Brother AACOOLDRE : Dead sea Scroll & Aten

Discussion in 'AACOOLDRE' started by AACOOLDRE, Nov 12, 2010.


    AACOOLDRE Well-Known Member MEMBER

    United States
    Jul 26, 2001
    Likes Received:
    +389 / -3
    Mr Feather rejects current thinking that the copper document was written by the Essenes monastic sect 2,000 years ago. A member of the Jewish Historical Society, and the Egypt Exploration Society, Mr Feather believes the engraved scroll, which lists treasures buried in the Holy Land, is written in Egyptian not in Hebrew.
    He suggests it can be traced back to the monotheistic court of the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti in Amarna 600 miles south of the Dead Sea and halfway down the Nile between Cairo and Luxor. He is lobbying the Egyptian antiquities department for permission to excavate the site.
    The location of the treasures themselves has baffled scholars. Mr Feather makes a convincing argument for his theories in tonight's BBC2 programme, The Pharaoh's Holy Treasure, but his claims are hotly contested by other academics.
    "If the numbering system is Egyptian and the weights system makes sense using Egyptian weights, then why not look to Egypt? It's the logical thing to do. Virtually every major character in the Old Testament spent huge amounts of time in Egypt born there, lived there, or influenced by Egypt. It's an undeniable fact of the Jewish religion that Egypt was a powerful force throughout its early history," said Mr Feather.
    The Copper Scroll was discovered, in March 1952, by a team of Jordanian and French archaeologists. It was broken into twochunks and hidden in a cave in Qumran, Israel. Later, scientists, finding it too brittle to unroll, sliced it into 23 segments. The scroll was 30cm wide and, in total, 21/2m long.
    Historians deduced that the text, engraved down 12 columns and listing 64 caches of treasure from gold bars to silver ingots, was written in Hebrew, but they were mystified by the figures of 25 tonnes of gold and 65 tonnes of silver more than the entire amount mined worldwide at the time of the engraving.
    Mr Feather, who is married with two children and lives in north London, believes he has found new clues in the text. One is the inverted "u" for the number 10, which indicates that the engraving was Egyptian and that the measure was the 10.2gm Egyptian kite rather than the 35kgm Hebrew kikha, making the total treasure a much more credible 7.5kg of gold and 19.2kg of silver.
    He has also discovered that the 14 Greek letters spell the name Akhenaten the Pharaoh, who was crowned Ahmenotep the fourth but changed his name to mean "servant of the sun disc" after decreeing there was only one God Aten.
    "The back of my neck was tingling. It was just one of those moments of incredible excitement because no one had ever before cracked this Greek cryptic puzzle," said Mr Feather, who backs his theory by interpreting the scroll's words "Great River"not as the River Jordan but as the River Nile. He has also weighed the gold bars found at the part of the archaeological site known as Crock of Gold Square, and the treasures discovered in Queen Nefertiti's tomb, and believes they match the spoils identified in the Copper Scroll.

    AACOOLDRE Well-Known Member MEMBER

    United States
    Jul 26, 2001
    Likes Received:
    +389 / -3
    So why is Qumran so important in historical and biblical terms?

    Part of our modern awareness of its significance derives from a day back in the Spring of 1947 when the first of some 85,000 textual items, ranging from tiny fragments to almost complete scrolls were discovered in hillside caves behind Qumran. They turned out to contain biblical texts, written in ancient Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek from virtually every book of the Old Testament, and as such, predated any previously found Hebrew material by over 1,000 years. For the first time scholars and theologians had the astounding opportunity to look at parts of the Bible in its original language, rather than from handed down versions copied, and re-copied, and altered over the intervening millennium.

    In essence these biblical texts, which comprise part of what are known as the Dead Sea Scrolls, showed we received most of the Old Testament in its authentic ancient form – but there were significant differences. These variations are now being incorporated into modern translations of the Bible. There are also commentaries amongst the scrolls which help explain and enhance, not only parts of the Old Testament but also the New Testament.

    A third group of texts describes the peculiar monastic like sect that lived at Qumran between about 150 BCE and 68 CE, who wrote and collected the Dead Sea Scrolls .

    Generally understood to be part of the Essene movement of the Second Temple period, the community at Qumran had a strong hierarchical structure with the ‘right teacher’ as its leader. He was backed by priests aided by Levites, who dictated the doctrine of the group. At any one time there were about 200 members living near Qumran and all members could vote in an assembly on other non doctrinal matters, whilst general day-to-day administration was in the hands of a triumvirate of three priests and 12 helpers. Everyone had a ‘pecking order’ in relation to their level of learning and holiness, as determined by their peers.

    The Qumran Essenes considered themselves ‘Sons of Light’ destined to fight the ‘Sons of Darkness’ – those who did not believe in their ultra-strict code of Judaism. They thought of themselves as the keepers of the original Covenant of Moses and as part of a direct line of priests that attended the Tabernacle during the Exodus from Egypt. For them the Second Temple, reconstructed by Herod the Great, who ruled Judaea on behalf of the Roman conquerors, from 37 to 4 BCE, was a corrupt place they would not visit.

    One of the most startling of their beliefs related to the calendar, which for them had to be solar based, giving a year containing 364 days. The intriguing thing about this practice is the Essene calendar differs from the Rabbinic Jewish calendar, which was based, and still is based, on lunar movement giving a year of 354 days. This meant the Essenes celebrated religious festivals at different times to the rest of their Jewish counterparts.

    Discovery of the Copper Scroll

    In March 1952, Henri de Contenson, an archaeologist seconded from France to work with the team at the École Biblique in East Jerusalem, was leading a team of ten Bedouin, when he discovered two lumps of what is now known as the Copper Scroll, in a hillside cave, some 2 km from Qumran.

    The Copper Scroll was in an highly oxidised condition, and had broken into two separate rolled up sections. In its original state it measured 0.3 m in width, 2.4 m in length, and was about 1 mm thick. No one knew quite how to open it up without damaging the text. One lunatic suggestion was to try to reduce the copper oxides with hydrogen, or even electrolysis, to recover the copper! After considerable preparatory research, John Allegro of Oxford University, a member of the original international translation team working on the Dead Sea Scrolls in Jerusalem, persuaded the École Biblique team to let him take one of the copper pieces to England. There the first piece of scroll was finally ‘opened’ by Professor H. Wright Baker at Manchester College of Science and Technology (now UMIST) in 1955, followed by the second piece in 1956. The technique Wright Baker used was to coat the outside of the scroll with Araldite adhesive and then slice the scroll, using a 4,000th/inch thick saw, into 23 separate sections. Ever since that time Manchester has retained a special interest in the Copper Scroll.

    Language of the Scroll

    In academic circles the Copper Scroll is known as 3Q15, the 3Q indicating it was found in Cave 3 at Qumran. It was written in an early form of Hebrew – a square form script – and has been shown to have linguistic affinities to pre-Mishnaic Hebrew and Aramaic, with some terms only comprehensible through study of Arabic and Akkadian. Other Dead Sea Scrolls were written in square form Aramaic script, or the so-called ‘Paleo-Hebrew’ script, derived from ‘Proto-Canaanite’ – itself an evolution from ‘Ugarit’, Egyptian hieroglyphs and ‘Phoenician’.

    The language was a major puzzles for scholars. The Hebrew palaeography (style of script) and orthography (spelling) in the Copper Scroll is quite unlike anything found in other texts of the time, from Qumran or from elsewhere. It has, nevertheless, been almost unanimously classified as one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and now resides in the Archaeological Museum of Amman, in Jordan.

    John Allegro, a religious renegade, amongst a team of predominantly Catholic members, must have been the first person to translate the ancient Hebrew of the Copper Scroll into English. What he read, started a controversy that has raged for over 50 years amongst scholars. It contained a list of some 64 locations where fabulous treasures had been hidden, over a wide geographical area, including large quantities of gold, silver, jewellery, precious perfumes, ritual clothing, and other scrolls.

    The Jerusalem team refused to let him publish his findings, nervous that treasure hunters would come swarming down to disturb their work at the Qumran site. They had also already made up their minds the Qumran Essenes were essentially uninterested in worldly goods and shared their possessions amongst themselves.

    This mind set attitude runs throughout the academic and theological community studying the Dead Sea Scrolls, and as we shall see later on, they have preconceived ideas on what many of the scrolls ought to say and dare not entertain new ideas that conflict with long established dictums. New Dawn’s approach of trying to free up these types of entrenched views is highly pertinent to this particular field of study.

    The mixture of frustration and excitement soon became too much for Allegro as he began to realise there were other more sinister reasons for the strictures being put on him. He relieved his excitement about the prospect of rolling in treasure by mounting two archaeological expeditions to Jordan, in December 1959 and again in March 1960. Like many who get lost in the desert, he wandered around in a circle eventually coming back to where he started from, having found absolutely nothing.

    His frustration was, in the end, vented when Allegro disregarded his ‘masters orders’ and published his English version of the translation in 1960, under the title The Treasure of the Copper Scroll.

    Scholars, notably Father P’ere de Vaux, Head of the École Biblique et Archéologique Française de Jerusalem, and Father Joseph Milik, members of the original Dead Sea Scrolls translation team, denounced Allegro’s translation as defective and even cast doubts on the authenticity of the Copper Scroll’s contents, assigning them to folklore. Others were not so sure, and today the generally accepted view is the Copper Scroll contains a genuine list of real treasures.

    The Jerusalem team’s translation came out in 1962, entitled ‘Les “Petites Grottes” de Qumran, in the Discoveries in the Judaean Desert series. Although it is the ‘official’ version there is no accepted ‘definitive’ translation of the Copper Scroll to date, and all of the numerous editions published have many significant variants.

    In conventional translations of the Copper Scroll the weight of gold mentioned in various locations is generally given as adding up to a staggering 26 tonnes and silver 65 tonnes.

    When the weights of the treasures itemised in the Copper Scrolls are totalled, we come to the following:

    Gold – 1285 Talents
    Silver – 666 Talents
    Gold and Silver – 17 Talents
    Gold and silver vessels – 600 Talents
    Mixed precious metals – 2,088 Talents

    Items with unspecified weights are as follows:

    Gold ingots – 165
    Silver bars – 7
    Gold and Silver vessels – 609

    In Biblical Talent terms the sheer weight of the gold and silver is enormous. One Talent is estimated to be about 76 lb or 34.47 kg.

    The Copper Scroll seems to be referring to precious metals worth around $2 billion at current prices, but whose intrinsic historic value would be many times this figure!

    Where Did the Treasures Come From?

    The Scroll does not reveal by whom, or when, the treasures were buried, let alone why. But from some of the recognisable place names mentioned, the treasures are generally assumed to have been hidden within Judaea or near to Mount Gerizim, in Samaria (parts of modern Israel) and to relate to treasures of the Second, or possibly First Temple of Jerusalem. Both temples were known to be places where considerable wealth was accumulated through the donation of sacrificial gifts and ‘tithes’ by the general community.

    Controversy over the origins of the treasures listed in the Copper Scroll has led to the proposition of almost as many ‘conspiratorial’ theories as those promulgated for the President Kennedy assassination.

    There are over-riding problems with all of the current theories which, until now, have not been resolved. Scholars have puzzled over how so much gold could have come from the First or Second Temples of Jerusalem, let alone come into the ownership of an ascetic, relatively impoverished sect like the Qumran Essenes. More significant is the fact none of the conventional theories have led to the discovery of any of the treasures listed in the Copper Scroll.

    My own view is rather different. Whilst part of the treasures may well have come from the First or Second Temples at Jerusalem, as descriptions in the Copper Scroll certainly refer to Temple associated objects, when the secrets of the Copper Scroll are unravelled it becomes patently clear that another Temple is involved in the descriptions – and the Qumran Essenes were guardians, not just of treasure.

    Although, from palaeographic studies, the Copper Scroll is now thought to have been copied at a date between 150 BCE and 70 CE, there are enigmatic passages which correspond to early Biblical Hebrew, dating back to 700 or 800 BCE, and it contains many unique word constructions not in use in mainstream Judaism at the time of its production.

    The presence of Greek letters interspersed at the end of sections of the text aroused my curiosity, as their meaning was not understood and they appeared to be some kind of cryptic code. Many theories have been put forward to try to explain these apparently random Greek letters. They are variously considered to be made by scribes as reference marks of some sort, initials of place names, entry dates, or location directions, but none of these explanations is accepted as conclusive and they remain a puzzle.

    The numbering units given in the text, which relate to the amounts of treasure, are also not clearly understood by modern translators. The numerals are in an unsophisticated long-hand form involving apparently unnecessary duplication.

    There were other ‘anomalies’ for which there appeared to be no satisfactory answers. No other Dead Sea Scroll was engraved on copper, nor any known Hebrew texts from anywhere else, prior to the period.

    Why should this be? Why should a non materialistic community go to such trouble to preserve the information on the Copper Scroll? Where did they get the extremely pure copper (99%) from? How could they afford its very high cost ?

    When my metallurgical background attracted me to the subject, these questions were not being confronted.

    When I looked closely at the numbering units and weights used in the scroll, it soon became clear they were not of Canaanite or Judaean origin, where the Qumran Essenes resided, but Egyptian! Indeed, the numbering system in the Copper Scroll is typical of that in use in Egypt around 1300 BCE. The Egyptian system used repetitive single vertical strokes, up to the number 9, combined with repetitive decimal units for larger numbers.

    If the numbering system was Egyptian, why not the weight terms also? The ancient Egyptians had developed a system of weights specifically designed for weighing precious metals, and this system was based on the ‘Kite’, a unit weighing approximately 10g, but sometimes used as a double unit (KK) of 20.4g. I believe it is no coincidence the ‘hard ch’ sound of the weight term used in the Copper Scroll text equates to the Egyptian ‘K’ in ‘Kite’! When these ancient Egyptian weight units are applied, typical of the period prior to 1000 BCE, to calculate the quantities of gold, silver and jewellery mentioned in the Scroll, rather more realistic weights are obtained than those given earlier. The approximate totals of precious metals mentioned in the scroll now become:

    Gold – 26 kg
    Silver – 13.6 kg
    Mixed precious metals – 55.2 kg

    We were now looking at weights which are a fraction of those given in modern translations of the Copper Scroll, but they are at least plausible values, quite consistent with the amounts of gold and silver in circulation for the period. For example, if we look at the Harris Papyrus, an ancient text in the British Museum, dating to about 1180 BCE, it gives the total gold holdings accumulated over a 31 year period by Egypt (by far the most wealthy country in the ancient Middle East), as 387 kg. The downside is that the value of our treasure has diminished somewhat! However, we are still talking about hundreds of millions of dollars in real terms.

    The strange thing is that, although the type of numbering system used in the Copper Scroll might have persisted in Egyptian temple writing for some time after the Greek conquest of Egypt (in 330 BCE), its use was always specific to Egypt and it was not in use outside Egypt, except in the period of Egypt’s campaigns in Canaan from 1400 to 1100 BCE. The use of the ancient Egyptian system for weighing metals died out around 500 BCE and had previously always been specific to Egypt.

    Why would a document, ostensibly written by a devout, unorthodox Jewish community living near the Dead Sea in Judaea around the time of Jesus, have so many Egyptian characteristics? And why would the writing material, numbering system and system of weights used, be typical of Egyptian usage from a period at least 1,000 years earlier?

    Egyptian Influences

    From as early as 3000 BCE right up to 1200 BCE, Egypt had maintained an armed presence in Canaan, often as a stepping stone to further conquests to the east. Egypt’s shadow had obviously been cast over the early Hebrew’s experience, and yet, like other blind spots, modern theology shies away from considering the Egyptian connection too closely. Yet, all the major characters of the Bible, from Abraham and Sarah, to Jesus and Mary, had strong links to Egypt. Joseph, Jacob, all the founders of the 12 tribes of Israel, as well as Moses, Aaron and Miriam, Joshua, Jeremiah and Baruch, all lived for long periods in Egypt and were influenced by its culture and religions.

    After a lengthy analysis I came to the conclusion that Joseph had interacted with a pharaoh by the name of Akhenaten – a monotheistic pharaoh – and many of the basic tenets of Judaism, and by extension Christianity and Islam, came out of Egypt. The river that branches from the Nile at Amarna (ancient Akhetaten), Pharaoh Akhenaten’s capital city, is to this day know as ‘Bahr Yusuf’, ‘Joseph’s River’, and there are many other clues.

    When I started comparing descriptions of the treasure locations given in the Copper Scroll with sites at Amarna, it soon became apparent there were many close parallels. Not only that, some of the locations have already yielded archaeological finds of treasures that match very closely the descriptions and weights given in the Copper Scroll. Many of these treasures can be seen in Museums in Britain and Egypt. Having made a connection for the Copper Scroll to Akhenaten’s Holy city in middle Egypt, it was not surprising a most powerful piece of evidence emerged when I looked again at the strange Greek letters scattered in the Scroll. When the first 10 are put together they spell out the name Akhenaten!

    The validity of this conclusion is re-enforced by the opinion of Professor John Tait, of University College London, who considers the reading of the Greek letters as quite plausibly the name of the Pharaoh in question.

    Academic Responses

    Since publication of the first edition of my book, The Copper Scroll Decoded, in 1999, the main theory has been tested against a broad spectrum of academic and scholarly opinion, and in many instances response to the main thrust of the theory has been favourable and enthusiastic. Where there has been a negative response, it has been in the form of guarded scepticism, particularly as the theory presents a radically new view of religious evolution which strongly conflicts with enshrined orthodoxy.

    Response from academics, on specific areas of their own expertise, has generally been supportive. On alternative interpretations of the meaning of the Copper Scroll, for example, particularly in the context of the weight and number terms given in the Scroll, there has been a considerable consensus of acknowledgement that previous interpretations have not been correct. Amongst those scholars conceding previous translations are deficient, one of the world’s experts on the Copper Scroll, Judah Lefkovits, of New York, has reiterated the Scroll is much more problematic than some scholars would allow. He has written a number of books on the subject, including a recent classic work The Copper Scroll 3Q15: A Reevaluation; A New Reading, Translation, and Commentary, and now does not think the conventional translation of the weight term as a Biblical talent is necessarily correct. He has suggested it might be a much smaller weight, such as the Persian karsch. In supporting my claim, against the views of previous researchers, he now believes the total precious metal weights have been greatly exaggerated.

    One eminent scholar, Professor Harold Ellens, of the University of Michigan, has come out strongly in favour of the generalised theory, which he says is almost certainly basically correct.

    If there is a partial acceptance of the possibility of a connection between the Qumran Essenes and the Jacob-Joseph-Pharaoh Akhenaten period, it is in demonstrating the detailed historical links that most hesitancy arises.

    In the Kingdom of the Blind....

    Ben Zion Wacholder is a partially blind Professor of the Hebrew University in Cincinnati, but he has the ability to see through the tangled undergrowth of intertwined scrolls and is a king and much respected father figure in the land of his peers. In the celebratory 50th anniversary conference of the finding of the first of the Dead Sea Scrolls, held in Jerusalem, he created a major sensation by going against his colleagues in claiming Ezekiel as the first Essene.

    He perceives many of the sectarian Dead Sea Scrolls of the Qumran Essenes, such as the Temple Scroll, New Jerusalem Scroll, the Aramaic Testament of Levi, Qahat, and Amran, Jubilees, and the Cairo-Damascus documents, as derivative of Ezekiel’s thinking in refusing to recognise the legitimacy of the Second Temple and standing outside normative Judaistic authority. In a sense he recognises two quite separate sets of biblical texts – Ezekielian and non-Ezekielian.

    One of the most interesting aspects of this theory relates to Ezekiel descriptions of a Temple, which is generally taken to be a visionary Temple that would one day be built in Jerusalem. However, when you compare the descriptions Ezekiel gives in the Old Testament to those of the archaeological reconstructions of the Great Temple that stood in Akhenaten’s Holy City, it is quite clear he was talking about that actual Temple and not one which would one day stand in Jerusalem.

    Other Dead Sea Scrolls confirm this finding in incontrovertible detail. The New Jerusalem Scroll, for example, which by the way never mentions Jerusalem, ties its descriptions to Akhenaten’s Holy Temple. Recently Michael Chyutin, and Shlomo Margalit, Israeli architects, have conducted independent studies on the Scroll and come to the conclusion it is almost certainly describing Akhenaten’s city at modern day Amarna. Without the explanation I have put forward, for a link from Amarna down to the possessors and authors of the New Jerusalem Scroll, conventional history has no answer to the problem.

    Incidentally these studies show that two other Egyptian cities also exhibited similar characteristics to those described in the New Jerusalem Scroll – namely Sesebi, a city located between the second and third cataract of the Nile, and the Hebrew settlement on the Island of Elephantine, near Aswan in southern Egypt. A connection to Sesebi is not so surprising as it was, like Akhetaten, built by Akhenaten. Why the strange pseudo-Hebrew settlement on Elephantine Island, which is dated to at least the 7th century BCE, should show similarities is more intriguing. The people there worshipped Yahwe, the Israelite name for God, and built a temple as a place of worship. The explanation of how this isolated community came into existence has never been satisfactorily resolved.

    My own theory is they were a residual enclave that formed after the destruction of Akhenaten’s Holy City when survivors, mainly the earliest monotheistic Hebrews, fled south for safety. An Australian scholar, E. Maclaurin, of the University of Sydney, adds weight to my theory in a paper entitled 'Date of the Foundation of the Jewish Colony at Elephantine', published in The Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Volume 27, 1968. He concluded that the style of worship at Elephantine, “...was of a form which could not have existed in a Hebrew group which had been exposed to the influences of Sinai and Canaan after the settlement.”

    In other words Maclaurin rules out any possibility of the community at Elephantine having derived from outside Egypt after the Exodus (c. 1200 BCE) let alone at the time of Solomon or the kings of Israel. Another Australian scholar, Ian Wilson, seems to date the Exodus to around 1500 BCE, but the general consensus is it took place some time in the 13th century BCE. These are not the only students of Dead Sea Scroll study with an Australian connection. I, too, have a warm affection for the country, having spent seven years of my early life in Sydney, where my mother was born!

    Another scroll, the Temple Scroll, spells out the dimensions of the longest Temple wall as 1600 cubits, equivalent to 800 m. Conventional scholarship has nowhere to go in Jerusalem to accommodate the Qumran Essenes’ concept of this building. The Temple Mount in Jerusalem measure only 550 m x 185 m. So they conclude it must be the description of a fictitious temple. The length of the longest wall of the Great Temple at Amarna has been measured, from detailed archaeological excavations, as being 800 m.

    The logical conclusion is the information in the Temple Scroll, in its original form, existed before Moses, and it described the plan of a real temple that was not the Temple at Jerusalem. The details must have been handed down in secret through a distinct line of Levitical priests, to the Qumran Essenes, who based their copy on the original version.

    When the Qumran Essenes built their main settlement building at Qumran in ‘exact’ alignment to the main walls of Akhenaten’s Temple, and constructed 10 ritual washing pools, they were echoing a recorded memory of that Temple. Uniquely, and unknown from anywhere else in Israel, one of the ritual washing ‘Mikvaot’ has four divisions – just as one of the ritual washing basins in the Temple at Akhetaten exhibited.

    That the name of Aten or Aton, the name by which Akhenaten knew his God, is embedded throughout the Old Testament, has many attesters, from Sigmund Freud onwards. Many Egyptian names are read with the letter ‘D’ or the letter ‘T’ – Touchratta or Douchratta, Taphne or Daphne, and in Egyptian Coptic the letter D can be pronounced ‘D’ or ‘T’ . Thus, Aton could well be written ‘Adon -ai’ where ‘ai’ relates God to the Hebrews in the sense of ‘my master’.

    Earlier in this article the question was posed as to why Qumran was so important to historical and biblical history. Part of the explanation has now been outlined in this article, and is described in more detail in my latest book The Mystery of the Copper Scroll of Qumran, published by Bear & Co, part of Inner Traditions, in June 2003. However, as yet there is no complete answer to the question as the modern story of Qumran is still being written. There are more secrets to be revealed and I hope to do that in a sequel book now in preparation.

    AACOOLDRE Well-Known Member MEMBER

    United States
    Jul 26, 2001
    Likes Received:
    +389 / -3

    The name*Adonai, translated "Lord" (only the "L" capitalized), occurs approximately 300 times in the Old Testament. It's interesting to note that it is almost always used in the*plural*possessive form meaning "My Lords". When the plural is formed using a singular possessive ending (“my Lords”), it always refers to God, and occurs over 300 times in the Tanakh in this form. The Masoretes ensured that the sacred Name of the LORD YHVH would not be taken in vain by putting the vowel marks for Adonai under the letters**in the running text.
    Answer for yourself:*Have you ever wondered why a "monotheistic" religion like Judaism would express the concept of its God in the plural tense? It stands to reason that it should be expressed in the "singular" tense but that is not what we find. Before I give you the real reason first understand that Judaism teaches us that the plural form Adonai, like the plural form Elohim, is regularly used with singular verbs and modifiers, so it is best to construe the Name as an*“emphatic plural” or “plural of majesty.”*Well that sounds like it could be right but I will share with you something in a second that will make a lot more sense as to why the name of God is expressed in the "plural" tense.
    The word "Adonai" is used in Judaism as a*spoken substitute*for the*ineffable (Incapable of being expressed; indescribable or unutterable) name of God.*The name "Lord" or "Adonai" signifies ownership or mastership and indicates the truth that God is the owner of each member of the human family, and that He consequently claims the unrestricted obedience of all. This Hebrew word "Adonai", meaning "my lord, my master", comes from*"adon"*which also means "lord, master".*"Adon", the basic form for the word "Adonai" is a title variously used to refer to men,*angels, and to the true God of Israel, meaning “lord, master, owner.” It is derived from the Ugaritic "adn" meaning "lord" or "father" and the Akkadian "adannu", "mighty." In the Tanakh, the word "Adon" can, as I mentioned above, refer to men and*angels*as well as to the LORD God of Israel (e.g., Exodus 34:23). The reference to "angels" is very important as we shall see because it connects with the idea of the "neteru".
    Answer for yourself:*Why is this connection between "angels" and "God" as expressed as "Adon" so important? Well you will have to wait a second to find out.
    From Hellenistic times onward "Adonai" was used verbally to replace the written Yahweh.*When the tetragrammaton (YHVH) appears in the Biblical text, it is usual to read it out loud either as*Adonai or as Ha-Shem ("The Name").*"Jehovah" is one of the English renderings of the Hebrew YHVH (illustrated below, note that Hebrew reads right to left), a Name of God revealed to the early Hebrews,*long before there were any "Israelites".
    Answer for yourself:*Did I say "before" there were Israelites? Yes I did and we know this for sure today.

    *name and word "YHVH" was, after about 300 B.C.E., held in such high regard by Jews, in accordance with a "take no chances" interpretation of The Third Commandment to not use the Name of God in vain, that it was not spoken at all. The only exception was the high priest on The Day Of Atonement when he entered into the Most Holy Place of the Temple. This practice was carried over into The Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures of the Old Testament which was done by Greek-speaking Hebrew scholars...the Essenes of Alexandria, Egypt) where the YHVH was translated as the*Greek word "Kurios" i.e. Lord.*This was further carried into modern times where English-language Bibles now commonly translate the YHVH as all-capitals LORD. One of the major exceptions was the American Standard Version (ASV) of 1901 that uses*"Jehovah"*when translating the YHVH. Also, whenever YHVH occurred in the Scriptures, the Jewish people pronounced it, as is still done today, "Adonai" (i.e. "Lord"), thus*replacing the YHVH with Adonai.
    Thus we see that the*Hebrew Spoken Name for God is*Adhonai.*In writing it is YHVH, yet this tetragrammaton is always pronounced as*Adhonai.*Now we can better understand why the Masoretes ensured that the sacred Name of the LORD, "YHVH", would not be taken in vain accidentally by putting the vowel marks for Adonai under the letters in the running text. They did this to remind the reader to pronounce Adonai regardless of the consonants in the text. Let us not forget, please, that I mentioned earlier that the word*"Adonai" is*plural.
    Answer for yourself:*Why is this "plural"? What is this to teach us? Have we understood correctly why this monotheistic religion, Judaism, has for the biggest name for God a "plural" concept instead of a "singular" concept? In order to understand this we have to come to a proper understanding of the "neteru" which we shall do momentarily.
    Now "Adonai" is the plural of Adhon, which in Greek translates as Adonis with the usual meaning of 'The Lord'.
    Answer for yourself:*It is possible to find the name "YHVH" in Ancient Egypt and it is possible that the Hebrews and Israelites obtained their understanding of God and His "names" in Egypt and only "borrowed" them and grafted them onto their own understandings of God following the Exodus? Could this reason revolve around the Egyptian*"neteru"? Yes, it does, as I will show you.

    In Egyptian, "Adhon means*Aten".

    Answer for yourself:*What is meant by "Aten" and just Whom is "Aten"?

    Your study begins with the fact that*"Aten" is the name for the God of the supposed Heretic King Akhenaten, one of the Hebrew Pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty in Ancient Egypt.*I learned long ago that the word "heresy" only meant "another opinion"; not necessarily a "wrong" opinion. But few understand this when*

    they hear or read the word and unfortunately it carries a "negative" connotation today when in reality it should not. Often, in fact, those deemed "heretics" by Roman Christianity are those who possessed more Divine Truth than those who classified them as "heretics" in the first place. This is the irony of all ironies.
    Of great importance for us now is that we recognize that there is a general*misconception*that those who were faithful to Aten*worshipped the Sun.*This is utter nonsense, yet easily swallowed by the gullible and the unlearned in the truth behind the Egyptian Religion.
    A young pharaoh comes to power in Egypt in 1379 B.C.E. and it will change the world and its effects are seen today the world over. Like his father he is called Amenhotep/Amenophis (IV) (Amenhotep='Amon is satisfied') in the beginning. Later on he changes his name to Akh-en-aten. He tries to impose a new belief system on his Egyptian subjects, which is in contrast with the traditions and habits of thousands of years. This new belief system is an*orthodox monotheism, the first example of its kind in history. Amenhotep's rule lasted 17 years (1379-1362 BC.). Following his death this new belief system meets its end abruptly, and anything and everything that belonged to this 'heretic' ruler is banned. Unlike the previous Egyptian religious system, the religion imposed by*Amenhotep IV, the Biblical Moses, was a fairly simple one, albeit radically different in character. In place of a pantheon of gods (neteru), God being separated into each of His attributes, characters, and features, each with separate functions and forms, they were all grouped under a single diety - to the exclusion and denial of all other dieties and attributes of this One God.*Now, instead of God being thought about as different manifestations of the Divine He is understood as the "All in the One"; a Divine Unity of all that exists.*This god was Aten or Aton, the Intelligent Life-giving Force or Energy of the Universe that was symbolized by the the disk of the sun (the physical example of the Cosmic Energy that exits behind all matter). Quite simply, Aten was the supreme God of all creation, responsible for all existing life regardless of place or

    *culture. No longer would mankind be divided over this "understanding of God" or "that understanding of God"; now all mankind could come together under the One God of All.*Mankind could finally be "one brotherhood".*Furthermore, besides the very obvious image of the sun, Atenism was basically*a religion without any image for its God; it assigned no mythological visual representation to Aten. Aten was never represented in the form of either man or beast, simply the impersonal disk of the sun.
    Answer for yourself:*Why do you think Moses writes the following when Ancient Egypt was full of representations of these "neteru" and "attributes" of the One God?
    Exod 20:3-6 3 Thou shalt have no other gods before me. 4 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: 5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; 6 And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments. (KJV)
    Now Egypt was not without its images and these were not wrong mind you; but they had the potential to be divisive. There were hundreds of them and without a proper understanding of Egyptian Religion it is easy to jump to conclusions and say that Egyptian Religion was "polytheistic". But it was not. Bet that as it may these "neteru" did not always bring unity. We see the same principle in the New Testament addressed by Paul:
    1 Cor 1:12-13 12 Now this I say, that every one of you saith, I am of Paul; and I of Apollos; and I of Cephas; and I of Christ. 13 Is Christ divided? ...(KJV)
    In a previous article I introduced the reader to a new concept: the*Neteru as the "Attributes of God"*as understood by the Ancient Egyptians. I shared a little about the*neteru as the personifications of universal principles, functions and attributes of the One great and supreme God.*The neteru who were called*"gods"*by some, were endorsed and incorporated into Christianity under a new name,"angels".
    Now above I mentioned that in the Tanakh, the word "Adon", the root for "Adonai" can refer to men and*angels.
    Answer for yourself:*Now then can you see that this concept of "Angels", accepted in both Judaism, Islam, and Christianity and "Neteru" are the same spiritual concept that reflects the Emanation of God and the Spiritual Hierarchy in the Godhead? I hope you can. This behooves us to understand the "neteru" if we ever hope to grasp the truth behind our Creator God let alone the name "Adonai" and "YHVH".
    The ancient Egyptian word "neter," and its feminine form "netert," have been wrongly, and possible intentionally, translated as "god" and "goddess," by almost all scholars.*There is no equivalent word in meaning, to the word "neter," in the English language.*Honest translation should use the native word, if they cannot find its equivalent in their language.*"Neteru" (plural of "neter/netert") are the Divine Principles and Functions that operate the Universe. They are all aspects and functions of the One Supreme God.*The words "god" and "goddess" leave the impression that ancient Egyptians had a multitude of gods, which is absolutely untrue.
    As such, an Egyptian neter/netert was not a god/goddess but the personification of a function/attribute of the One God.*With this understanding comes likewise the understanding that the labeling of Egyptian religion as "pagan" or "idolatrous" betrays the complete lack of understanding of the Egyptian religion by the writer or would be scholar.
    The Song of Moses in Deuteronomy (32:43), as found in a cave at Qumran, near the Dead Sea, mentions the word*"gods"*in the plural:

    "Rejoice, 0 heavens, with him; and do obeisance to him, ye*gods."

    Answer for yourself:*Does this reference by Moses to "gods" by one motivated by Monotheism seem strange? Does this principle possible indicate that the Essenes, who would find their home in Alexandria, Egypt, later were influenced not only by Egyptian religion but by the evolution and paganization of it in their day? The Essene answer will come later for we have not gotten that far yet but the answer you will find upon examination is "yes." I have devoted a whole website to this problem which you need to see for yourself if you want to know*how these ancient Divine Revelation and truths and personifications of universal principles, functions and attributes of the one great and supreme God were later corrupted by these Essenes in Alexandria and Qumran where these concepts once expressed as "attributes" of the One True God were later personified as if "real people" and later applied to Jesus; thereby making him God.
    The passage we find in the New Testament (Hebrews, 1:6),
    Heb 1:6 6 And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him. (KJV)
    reveals to us the transformation of the idea of the neteru. The the word "gods" as understood by Moses in the Song of Songs pointed about above has been modified. These attributes of the One True God now have a life of their own and they become "angels." The word for "gods" is substituted with*"angels of God".*Again this concept of the "neteru" shows the hidden influence of Egyptian religion not only among Judaism but even the movement later termed Christianity and because of this fact it is imperative to understand Egyptian religion in its earliest form as well as the corruption of it down through history if one wants to correctly understand both Judaism and the later corruption of Judaism and the simple Divine Revelation under Christian hands and Gentile Christianity. The term*"angels",*according to the*Metaphysical Bible Dictionary, refers to those who "guard and guide and direct the natural forces of mind and body, which have in them the future of the whole man."
    Angels, or neteru, are living energies.*In the wisdom teaching of various cultures, these Causal Powers are called by many names including Agents, Angels, Conscious Thought Forms, Creative Energies, Devas, Fathers, Fountains, Gates, Governors, Hands of God, Lords, and Shining Ones.
    Edwin C. Steinbrecher, an astrologer, metaphysician, and author of,*The Inner Guide Meditation, says that angels are,*"living energies that contain ideas and information, specific patterns of instinctual behavior and thought. They are the energies which somehow attach themselves, without our conscious awareness, to everything we meet in the world we call real. [They] are the life energies that pour out of each of us unceasingly night and day.*. .*influencing everyone in our lives and causing us to be influenced in return."
    Just like the Egyptian's neteru, each "angel" has been given a name and specific function(s). And just as each neter of Egypt did not always take the same form and shape, so is the case for each angel. As your projection of them changes, so will their appearance. Sometimes, they are so blocked by the ego that you can only see their dim, hazy outlines. Many have seen angels change from a shining light to a form resembling a human being, then into a symbol (cube, triangle, etc.), and back to human features.*Upon careful examination, the concept of the Egyptian neteru was accepted by ancient and modern societies, who merely chose new names to express Egyptian ideas. The neteru became angels.
    The roots of monotheism in Egypt could be found in earlier times. For a significant period there have been in Egypt attempts among the priests of the Sun Temple at On (Heliopolis) to develop the thought and*emphasize the moral aspect of an universal god.*During the reign of Amenhotep III, the Biblical Solomon, (the father of Akh-en-Aten, Moses...I know the chronology in our inherited Bible is wrong...blame Ezra) worship of the sun-god seems to have achieved some degree of popularity. In so doing*the very ancient name of the sun-god, Aten, Aton or Atum, has*regainedimportance.*Understand that "Aten" was an older name for God and that Moses, Akhenaten, did not originate it; in fact we can find Aten worship during the reign of his father Amenhotep III. Thus we see the young king Amenhotep IV found a ready movement based on Aten/Aton belief system already existing when he came to the throne. Although he was not the first to have initiated this belief system, he became a loyal follower.*While all this was going on, Egypt became a world power, and the resultant imperialism found its reflection in religion as universalism and monotheism.*This god had to go beyond the boundaries and spread its sovereignty to the occupied lands. Amenhotep IV has never denied his loyalty to the sun cult.*Amenhotep IV worshipped the sun not as an object but as a symbol of the Divine Being whose energy is manifested as rays of light, and he described himself as "first prophet of Re-Horakhte, rejoicing in the Horizon, in his name 'Sunlight which is in Aton.' " The high priest of Aton was called 'greatest of seers'. Instead of the word god, Aton is used and*god is differentiated clearly from the sun as a body,*and the pharaoh has sanctified the sun's power to influence the world.
    What is of great importance for us is the fact that this new understanding of God emphasized the personal nature of the relationship between the god and the pharaoh. No longer anthropomorphic the sun was depicted as a golden orb shedding rays of light on the king and his queen Nefertiti, each ray ending in a little hand proffering the sign of life, the ankh, to the royal pair. Amenhotep's influence was an energetic intervention.*He has introduced for the first time the 'exclusion factor' which transformed the doctrine of a universal god into monotheism.*In one of the hymns he says:*"O, sole god, there's no other god beside you!"*(An identical impression could be found in Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and Islam). As a result of the reaction amongst the priests of Amun towards this new religion Amenhotep's belief system gradually became clear, coherent, unyielding and intolerant. This opposition has risen to such a level in the sixth year of Amenhotep's reign that he changed his name - a part of which was the name of god 'Amun/Amen' to Akh-en-Aten (Akh-en-aten='Aten is pleased' or 'It pleases Aten').
    After changing his name he left the city of Thebes, and has established a new royal capital lower down the river, which he named 'Akhetaten' (Akhetaton/Akhetaten='The horizon of Aten/Aton') the ruins of which is Tell el-Amarna in our day. He closed all the temples of Amun, worshipping in those temples were banned, all the assets of the temples were confiscated. According to Akh-en-aten what is said about the other gods were all lies, and deception. Akh-en-aten accepted the energy of the sunlight as the source of life on earth, and worshipped the Energy behind this light as a symbol of his god's power. He boasted his happiness caused by the 'creation', and his Ma'at (honest and just) life. Despite all the richness and extravagance that could be seen in the art of the Amarna period there was no other representation or a personal image of the Sun-God Aten/Aton. Because Akh-en-aten did not allow the making of the idols or images of the Sun-God.*The king said that the real god has no form,*and kept his position until the end of his life. And a last point:*There was an absolute silence about Osiris and the kingdom of the dead; there would no longer be any worship of the icon of the "godman".

    Despite the fact that Akh-en-aten has banned all the other gods and insisted on his sun-god as the sole god to be worshipped, (in other words he was really a monotheist), he was accused first with anti-theism then with atheism. Egyptian pharaoh Akh-en-aten is the first registered atheist in the history of mankind. Although Akh-en-aton has worshipped the sole god, the sun-god Aten/Aton, he was accused by his son in law Tut-ankh-aton- who replaced him - with atheism, because he has rejected the official gods. Tut-ankh-aton's name was changed to Tut-ankh-amen as the belief system of Aten was abandoned following the death of Akh-en-aten. Since Akh-en-aten all those who have rejected or opposed the official gods (the multiplicity of the neteru) in Egypt, Greece or Rome were accused of atheism. Socrates, Anaxagoras, Diagoras, Protagoras and others thinking like them were amongst those who were accused of atheism. The idea of monotheism which had risen with Akh-en-aten had to stay in darkness for a long time. There are those scholars who find the origin of the sole god, the father god of the code books of Judaism, Christianity and Islam here, in Egypt, in the Aten belief system. The belief system Moses imposed on Hebrews must have been nothing but the Aton/Aten religion.
    Answer for yourself:*Could YHVH be the Aten and we not know it? We will get to that in a second.
    Answer for yourself:*So what have we seen? We have seen that Egypt understood this One God as "the All in the One".
    The energies represented by the various neteru may function together in groups or as individuals.*The interaction between the neteru are expressed in myth, which is to be understood as the dramatization of cosmic and natural laws.*We discussed the role of myth in an earlier article. The union of certain pairs of complementary energies/attributes (masculine and feminine forms) resulted in a third energy/attribute.
    Answer for yourself:*What should this teach us? Simply when reading of Osiris and Horus and Isis as well as other "neteru" or "gods of Egypt" we are not speaking of "literal historical people" or actual "competitive gods of the One God" but Divine Concepts that operate in this One God that are very real that are later personified by the Egyptian Spiritual Masters to help mankind better understand and relate to his God and Creator. This is not an odd concept, and it was copied in the trinity of the Christian faith and few know it. This explains why the corridors of history and nation after nation express these same "Divine Concepts" under different names whom we mistakenly believe were "pagan gods" and ridicule them as "stupid" in fact*when a proper understanding of this Divine expressed in these concepts are absolutely breathtaking when you see them as they were understood by the Ancients.*Our blindness today is due to Rome who burned the worlds libraries and murdered millions to cover up the fact that their "literalization" of these "allegorical expressions of God" was a lie and a gross misrepresentation of truth. Rome basically "literalized" the Christ within, one of the neteru, as a historical "god-man" whom we know today as "Jesus" to give validity to their Emperor as the Roman "god-man". Today we don't know this when reading accounts of a "literal" and a "supposed historical Jesus" but in fact the "Christ" was always real...but not a historical person but rather "a Divine Spark" that lives in all people. God's Christ dwells within us all as does this God Whom we love and Whom Manifests Himself as Osiris, Isis, Horus, etc. When we speak of "resurrection from the dead" we speak of the reality of Osiris. It is but a picture expressing a holy and Divine concept which tragically down through history lost its true meaning and today as Christians we truly look through a glass darkly. Tragically the Bible speaks of what has happened to Christianity since loosing the true "gnosis" behind these concepts:
    Isa 42:18-19 18 Hear, ye deaf; and look, ye blind, that ye may see. 19 Who is blind, but my servant? or deaf, as my messenger that I sent? who is blind as he that is perfect, and blind as the LORD's servant? (KJV)
    Now you better understand why Judaism has other names for God, in particular Eli, or in the plural Elohim (like Adhonai).*Since Hebrew like Egyptian is a consonantal language, we cannot be sure how the vowels were pronounced.*In Hebrew, the spellings for Eli and Alah are almost identical, so it is quite easy to understand whence the Islamic name of Allah originates.
    In a country which seemed to recognize many manifestations of God as "gods/neteru", one may wonder*why Aten caused such an upheaval and division.*Akhenaten never said that the "neteru" did not exist; only that we are not to worship one to the exclusion of all others; it is better that we worship God in his totality and promote the unity not only of God but of mankind at the same time. In the first place, as I just showed you,*the Egyptians did ONLY recognize one supreme being, who was generally known as*'Amen', 'Amun' or 'Amon'.
    Answer for yourself:*Did you notice the word "Amen"? Ever heard this before?
    With no written vowels we can only be reasonably sure that it was*'Amen' for this is the pronunciation still used at the end of prayers.*The multiple names for God in Ancient Egypt arises not from there being many Gods, because there is only One as taught by Egypt, but the*different characteristics of the One God each being given a different name along with its symbolic representation (archetype).*Thus as a Potter the One God was known as Ptah, and so on.
    Answer for yourself:*So what is going on that Akhenaten enforced Aten worship upon the whole nation?
    We have to go back to the time of the Hyksos Pharaohs to understand why there was such an upheaval when*Amenhotep IV, the Biblical Moses, changed his name to Akhenaten and tried to eliminate the cult of Amen, along with its temples and the very strong Amen-Ra priesthood.*The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties were powerless to put down the Hyksos, tribal warlords with foreign support who seized control of the Delta, establishing the capital of Avaris and moving south. Despite their alien origins (Hyksos means "Princes of Foreign Lands") and foreign ties, the Hyksos assumed an Egyptian identity and ruled as pharaohs.
    Important for us to note is the fact that the Hyksos were*Semites*who infiltrated Egypt around the 18th Century B.C.E., and eventually took over as rulers.*They were eventually driven out of Egypt by Ahmose I, who founded the New Kingdom and*18th Dynasty*in 1570 B.C.E. The Hyksos had ruled Egypt for some two to three hundred years. The hostility between Egyptian and the Semite Hyksos never ceased in spite of intermarriage and their living together eventually in a precarious peace. Important again for us to note is the fact that in adopting the Egyptian God,*the Semites added their own interpretation of the One Supreme Creator, and they retained their own language.
    Answer for yourself:*What does the*Precession of the Equinoxes*have to do with this and the changing the end of the Age?
    Having arrived in Egypt during the Age of Aries these Hyksos Semites associated themselves with the Sign of Aries (lamb, ram) in the Zodiac because it was now to rule the Vernal Equinox. That being so they became known as the "the Shepherd Kings". On the other hand, Egyptians still remembered the old Age of Taurus (bull) and maintained customs that pertained to the sign of the bull, the Age of Taurus which was passing away and being replaced by the Age of Aries.
    Answer for yourself:*Why is this important?
    This was the reason that Moses became so enraged when he saw some of his flock making graven images of The Calf of God, for by then*"the Son of God" was being reinterpreted as the "The Lamb of God" since the Constellation of Aries was replacing the Constellation of Taurus at the Spring/Vernal Equinox.
    To make matters worse long after the Hyksos had been driven out of Egypt, their people still maintained high places in the Egyptian Administration.
    Answer for yourself:*Can you think of one in the Bible?
    Joseph became Chief Minister under the Pharaoh Tuthmosis IV. When his daughter Tiye married the next*Pharaoh Amenhotep III (the King Solomon of the Bible), it is plain to see that the Egyptian hierarchy was horrified at the prospect of the hated Hyksos-Semites regaining the Royal Throne. And that is exactly what would happen as we find the line of Hebrew Pharaohs in Egypt during the 18th Dynasty. Queen Tiye was naturally afraid that her baby son, the future*Amenhotep IV and Akhenaten (the Biblical Moses), would be in danger. We do know that he was hidden away, for there is no record of him in the Egyptian Royal family, until he suddenly emerges as a young man.
    Joseph's sarcophagus, coffins and funerary furniture bear eleven different versions of his godly name. Just as a Christian name may be derived from biblical names, and Muslim from the Prophet's family, the Egyptians bore the name of the god (neteru) they worshipped as well as their family name.Joseph's God, YHVH*(a shepherd...Aries) was a problem for the Egyptian funerary scribes, and his Mummy is now known as 'Yuya'. The name given Joseph by the Pharaoh was Zaphnath Paaneah (Book of Jasher and Genesis 41:45). He would have been better known as Yu-Zaph, or Joseph. What is really important though, is that*YHVH, the hidden name of God of the Hyksos invading Semites,*finding*equivalency with Adon, Adonai, and the Aten", was known as the same God of the both the Semite population of Egypt as well as the Egyptians far back as the 18th Dynasty and earlier, and more importantly to Akhenaten, thought by many scholars to have been Moses.*Bearing all of this in mind, we can now see how YHVH was the hidden name behind Aten, the spoken Adhonai.
    Answer for yourself:*So is YHVH the Aten and is Aten YHVH? Are they the same? Did Akhenaten, Moses hide the "neteru" behind the idea of the Aten and use the Hyksos name for this same God (YHVH) since he was a Hebrew part-Semite? Yes.
    Answer for yourself:*Now can you understand why in Judaism we have the idea of "plurality" in the name for God? It carries the idea not of "majestic plurality" but rather the Divine Concept of the "neteru" as the Emanations of God who is the many All in the One. I have found the study of the "neteru" simply fantastic and I understand why Akhenaten had to do what he did but sadly lost behind all of this is the glorious knowledge of these "neteru" which helps paint the glorious picture of God like I have never beheld it before.
    This Hyskos dominion was shaken by Thebes which established the Seventeenth Dynasty and, under Wadikheperre Kamose, Egypt laid siege to Avaris. The State God of Thebes was Amen. When his successor Ahmosis expelled the Hyskos from Egypt in 1567 B.C.E. , the New Kingdom was born. Ahmosis founded the Eighteenth Dynasty (1567-1320 B.C.E.) which reigned over the first part of a prosperous and stable imperial period during which Pharaonic culture flowered and Egypt became a world power.
    Lawrence Gardner states: "It was upon the mountain at Sinai that Jehovah first announced his presence to Moses. Being an Aten supporter, Moses asked this new lord and master who he was, and the reply was "I am that I am", which in phonetic Hebrew became 'Jehovah'. However, for the longest time afterwards, the Israelites were not allowed to utter the name 'Jehovah' - with the exception of the High Priest who was allowed to whisper the name in private once a year. The problem was that prayers were supposed to be said to this new godhead". It appears through warfare against the hykosos Aten was suppressed?
    Answer for yourself:*But how would this God know the prayers were said to him if his name was not mentioned?
    The Israelites knew not this Jehovah as well as Moses; for them it appears that they were confused, for after all the concept of the "neteru" is vast and problematic to one who does not have the proper "keys" for its understanding and interpretation. This is evident today when would be scholars interpret the great Egyptian Religion as "polytheistic". Lacking this the Israelites presumed he must be the equivalent of the great State-god of Egypt (Amun, Amon, Amen). It was decided, therefore, to add the name of that State-god to all prayers thereafter, and the name of that god was "Amen". To this day, the name of "Amen" is still recited at the end of prayers. Even the well-known Christian Lord's Prayer (as given in the Gospel of Matthew) was transposed from an Egyptian original which began,*"Amen, Amen, who art in heaven..."
    As for the famous Ten Commandments (said to have been conveyed to Moses by God upon the mountain), these too are of Egyptian origin and they derive directly from Spell Number 125 in the Egyptian Book of the Dead.*They were*not new codes of conduct invented for the Israelites, but were simply newly stated versions of the ritual confessions of the Pharaohs.*For example, citing the*42 Negative Confessions, the confession "I have not killed" was translated to the decree "Thou shalt not kill"; "I have not stolen" became "Thou shalt not steal"; "I have not told lies" became "Thou shalt not bear false witness"; and so on.
    Not only were the Ten Commandments drawn from Egyptian ritual, but so too were the Psalms reworked from Egyptian hymns (though they are attributed to King David, Thutmose III). Even the Old Testament Book of Proverbs - the so-called 'wise words of Solomon' - was translated almost verbatim into Hebrew from the writings of an Egyptian sage called Amenemope. These are now held at the British Museum, and verse after verse of the Book of Proverbs can be attributed to this Egyptian original. It has now been discovered that even the writings of Amenemope were extracted from a far older work called The Wisdom of Ptah-hotep, which comes from more than 2,000 years before the time of Solomon."
    Answer for yourself:*Can you begin to see the importance of Egypt in our Judeo-Christian heritage? Then if any of these earliest understandings of God have been purposefully or even accidentally changed and new replacement religious dogmas and doctrines have taken their place then can you grasp the severity of the nature of the problems lurking behind our inherited Roman "literalistic" Christianity which rejected their Jewish Roots and ultimately the Egyptian Religion on which it was built? Time to study and study hard before we die as Christian idolators and blasphemers and never know it because we inherited an anti-Jewish religion to which we never verified for ourselves that what we are told to believe for our "salvation" is indeed the Ancient Divine Truths held sacred by mankind since the beginning of time and up until the rise of the mighty Roman antisemitic Empire and its Orthodox Christianity.