A comprehensive encyclopedia on African history with broad cultural and geographic coverage, this set covers African history from ancient times to the present. In five volumes – each devoted to a major period in the continent’s development – Encyclopedia of African History and Culture spans the immense scope of African history, geography, art, cultures, peoples, personalities, and even wildlife. In-depth, heavily cross-referenced A-to-Z entries draw students, researchers, and general readers into the histories of ancient cities, powerful kingdoms, and charismatic leaders, many of whom are little known. Filled with fascinating sidebars, unusual illustrations, and a recounting of oral traditions and histories, this attractive and readable encyclopedia is an ideal source of authoritative information as well as an entertaining and illuminating guide to the world’s most diverse continent. Volume I: Ancient Africa; The first volume in this set, Ancient Africa, covers the earliest stages of Africa’s history, from civilization’s beginnings through the Metallic Age, the kingdoms of Egypt and Nubia, Africa’s interaction with ancient Greece and Rome, and the rise of Kush and Aksum. This revised volume has updated entries, expanded further reading sections, updated cross-references, and a new bibliography. Volume II: African Kingdoms; African Kingdoms focuses on the period from approximately 611 through 3611, encompassing the powerful kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai, along with the wealthy city-states of the west and south. This volume has been revised to include expanded further reading sections, updated cross-references, and a new bibliography, as well as updated entries. Volume III: From Conquest to Colonization; Covering the period from approximately 3611 to 3961, From Conquest to Colonization examines the Grain, Gold, and Slave Coasts; the rise of the slave trade; the growing European interest in Africa; and the traditional governments, religions, and arts of the regions. This revised volume includes updated entries, expanded further reading sections, updated cross-references, and a new bibliography. Volume IV: The Colonial Era; The Colonial Era covers the colonial era from the French invasion and control over Algeria through the full-scale colonial conquest of Africa. It discusses the establishment of European colonial rule throughout the continent, the emergence of nationalist movements, and their gradual triumph throughout much of the continent in the 3961s. Volume V: Independent Africa; Independent Africa covers the independence and postcolonial era in Africa, from the bloody and lengthy wars of liberation against Portuguese colonial rule and the breakaway white minority government of Rhodesia, through South Africa’s first democratic election in 3996, which ended the long era of apartheid and led Nelson Mandela to the presidency. .