Law Forum : Chances of African Americans ( LIFE ) Historically have been Shaped by Race.

HODEE

Alonewolf
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Brown v. City of Oneonta, - F.3d - (2d Cir. 2000), available in 2000 WL 1855047. 15. See Whren v. United States, 517 U.S. 806 (1996).

In Whren, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that as long as an officer observes a traffic violation, a traffic stop is constitutional, even if the officer has no intention to enforce the law the driver violated. Even if purely pretextual,
( /ˌpriːˈteks.tʃu.əl/ done or used as a pretext (=
a pretended reason for doing something that is used to hide the real reason): )
a racially-motivated stop is constitutional under the Fourth Amendment if also motivated by a second, non-racial factor.
The Court did state, however, that a stop motivated by race alone would violate Fourteenth Amendment protections. I
 
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HODEE

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GIVEN A LICENCE TO MISTREAT CITIZENS BY THE JUDICIARY SUPREME DRESS WEARERS !
 

HODEE

Alonewolf
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WE MUST KNOW THE TRUTH WE MUST KNOW OUR RIGHTS WE MUST EXERCISE THOSE RIGHTS BY DEMANDING OUR BLACK LAW EDUCATED OFFICIALS CHANGE THE LAW. CHALLENGE THE SUPREME COURT. EVERY LAWYER REGARDLESS OF COLOR USES OUR TAX DOLLARS TO F GET EDUCATED, POLICE SALARIES ARE PAID AND THEY ABUSE US..
( TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION IS OUR FAULT )


Is it Known That Every Homeless person Living on the Streets of Retirement age, Even those who lost parents and are young.
Can collect Survivors Benefits, and their Government DUE SOCIAL SECURITY..

The issue is OUR SMART EDUCATED SCHOLARS ARE DUMB AS A ROCK< EITHER DON'T KNOW THIS OR JUST WON'T USE THAT EDUCATED LAW DEGREE TO RIGHT THESE MANY WRONGS
The reason given the homeless for not giving them food stamps, social security is .. YOU DON'T HAVE A MAILING ADDRESS..
WELL I KNOW THE UNITED STATES POST OFFICE HAS A FREE MAIL M N BOX THAT ANYONE HOMELESS OR NOT CAN G HAVE THEIR MAIL SENT THERE>
WE HAVE NO ADVOCATES.. THE BROWN MINORITIES HAVE MORE BECAUSE THEIR LAWYERS BRING THAT BACK TO REPRESENT THEM> TO GET CITIZENSHIP< BUSINESS LOANS ETC>> WHAT WE GOT.. AL SHARPTON?

IGNORANCE OF THE LAW IS NO EXCUSE.. IGNORANCE WITHOUT DESIRE TO KNOW THE RIGHTS> OF LAW AFFORDED
IS MORE IGNORANT THAN TRYING TO KEEP UP WITH A CHANGING LAW STATUE


Believing Paul Revere made that Famous Ride is also False.. There were five people.. Paul didn't say those words ether.. The British are coming.. All Lies and made up beliefs. Contrary to popular beliefs, Paul Revere never shouted the phrase "the British are coming," and instead rode swiftly and in secrecy northward.
================================
Believing Ostriches bury their head in the dirt.. that is also false.
WHY IT'S NOT TRUE: Ostriches don't bury their heads in the sand—they wouldn't be able to breathe! But they do dig holes in the dirt to use as nests
 

HODEE

Alonewolf
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Jul 2, 2003
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SO PULLING US OVER USING THIS ONE.. "NO PROBLEM "

13. United States v. Harvey, 16 F.3d 109, 115 (6th Cir. 1994) (Keith, J., dissenting)

("African-Americans are more likely to be arrested because drug courier profiles reflect the erroneous assumption that one's race has a direct correlation to drug activity.")

===============


TRY THIS ONE
U.S. 156 (1972) (reviewing the enforcement of a vague vagrancy ordinance against two black men accompanied by two white females);

Florida v. J.L., 529 U.S. 266 (2000) (reviewing the adequacy of a stop and frisk based on an anonymous informant's description of a "young black male" wearing a plaid shirt and carrying a gun).

The "professional judgment" of Detective McFadden provided the basis for his stop and search of the defendant in Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 28 (1968). What has been lost in the Terry discourse in the ensuing years is the explicit racial component of the events. Terry was African American, McFadden was white.

McFadden's "professional judgment" concerning Terry was based on the racial incongruity of Terry being observed outside a storefront in a commercial district far from the areas of Cleveland where most African Americans lived. Anthony C. Thompson, Stopping the Usual Suspects: Race and the Fourth Amendment, 74 N.Y.U. L. REV. 956, 966 (1999).

But see Terry, 392 U.S. at 5-7
(detailing the suspicious activity the Terry defendants engaged in after Detective McFadden, a thirty-nine year veteran of the police department, first observed them and felt "they didn't look right to [him] at the time").

In Illinois v. Wardlow, 528 U.S. 119, 124 (2000)
, the Court noted that although an individual's presence in a "high crime area" does not meet the standard for a particularized suspicion of criminal activity, a location's characteristics are relevant in determining whether an individual's behavior is sufficiently suspicious to warrant further investigation.

Since "high crime areas" often are areas with concentrations of minority citizens, this logic places minority neighborhoods at risk for elevating the suspiciousness of its residents. See e.g., DOUGLAS S. MASSEY & NANCY A. DENTON, AMERICAN APARTHEID: SEGREGATION AND THE MAKING OF THE UNDERCLASS (1993).

======================

THEY KNOW WE KNOW.. THIS ONE
YET THEY DON'T CHANGE, THEY DON'T CARE, OUR OWN BLACK OFFICIALS WON'T CALL OUT THESE LAWS.. DOING THAT ALONE STOPS THE PROCESS.. SITING A STATUE KILLS THE LITIGATION OR HOLDS IT AT BAY. LETS THE PERPETRATOR THAT TRY'S TO RAILROAD SOMEONE.. WE ARE EDUCATED ENOUGH TO APPLY THIS MEASURE !

24. Citizens who are stopped and frisked based on a profiling or racial policing strategy understand that they have been singled out because of their race.

These encounters have been termed "race-making situations." David R. James, The Racial Ghetto as a Race-Making Situation: The Effects of Residential Segregation on Racial Inequalities and Racial Identity, 19 LAW & Soc. INOUIRY 407, 420-29 (1994).

The outrage of many minority citizens over the NYPD's policing of aggressive stop and frisks reflects not only the emotional harm from being targeted because of one's race, but also the fear that such situations can escalate into dangerously violent encounters. See generally David A. Harris,

The Stories, the Statistics, and the Law: Why "Driving While Black" Matters, 84 MINN. L. REV. 265, 273 (1999).

The shared danger of profiling encounters reflects the concept of "linked fate" among residents of minority neighborhoods.

"Linked fate" refers to the empathy that people have with family and friends. It can also exist among strangers.

In the African American community, linked fate has its foundation in the fact that the life chances of African Americans historically have been shaped by race. MICHAEL C. DAWSON, BEHIND THE MULE: RACE AND CLASS IN AFRICAN-AMERICAN POLITICS 77 (1994).

Linked fate suggests that when race over-determines an individual's life chances, it is much more efficient for that individual to use the relative and absolute status of the group as a proxy for individual utility. The long history of race-based constraints on life chances among blacks generates a certain efficiency in evaluating policies that affect minority individuals. Id.
 
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