suburbs. Many converts converted to Islam because of the role that some Catholic and Protestant leaders played in the genocide. Human rights groups have documented several incidents in which Christian clerics permitted Tutsis to seek refuge in churches, then surrendered them to Hutu death squads. Instances of Hutu priests and ministers encouraging their congregations to kill Tutsis have also been documented. Some Tutsi converted have converted for safety, as they feared continuing reprisal killings by Hutu extremists, and knowing that Muslims would protect them from such acts. Many Hutu converted as well, in search for "purification." Many Hutus want to leave their violent past behind them and to not have "blood on their hands."

    There are also a few, isolated instances, where Hutus have converted in the hope that they could hide within the Muslim community and thereby escape arrest. The rate of conversions slowed down in 1997. According to the mufti of Rwanda, the Islamic community has not seen any increases in conversions in 2002-3.[8] Christianity remains as the country's leading religion. Catholicism (it arrived in the late 19th century with the White Fathers order of the Roman Catholic Church) is still deeply embedded in the culture. According to Rwandan Muslim leaders, Muslims make up 14 percent of the 8.2 million people in Rwanda, Africa's most Catholic nation, twice as many as before the killings began.

    The Tutsi of Rwanda first came into contact with the West at the end of the 19th century. Rwandan society was highly stratified. It was divided into the Tutsi, the ruling class who raised cattle, the Hutu who were farmers and the Twa who were hunters. Western discourses about the Tutsi emphasized race and social hierarchy. Based on their physical characteristics--they are among the tallest people in Africa--and their aristocratic demeanor, the Tutsi were assumed by early 20th-century Westerners to be the most "advanced" African peoples in the now-denounced evolutionary scheme promulgated at the time. Their appearance and elaborate court rituals made them perfect photographic subjects.

    The kings soon played into the wishes of photographers by staging for them the famous Ntore dances of young warriors. Pictures of these dances became signature images of Rwanda. Casimir Zagourski seems to have visited Rwanda twice and photographed King Yuhi V. Musinga--who ruled from 1897 until he was deposed by the Belgians in 1931--his son and successor Mutara III Rudahigwa (ruled 1931-1959) and Rudahigwa's mother. After the Second World War, Nyanza, the capital of the kingdom, became a stop on the tourist route through the region and was flooded by photographers and film makers, including the professionals of Inforcongo and Congopresse.

    *********************************************************
     
Loading...

Users found this page by searching for:

  1. name any 3 ethnic groups and their respective leaders who fought the Rozvi between 1800 and 1890

    ,
  2. three ethnic groups and leaders who fought Rozvi in 1800 and 1890

    ,
  3. Origins of Tigrinya people in ancient Egypt

    ,
  4. Name any three ethnic groups and their respective leaders who faught the Rozvi between 1800 and 1890