Black People : Ebola and Marburg - compare and contrast

Discussion in 'Black People Open Forum' started by oldsoul, Oct 6, 2014.

  1. OldSoul

    OldSoul Permanent Black Man PREMIUM MEMBER

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    [Search and re-search - compare and contrast...]
    The first identified case of Ebola was on 26 August 1976, in Yambuku, a small rural village in Mongala District in northern Democratic Republic of the Congo (then known as Zaire). The first victim, and the index case for the disease, was village school headmaster Mabalo Lokela, who had toured an area near the Central African Republic border along the Ebola river between 12–22 August. On 8 September he died of what would become known as the Ebola virus species of the ebolavirus. Subsequently a number of other cases were reported, almost all centered on the Yambuku mission hospital or having close contact with another case. 318 cases and 280 deaths (a 88% fatality rate) occurred in the DRC. The Ebola outbreak was contained with the help of the World Health Organization and transport from the Congolese air force, by quarantining villagers, sterilizing medical equipment, and providing protective clothing.
    The virus responsible for the initial outbreak,
    first thought to be Marburg virus
    was later identified as a new type of virus related to Marburg,
    and named after the nearby Ebola river.
    Another ebolavirus, the Sudan virus species, was also identified that same year when an outbreak occurred in Sudan, affecting 284 people and killing 151.
    ...In late 1989, Hazelton Research Products' Reston Quarantine Unit in Reston, Virginia suffered a mysterious outbreak of fatal illness (initially diagnosed as Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV)) among a shipment of crab-eating macaque monkeys imported from the Philippines. Hazelton's veterinary pathologist sent tissue samples from dead animals to the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) at Fort Detrick, Maryland, where a laboratory test known as an ELISA assay showed antibodies to Ebola virus.[108] An electron microscopist from USAMRIID discovered filoviruses similar in appearance to Ebola in the tissue samples sent from Hazelton Research Products' Reston Quarantine Unit.
    Shortly afterward, a US Army team headquartered at USAMRIID went into action to euthanize the monkeys which had not yet died, bringing those monkeys and those which had already died of the disease to Ft. Detrick for study by the Army's veterinary pathologists and virologists, and eventual disposal under safe conditions.
    Blood samples were taken from 178 animal handlers during the incident. Of those, six animal handlers eventually seroconverted, including one who had cut himself with a bloody scalpel. When the handlers did not become ill, the CDC concluded that the virus had a very low pathogenicity to humans.
    The Philippines and the United States had no previous cases of Ebola infection, and upon further isolation, researchers concluded it was another strain of Ebola, or a new filovirus of Asian origin, which they named Reston ebolavirus (REBOV) after the location of the incident.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebola_virus_disease
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    Marburg virus is a hemorrhagic fever virus of the Filoviridae family of viruses, first noticed and described during small epidemics in the German cities Marburg and Frankfurt and the Yugoslav capital Belgrade in the 1960s.
    Marburg virus (MARV) causes severe disease in humans and nonhuman primates in the form of viral hemorrhagic fever.
    ...In 2009, the successful isolation of infectious MARV was reported from caught healthy Egyptian rousettes (Rousettus aegyptiacus). This isolation, together with the isolation of infectious RAVV, strongly suggests that Old World fruit bats are involved in the natural maintenance of marburgviruses. Further studies are necessary to establish whether Egyptian rousettes are the actual hosts of MARV and RAVV or whether they get infected via contact with another animal and therefore serve only as intermediate hosts. Recently the first experimental infection study of Rousettus aegyptiacus with MARV provided further insight into the possible involvement of these bats in MARV ecology.
    ...The Soviet Union had an extensive offensive and defensive biological weapons program that included MARV.[49] At least three Soviet research institutes had MARV research programs during offensive times: the Virology Center of the Scientific-Research Institute for Microbiology in Zagorsk (today Sergiev Posad), the Scientific-Production Association "Vektor" (today the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vektor") in Koltsovo, and the Irkutsk Scientific-Research Anti-Plague Institute of Siberia and the Far East in Irkutsk. As most performed research was highly classified, it remains unclear how successful the MARV program was.
    ****In 2009, expanded clinical trials of an Ebola and Marburg vaccine began in Africa. No vaccine to date has been approved for use in the US.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marburg_virus
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    The Egyptian fruit bat or Egyptian rousette (Rousettus aegyptiacus) is a species of Old World fruit bat.
    The Egyptian fruit bat found throughout Africa, except in the desert regions of the Sahara, and throughout the Middle East, as far east as Pakistan and northern India.
    ...The Marburg virus is carried by Egyptian fruit bats in Africa. The Marburg virus is related to Ebola, thus the virus may be carried by an otherwise healthy fruit bat, which may not be readily showing symptoms that negatively affect the bat.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_fruit_bat
     
  2. Clyde C Coger Jr

    Clyde C Coger Jr going above and beyond PREMIUM MEMBER

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    :thinking:

    First Ebola, Now Marburg. How Do We Stop Future Outbreaks?


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    Photo by Getty Images

    Marburg, a virus similar to Ebola, has hit the radar in the African country of Uganda, raising concerns about another deadly outbreak. With two lethal viruses threatening public health, many are questioning why these contagions seem to be flaring up more often — and more important, what we can do to avoid them in the future.

    https://www.yahoo.com/health/first-ebola-now-marburg-how-do-we-stop-future-99548432852.html


     
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