CICERO’S TEMPERATURE TAKE ON THE STOICS By Andre Austin Cicero (106-43BC) was a Roman Lawyer and philosopher who was also concerned about various religious doctrines. Some terminology in Rev 3 about Hot, Cold and Lukewarm bear a resemblance to stoicism. One of the most popular Philosophers Bertrand Russell said: “Stoicism, which is like Christianity” (Why Iam not a Christian p.73). Cicero wrote The Nature of the Gods & On Divination. The Stoics taught that God was Fire. Cicero said any excess in Cold, heat, pleasure pain etc will lead to destruction. The Stoics was founded by Zeno, took their name from Stoa poikile or painted porch, where the group first gathered. They wanted to control human passions of hot and cold by reason and virtue/justice. Cicero stated: “You Stoics then say that fire is the universal principle of all things; that all living bodies cease to live on the extinction of that heat, and that throughout all nature whatever is sensible of that heat lives and flourishes. Now I can’t conceive that bodies should perish for want of heat, rather than for want (lack) of moisture or air, especially as they even die through excess of heat” Nature of the Gods XIV. Tefnut , the female counterpart of Shu, was moisture and damp generative heat of heaven” From Fetish to God in Ancient Egypt By E.A. Wallis Budge p. 149 This is where we get the terms “Lukewarm” and “water of life” in the book of Revelations Plutarch agrees with Zeno in not letting Anger come about due to pain, pleasure or arrogance. Plutarch thinks like Zeno that the soul must “rid himself of the excessive, unmitigated part of this anger” (On the avoidance of anger 463A & B). “Stoics taught that life should be lived to fit the rational order they discerned running through the universe” (History of the World by J.M. Roberts p.214). Tefnut (lukewarm) was this order. One of the most famous Stoics was Marcus Aurelius in his famous book Meditations. Marcus states: “Let it make no difference to you whether you are cold or warm, if you are doing your duty” Book VI:2. It appears that those who were neither Hot or Cold were spit out as Lukewarm in Rev chapter 3 which is a Balance of the Egyptian Tefnut (Righteousness, moral order). The very name of Tefnut signifies “Spit out” as the means this god was born. The opposite of spit is swallowed up which is associated with death (see Meditations Book VII:19 and the Dead Sea Scrolls terminology). Justice by reason of its equality (Balance/Equilibrium) intervenes between the two: Deficiency and Excess" (Isis & Osiris by Plutarch 75.381-382) Just like Lukewarm intervenes between hot and cold Rev 3:16. Jesus is this Truth (Maat/Tefnut) The way, the truth, the life that you must eat of his body also called moral order.. The excess of Lukewarm would natural be Hot. It’s no accident that the Egyptians and Bible writers would condemn having a Hot-head/heart or a Cold-Heart but a balance towards righteousness known as Maat or Tefnut, the heat of heaven. A flame is set up to either burn your heart for those being evil or keep warm for those who act right. You have the freewill pick the temperature you want to be in. Notes: Cicero States: “We must persuade our citizens that the gods are the Lords and rulers of all things and what is done , is done by their will and authority; and they are the great benefactors of men, and know who everyone is, and what he does, and what sins he commits, and what he intends to do, and with what piety he fulfills his religious duties” (Cicero , The Laws, 2:15-16) The best Cicero quote above with an application with the Bible is to be found in Romans 13:1; 5 linking the State with religious submission. “Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established…therefore it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment but also because of conscience”. S. Angus a former Professor of the NT at St Andrew’s college, Sydney said: “conscience-a word which the Stoics coined and popularized” (The Mystery Religions p.207).