Black People : Cocaine,Marijuana,Crack, Meth, Heroin Changes Brain Chemistry

Discussion in 'Black People Open Forum' started by HODEE, Nov 24, 2009.

  1. HODEE

    HODEE Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Recall that commercial of the Egg being dropped in a skillet.
    " Here is your Brain on Drugs" Well you are cooking it!

    This Doctor wrote a book based on the same scanning of the brain of those in Love. I saw him on PBS.

    The brain creates these receptors that form and give us the desires we have.
    Releasing a chemical simular to cocaine, and morphine and these our natural body chemistry create.
    The release of this natural chemical makes us feel good about loving someone, getting along, liking chocolate, wanting someone in particular.

    Wanting a drink of alcohol and that next drug fix.

    When you are away or get over someone you love.
    These brain receptors eventually go dormant.
    They do not ever disappear.

    They remain regardless of what addiction or desire created them.
    When you see that special person all these feeling rush in because the receptors turned back on, you drank that drink they turn on.

    So a alcoholic is never cured and can relapse at anytime, snorting that coke, one hit of herion and you back... So the video below shows our brain on drugs.

    On the PBS special I saw by this doctor. The brain lights up when we eat chocolate, are in love etc.

    Alcohol and drugs have the Black community gripped very bad.
    Our young children and many grown ups do not understand that this alcohol and drug use is eatting away their brain.

    Drinking to relax is Ok, but to excape is self medicating and causing more problems for individuals.
    Doing drugs is making many mentally challenged, keeping them behind and eventually cause medical isues, stroke or death.


     
  2. Ankhur

    Ankhur Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    It is interesting that American troops are now protecting drug crop farmers in Afghanistan and now Columbia with the new bases.

    As banks struggling to stay afloat, may depend on laundered funds, the president has yet to make the smuggling of heroin or cocaine into US borders a National Security Issue, something every one would support, except for Wall street and China

    Who benefits from the Afghan Opium Trade?


    By Michel Chossudovsky

    Global Research, September 21, 2006


    The United Nations has announced that opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan has soared and is expected to increase by 59% in 2006. The production of opium is estimated to have increased by 49% in relation to 2005.

    The Western media in chorus blame the Taliban and the warlords. The Bush administration is said to be committed to curbing the Afghan drug trade: "The US is the main backer of a huge drive to rid Afghanistan of opium... "

    Yet in a bitter irony, US military presence has served to restore rather than eradicate the drug trade.

    What the reports fail to acknowledge is that the Taliban government was instrumental in implementing a successful drug eradication program, with the support and collaboration of the UN.

    Implemented in 2000-2001, the Taliban's drug eradication program led to a 94 percent decline in opium cultivation. In 2001, according to UN figures, opium production had fallen to 185 tons. Immediately following the October 2001 US led invasion, production increased dramatically, regaining its historical levels.

    The Vienna based UN Office on Drugs and Crime estimates that the 2006 harvest will be of the order of 6,100 tonnes, 33 times its production levels in 2001 under the Taliban government (3200 % increase in 5 years).

    Cultivation in 2006 reached a record 165,000 hectares compared with 104,000 in 2005 and 7,606 in 2001 under the Taliban (See table below).

    Multibillion dollar trade

    According to the UN, Afghanistan supplies in 2006 some 92 percent of the world's supply of opium, which is used to make heroin.

    The UN estimates that for 2006, the contribution of the drug trade to the Afghan economy is of the order of 2.7 billion. What it fails to mention is the fact that more than 95 percent of the revenues generated by this lucrative contraband accrues to business syndicates, organized crime and banking and financial institutions. A very small percentage accrues to farmers and traders in the producing country.

    (See also UNODC, The Opium Economy in Afghanistan,
    http://www.unodc.org/pdf/publications/afg_opium_economy_www.pdf , Vienna, 2003, p. 7-8)

    "Afghan heroin sells on the international narcotics market for 100 times the price farmers get for their opium right out of the field".(US State Department quoted by the Voice of America (VOA), 27 February 2004).

    Based on wholesale and retail prices in Western markets, the earnings generated by the Afghan drug trade are colossal. In July 2006, street prices in Britain for heroin were of the order of Pound Sterling 54, or $102 a gram.

    Narcotics On the Streets of Western Europe

    One kilo of opium produces approximately 100 grams of (pure) heroin. 6100 tons of opium allows the production of 1220 tons of heroin with a 50 percent purity ratio.

    The average purity of retailed heroin can vary. It is on average 36%. In Britain, the purity is rarely in excess of 50 percent, while in the US it can be of the order of 50-60 percent.

    Based on the structure of British retail prices for heroin, the total proceeds of the Afghan heroin trade would be of the order of 124.4 billion dollars, assuming a 50 percent purity ratio. Assuming an average purity ratio of 36 percent and the average British price, the cash value of Afghan heroin sales would be of the order of 194.4 billion dollars.

    While these figures do not constitute precise estimates, they nonetheless convey the sheer magnitude of this multibillion dollar narcotics trade out of Afghanistan. Based on the first figure which provides a conservative estimate, the cash value of these sales, once they reach Western retail markets are in excess of 120 billion dollars a year.

    (See also our detailed estimates for 2003 in The Spoils of War: Afghanistan's Multibillion Dollar Heroin Trade, by Michel Chossudovsky, The UNODC estimates the average retail price of heroin for 2004 to be of the order of $157 per gram, based on the average purity ratio).

    Narcotics: Second to Oil and the Arms Trade

    The foregoing estimates are consistent with the UN's assessment concerning the size and magnitude of the global drug trade.

    The Afghan trade in opiates (92 percent of total World production of opiates) constitutes a large share of the worldwide annual turnover of narcotics, which was estimated by the United Nations to be of the order of $400-500 billion.

    (Douglas Keh, Drug Money in a Changing World, Technical document No. 4, 1998, Vienna UNDCP, p. 4. See also United Nations Drug Control Program, Report of the International Narcotics Control Board for 1999, E/INCB/1999/1 United Nations, Vienna 1999, p. 49-51, and Richard Lapper, UN Fears Growth of Heroin Trade, Financial Times, 24 February 2000).

    Based on 2003 figures, drug trafficking constitutes "the third biggest global commodity in cash terms after oil and the arms trade." (The Independent, 29 February 2004).

    Afghanistan and Colombia are the largest drug producing economies in the world, which feed a flourishing criminal economy. These countries are heavily militarized. The drug trade is protected. Amply documented the CIA has played a central role in the development of both the Latin American and Asian drug triangles.

    The IMF estimated global money laundering to be between 590 billion and 1.5 trillion dollars a year, representing 2-5 percent of global GDP. (Asian Banker, 15 August 2003). A large share of global money laundering as estimated by the IMF is linked to the trade in narcotics.

    Legal Business and Illicit Trade are Intertwined

    There are powerful business and financial interests behind narcotics. From this standpoint, geopolitical and military control over the drug routes is as strategic as oil and oil pipelines.

    Moreover, the above figures including those on money laundering, confirm that the bulk of the revenues associated with the global trade in narcotics are not appropriated by terrorist groups and warlords, as suggested by the UNODC report. In the case of Afghanistan, the UN Office on Drugs and Crime estimates that a mere 2.7 billion accrues as revenue within Afghanistan. According to the US State department "Afghanistan drug profits support the Taliban and their terrorism efforts against the United States, its allies and the Afghan government." (statement, the House Appropriations foreign operations, export financing and related programs subcommittee. September 12, 2006)

    full article;
    http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=3294

    The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the... by Alfred W. McCoy

    Drugs, Oil, and War: The United States in Afghanistan, Colombia, and Indochina by Peter Dale Scott



    http://video.google.com/videoplay?d...4w0MS5vCBYeWqwL9g9kK&q=fletcher+prouty&hl=en#
    Fletcher Prouty, ex Black-Ops; the real life "Mr.X" from the Oliver Stone movie JFK, he was protrayed by Donald Southerland, watch here;
    http://video.google.com/videoplay?d...tcher+prouty&hl=en#docid=-7531596754428346709

    Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America, Updated edition by Peter Dale Scott
    Dark Alliance: The CIA, the Contras, and the Crack Cocaine Explosion by Gary Webb
     
  3. HODEE

    HODEE Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    When the war was started by Bush.
    He bombed the oil pipeline in, and
    Increased the trade in the 2006 period.

    The WAR on Drugs.

    Played long before this administration and will be long after.

    I blasted the phone company recently when they told me the local place to pay my bill.
    I could pay my bill… I had over looked it and was on the last day to pay.
    I end up paying a penalty fee by using their pay servicer. Another rip off.
    Because… I will not patronize the liquor store or them by going in there and paying my bill in a liquor store.

    I told them long ago I didn’t appreciate the move they made.
    I have a son and I told them.
    He is always with me when I am out running errands.

    I will not bring him into a liquor store to pay my phone or gas bill.
    I did it a few times when they first moved the services there.
    I haven't done it in over ten years.

    Because they want to save office cost and are helping to destroy the black communities by doing this.
    A business that does not feel your worth having a local representitive or ofice available for you
    to pay and discuss your account with.

    Is not worth your business.

    If there was not a monopoly on gas companies and phone companies.
    I would not even patronize these creeps.
    As proud grown ups. We have to let them know.

    We have to make them FEEL! IT!

    This is UNACCEPTABLE... you where ever you are.. me in my place.

    Liquor for liquor store and not for paying standard bills.

    That would be is like making a person who does not practice religion to go into a church to pay his phone bill.

    This Crap doesn’t happen in more affluent areas.

    Corner liquor stores patronized to pay your bills, and while your there.

    You might buy something.
    Some bread, some candy, hey look at those prices on that liquor.
    It is subliminal.. but works.

    Pick up some relief.
    That Slitlz Malt Liquor, with a Red Bull chaser is a winner.

    Hurry... hurry get the good feeling going on your way out the door.
    Wrap that brown bag around the bottle and throw the head back.
    Get your freak on. :toast: :toast: :toast:

    Get that break from the burden of being broke.

    The government playing this money game.
    Wasting tax dollars. One way to stop the drug trade is to educate the users.

    Hoodwinked, and hooked.
    Once hooked your always a slave or user to the trade.
    Perpetrating habits that are detrimental to our community and our children. Their lives.

    Would anyone in their right mind.
    Ask their son of 15 to go down and pay the phone bill at the liquor store?
    I saw a few young men in the store paying phone bills and gas bills.

    Often we discuss why the community can't come up out the trenches, build more community relations and have more positive growth.
     
  4. Ankhur

    Ankhur Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    According to Dick Gregory

    malt liqour contains, now.. a poisonous element known as manganese

    Just like bringing the troops home can happen overnight, a federal mandate can end the sale of malt liqour overnight.

    Take a look at the international drug world and the mob can buy and sell darn near anything,..

    anything except qualudes. Do you know why?

    Because the federal government used everymeans necesary to destroy and ban the production of athe basic chemicals used to manufacture it, funny how they have not done the same for coca leaf refining or opium refining, into white powder of mental control and Wall street wealth
     
  5. Ankhur

    Ankhur Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Since tha campain to this day
    there has been no promise from Washingto made ,

    nor executive action put in place regarding this issue.
     
  6. HODEE

    HODEE Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Coca leaves and Opium is being used in drug manufacturing.

    That doesn't excuse the fact that precription drugs like oxycontin is abused and found to be a drug that can be bought by the hundreds on the internet.

    Your article is based on 2006 news, and a current plague still being perputrated.

    Blaming the government for trying to regulate it for medical reasons and not trying to educate the young fall short.
    The government owes us nothing. They are takers.
    The failures in regulation. The fact that the drugs are here under false claims of medical manufacture Is all a set-up.

    Two separate issues.

    All that preaching by on air leaders, nationalist, black front-line speakers have not resonated into a clear cut set of words.

    Do not use, it leads to abuse. These things are killing you.

    Drug dealing Prisoners believe they did nothing wrong by selling these drugs. Users believe they did nothing wrong by using.
    This post is about education. Turn it that way.

    We have young members reading and they need information, some facts, answers and the truth.

    They have to be told they are killing themselves, being manipulated, controlled without guns and chains to destroy their minds and future.

    Look around.. all this out of joint is lost minds and sprit.
    All this shooting is over that fix, that money to sell that fix, and that mind drain suffered by users.

    They don't care about Obama and his problems, they don't care about Cheney or Bush.

    They know someting is out of place and need some information to better understand the pain is self inflicted.

    A metal.. the body naturally has a bit, but more is dangerous.
    Manganese - (L. magnes, magnet,

    Too much causes strokes, Seizure and nerve damage. ( attacks, spasmisms, fits, convulsions )
    Your body signals from your brain after the liquor eats it's portion.
    Is mixed up and signals fire into the wrong portion of the body.

    Appreciated. This is a good start.
     
  7. Ankhur

    Ankhur Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    If the government owes you nothing, why defend it or those within it?
    where's the logic?
    If the government owes you nothing, then stop paying taxes, don't vote, and don't pay social securiity or expect any.

    The fact of the matter is that the think tanks that rule Washington on Niovember 24th 2009 are run by families whose first Wall street wealth came from slavery and scond wealth came from the opium trade during the boxer rebellion in China.

    Black youth are not killing each other over turf wars over stolen prescription drugs they are killing themselves over heroin and crack,

    and as Fletcher Prouty stated in the documentary the government knows and sanctions every gram of crap that enters the nation.

    Therefore the only reason why a present president will not put into executive order the smuggling of heroin and cocaine into the nation a national security issue, is because Wall street has ordered him not to.
     
  8. Ankhur

    Ankhur Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    October 28, 2009
    Brother of Afghan Leader Said to Be Paid by C.I.A.
    By DEXTER FILKINS, MARK MAZZETTI and JAMES RISEN

    KABUL, Afghanistan — Ahmed Wali Karzai, the brother of the Afghan president and a suspected player in the country’s booming illegal opium trade, gets regular payments from the Central Intelligence Agency, and has for much of the past eight years, according to current and former American officials.

    The agency pays Mr. Karzai for a variety of services, including helping to recruit an Afghan paramilitary force that operates at the C.I.A.’s direction in and around the southern city of Kandahar, Mr. Karzai’s home.

    The financial ties and close working relationship between the intelligence agency and Mr. Karzai raise significant questions about America’s war strategy, which is currently under review at the White House.

    The ties to Mr. Karzai have created deep divisions within the Obama administration. The critics say the ties complicate America’s increasingly tense relationship with President Hamid Karzai, who has struggled to build sustained popularity among Afghans and has long been portrayed by the Taliban as an American puppet. The C.I.A.’s practices also suggest that the United States is not doing everything in its power to stamp out the lucrative Afghan drug trade, a major source of revenue for the Taliban.

    More broadly, some American officials argue that the reliance on Ahmed Wali Karzai, the most powerful figure in a large area of southern Afghanistan where the Taliban insurgency is strongest, undermines the American push to develop an effective central government that can maintain law and order and eventually allow the United States to withdraw.

    “If we are going to conduct a population-centric strategy in Afghanistan, and we are perceived as backing thugs, then we are just undermining ourselves,” said Maj. Gen. Michael T. Flynn, the senior American military intelligence official in Afghanistan.

    Ahmed Wali Karzai said in an interview that he cooperated with American civilian and military officials, but did not engage in the drug trade and did not receive payments from the C.I.A.

    The relationship between Mr. Karzai and the C.I.A. is wide ranging, several American officials said. He helps the C.I.A. operate a paramilitary group, the Kandahar Strike Force, that is used for raids against suspected insurgents and terrorists. On at least one occasion, the strike force has been accused of mounting an unauthorized operation against an official of the Afghan government, the officials said.

    Mr. Karzai is also paid for allowing the C.I.A. and American Special Operations troops to rent a large compound outside the city — the former home of Mullah Mohammed Omar, the Taliban’s founder. The same compound is also the base of the Kandahar Strike Force. “He’s our landlord,” a senior American official said, speaking on the condition of anonymity.

    Mr. Karzai also helps the C.I.A. communicate with and sometimes meet with Afghans loyal to the Taliban. Mr. Karzai’s role as a go-between between the Americans and the Taliban is now regarded as valuable by those who support working with Mr. Karzai, as the Obama administration is placing a greater focus on encouraging Taliban leaders to change sides.

    A C.I.A. spokesman declined to comment for this article.

    “No intelligence organization worth the name would ever entertain these kind of allegations,” said Paul Gimigliano, the spokesman.

    Some American officials said that the allegations of Mr. Karzai’s role in the drug trade were not conclusive.

    “There’s no proof of Ahmed Wali Karzai’s involvement in drug trafficking, certainly nothing that would stand up in court,” said one American official familiar with the intelligence. “And you can’t ignore what the Afghan government has done for American counterterrorism efforts.”

    At the start of the Afghan war, just after the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States, American officials paid warlords with questionable backgrounds to help topple the Taliban and maintain order with relatively few American troops committed to fight in the country. But as the Taliban has become resurgent and the war has intensified, Americans have increasingly viewed a strong and credible central government as crucial to turning back the Taliban’s advances.

    Now, with more American lives on the line, the relationship with Mr. Karzai is setting off anger and frustration among American military officers and other officials in the Obama administration. They say that Mr. Karzai’s suspected role in the drug trade, as well as what they describe as the mafialike way that he lords over southern Afghanistan, makes him a malevolent force.

    These military and political officials say the evidence, though largely circumstantial, suggests strongly that Mr. Karzai has enriched himself by helping the illegal trade in poppy and opium to flourish. The assessment of these military and senior officials in the Obama administration dovetails with that of senior officials in the Bush administration.

    “Hundreds of millions of dollars in drug money are flowing through the southern region, and nothing happens in southern Afghanistan without the regional leadership knowing about it,” a senior American military officer in Kabul said. Like most of the officials in this article, he spoke on the condition of anonymity because of the secrecy of the information.

    “If it looks like a duck, and it quacks like a duck, it’s probably a duck,” the American officer said of Mr. Karzai. “Our assumption is that he’s benefiting from the drug trade.”

    American officials say that Afghanistan’s opium trade, the largest in the world, directly threatens the stability of the Afghan state, by providing a large percentage of the money the Taliban needs for its operations, and also by corrupting Afghan public officials to help the trade flourish.

    The Obama administration has repeatedly vowed to crack down on the drug lords who are believed to permeate the highest levels of President Karzai’s administration. They have pressed him to move his brother out of southern Afghanistan, but he has so far refused to do so.

    Other Western officials pointed to evidence that Ahmed Wali Karzai orchestrated the manufacture of hundreds of thousands of phony ballots for his brother’s re-election effort in August. He is also believed to have been responsible for setting up dozens of so-called ghost polling stations — existing only on paper — that were used to manufacture tens of thousands of phony ballots.

    “The only way to clean up Chicago is to get rid of Capone,” General Flynn said.

    In the interview in which he denied a role in the drug trade or taking money from the C.I.A., Ahmed Wali Karzai said he received regular payments from his brother, the president, for “expenses,” but said he did not know where the money came from. He has, among other things, introduced Americans to insurgents considering changing sides. And he has given the Americans intelligence, he said. But he said he was not compensated for that assistance.

    “I don’t know anyone under the name of the C.I.A.,” Mr. Karzai said. “I have never received any money from any organization. I help, definitely. I help other Americans wherever I can. This is my duty as an Afghan.”

    Mr. Karzai acknowledged that the C.I.A. and Special Operations troops stayed at Mullah Omar’s old compound. And he acknowledged that the Kandahar Strike Force was based there. But he said he had no involvement with them.

    A former C.I.A. officer with experience in Afghanistan said the agency relied heavily on Ahmed Wali Karzai, and often based covert operatives at compounds he owned. Any connections Mr. Karzai might have had to the drug trade mattered little to C.I.A. officers focused on counterterrorism missions, the officer said.

    “Virtually every significant Afghan figure has had brushes with the drug trade,” he said. “If you are looking for Mother Teresa, she doesn’t live in Afghanistan.”

    The debate over Ahmed Wali Karzai, which began when President Obama took office in January, intensified in June, when the C.I.A.’s local paramilitary group, the Kandahar Strike Force, shot and killed Kandahar’s provincial police chief, Matiullah Qati, in a still-unexplained shootout at the office of a local prosecutor.

    full article;
    http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/28/world/asia/28intel.html?_r=2&pagewanted=print
     
  9. Ankhur

    Ankhur Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    UN Report Misleading on Afghanistan's Drug Problem

    by Julien Mercille , Foreign Policy in Focus




    November 5, 2009

    Editor: Erik Leaver



    As President Obama and his advisors debate future troop levels for Afghanistan, a new report by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) muddies the water on one of the most important issues in the debate — the effects of Afghanistan's drug production.

    The report, entitled "Addiction, Crime, and Insurgency: The Transnational Threat of Afghan Opium," gives the false impression that the Taliban are the main culprits behind Afghanistan's skyrocketing drug production. It also implies that drugs are the main reason why the Taliban are gaining in strength, absolving the United States and NATO of their own responsibility in fomenting the insurgency.

    In fact, the United States and its Afghan allies bear a large share of responsibility for the drug industry's dramatic expansion since the invasion. Buried deep in the report, its authors admit that reduced levels of drug production would have little effect on the insurgency's vigor.

    The following annotation rebuffs some of the report's main assertions, puts in perspective the Taliban's role in the opium economy, and highlights U.S./NATO responsibility for its expansion and potential reduction.

    Taliban insurgents draw some US$ 125 million annually from drugs, which is more money than ten years ago, [and as a result] the perfect storm of drugs and terrorism, that has struck the Afghan/Pakistani border for years, may be heading towards Central Asia. A big part of the region could be engulfed in large-scale terrorism, endangering its massive energy resources.

    These claims are supposed to make us shudder in the face of an impending narco-terrorist seizure of a large chunk of the world's energy resources. UNODC states that a decade ago the Taliban earned $85 million per year from drugs, but that since 2005 this figure has jumped to $125 million. Although this is pitched as a significant increase, the Taliban play a more minor role in the opium economy than UNODC would have us believe and drug money is probably a secondary source of funding for them. Indeed, the report estimates that only 10-15% of Taliban funding is drawn from drugs and 85% comes from "nonopium sources."

    The total revenue generated by opiates within Afghanistan is about $3.4 billion per year. Of this figure, according to UNODC, the Taliban get only 4% of the sum. Farmers, meanwhile, get 21%.

    And the remaining 75%? Al-Qaeda? No: The report specifies that it "does not appear to have a direct role in the Afghan opiates trade," although it may participate in "low-level drugs and/or arms smuggling" along the Pakistani border.

    Instead, the remaining 75% is captured by government officials, the police, local and regional power brokers and traffickers — in short, many of the groups now supported (or tolerated) by the United States and NATO are important actors in the drug trade.

    The New York Times recently revealed that Ahmed Wali Karzai, President Hamid Karzai's brother, has long been on the CIA payroll, in addition to his probable shady dealings in drugs. But this is only the tip of the iceberg, as U.S. and NATO forces have long supported warlords, commanders, and illegal militias with a record of human rights abuses and involvement in narcotics. A former CIA officer said that "Virtually every significant Afghan figure has had brushes with the drug trade." According to a New York University report, General Nazri Mahmad, a warlord who "control a significant portion of the province's lucrative opium industry," has the contract to provide security for the German Provincial Reconstruction Team.

    UNODC insists on making the Taliban-drugs connection front-page news while not chasing with the same intensity those supported by Washington. The agency seems to be acting as an enabler of U.S./NATO policies in Afghanistan.

    When I asked the UNODC official who supervised the report what percentage of total drug income in Afghanistan was captured by government officials, the reply was quick: "We don't do that, I don't know."

    Instead of pointing a finger directly at the U.S./NATO-backed government, the report gives the impression that the problem lies mostly with rotten apples who threaten an otherwise well-intentioned government.

    But the roots of Afghanistan's upsurge in drug production since 2001 are directly related to U.S. policies and the government that was installed in the wake of the invasion. The United States attacked Afghanistan in 2001, in alliance with anti-Taliban warlords and drug lords, showering them with millions of dollars and other forms of support. The empowerment and enrichment of the warlords with whom the U.S. allied itself enabled them to tax and protect opium traffickers, leading to the quick resumption of opium production after the hiatus of the 2000 Taliban ban.

    To blame "corruption" and "criminals" for the state of affairs is to ignore the direct and predictable effects of U.S. policies, which have simply followed a historical pattern of toleration and empowerment of local drug lords in the pursuit of broader foreign policy objectives, as Alfred McCoy and others have documented in detail.

    Impunity for drug lords and warlords continues: a U.S. Senate report noted in August that no major traffickers have been arrested in Afghanistan since 2006, and that successful prosecutions of significant traffickers are often overturned by a simple bribe or protection from above, revealing counternarcotics efforts to be deficient at best.

    Identifying drugs as the main cause behind Taliban advances absolves the U.S./NATO of their own responsibility in fomenting the insurgency: Their very presence in the country, as well as their destructive attacks on civilians account for a good deal of the recent increase in popular support for the Taliban.

    In fact, buried deep in the report, its authors admit that reducing drug production would have only "minimal impact on the insurgency's strategic threat." The Taliban receive "significant funding from private donors all over the world," a contribution which "dwarfs" drug money. Although the report will be publicized by many as a vindication of calls to target the opium economy in order to weaken the Taliban, the authors themselves are not convinced of the validity of this argument.

    Of the $65 billion turnover of the global market for opiates, only 5-10% ($3-5 billion) is estimated to be laundered by informal banking systems. The rest is laundered through legal trade activities and the banking system.

    This is an important claim that points to the enormous amounts of drug money swallowed by the world financial system, including Western banks.

    The report says that over the last seven years (2002-2008), the transnational trade in Afghan opiates resulted in worldwide sales of $400-$500 billion (retail value). Only 5-10% of this is estimated to be laundered by informal banking systems (such as hawala). The remainder is laundered through the legal economy, and importantly, through Western banks.

    In fact, Antonio Maria Costa was quoted as saying that drug money may have recently rescued some failing banks: "interbank loans were funded by money that originated from drug trade and other illegal activities," and there were "signs that some banks were rescued in that way." "At a time of major bank failures, money doesn't smell, bankers seem to believe," he wrote in UNODC's 2009 World Drug Report (emphasis in original).

    Afghanistan has the world monopoly of opium cultivation (92%), the raw material for the world's deadliest drug — heroin, [which is] causing up to 100,000 deaths per year.

    Tobacco is the world's deadliest drug, not heroin. The former kills about 5 million people every year. According to the WHO, if present tobacco consumption patterns continue, the number of deaths will increase to 10 million by the year 2020. Some 70% of these will be in developing countries, which are the main target of the tobacco industry's marketing ploys. So why does the Taliban get more flak than tobacco companies?

    The report estimates there are 16 million opiate users across the world, with the main consumer market being Europe, valued at $20 billion. Europeans are thus the main source of funding for the Afghan drug industry and their governments share a significant part of responsibility for failing to decrease demand and provide more treatment services within their own borders. Lowering drug use in Europe would contribute significantly to reducing the scale of the problem in Afghanistan.

    Moreover, the report notes that NATO member Turkey is a "central hub" through which Afghan opiates reach Europe. Perhaps NATO should direct its efforts towards its own members before targeting the Taliban.

    Some Taliban networks may be involved at the level of precursor procurement. These recent findings support the assertion that the Taliban network is more involved in drug trafficking than previously thought.

    Yes, the Taliban surely take a cut out of the precursor trade (the chemicals needed to refine opium into products like heroin and morphine).

    However, Western countries and some of their allies are also involved: The report identified "Europe, China, and the Russian Federation" as "major acetic anhydride sources for Afghanistan." For instance, 220 liters of acetic anhydride were intercepted this year at Kabul airport, apparently originating from France. In recent years, chemicals have also been shipped from or via the Republic of Korea and UNODC's 2008 Afghan Opium Survey pointed to Germany as a source of precursors.

    It is unclear what the total value of the Afghan trade in chemical precursors is, but from the report's data it can be inferred that the retail value of just one precursor, acetic anhydride, was about $450 million this year. Part of that money goes back to Western chemical corporations in the form of profits. Tighter safeguards should be in place on these products.

    Areas of opium poppy cultivation and insecurity correlate geographically. In 2008, 98% of opium poppy cultivation took place in southern and western Afghanistan, the least secure regions.

    UNODC associates drugs with the Taliban by pointing to the fact that most poppy cultivation takes places in regions where the Taliban are concentrated. Maps show "poppy-free" provinces in the north and a concentration of cultivation in the southern provinces, linking the Taliban with drugs.


    full article;
    http://www.fpif.org/fpiftxt/6553
     
  10. HODEE

    HODEE Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Brother Ankhur

    I am not defending the government.
    I asked you help by keeping this thread on topic.

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