Black People : CAN MONEY EVER BE FREE?

Discussion in 'Black People Open Forum' started by Orisons, Mar 23, 2015.

  1. Orisons

    Orisons Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    JUSTICE INITIATIVE​
    Note: "Basic Income" referred to below is perhaps one of the most relevant developments in the world today. If you have comments about "Basic Income" please send them to me at [email protected] and/or please send to your friends for comment. We can perhaps begin a broad narrative throughout the country about this. Also, please go to Counterpunch for daily information on a vast array of issues facing the world. Heather Gray
    The Idea of "Basic Income" Takes Root

    Free Money for Everyone! What's the World Coming To?

    by DANIEL RAVENTÓS and JULIE WARK

    Barcelona
    Counterpunch


    From Liberia, to Tokyo, to the Cherokee Nation and Old Europe, more and more people are talking about Basic Income in all kinds of different forums. If the global economic and environmental crises have had any positive effect it would be that people are fighting back. As history has so often shown, the neediest people are those who best understand human rights (in their absence).

    For more than three millennia the three basic principles of human rights, freedom, justice and human dignity, have been inscribed on clay and stone tablets, parchment and paper, usually after they have been shouted for and fought for, all around the world, in streets, squares and a variety of battlefields, from Mount Vesuvius (Spartacus) to slave ships. Nobody has to be taught these principles because all humans understand them as their rights.

    In the concept of "universal human rights", "universal" is redundant since the qualifier "human" means all humans. In the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), it qualifies "Declaration", suggesting the geographical scope of the proclamation rather than rights for all humans.

    In any case, the "universal" rights it pledged were swiftly rendered into separate "generations" of broken promises floating above and outside social and juridical institutions, without any mechanisms of guarantee and bestowed piecemeal by leaders or in the warped forms of humanitarianism and charity, although it is obvious that the generalised nature of a human right theoretically distinguishes it from any privilege confined to a group, class or caste.

    Now, with the obscenely growing gap between rich and poor, when it is estimated that by 2016 the richest 1% will own more than the rest of the world, the universal principle is more urgent than ever.

    Basic Income is one very practical example of a universal human right. It is not just an economic measure to eradicate poverty but an income paid by the State to each member or accredited resident of a society, regardless of whether he or she wishes to engage in paid employment, or is rich or poor, independently of any other sources of income and irrespective of cohabitation arrangements in the domestic sphere.

    The fact that everyone receives a Basic Income doesn't mean that everyone gains: the rich lose. How to finance it is as important as the quantity involved and we favour progressive tax reform which redistributes wealth from the rich to the rest of the population. Precisely the opposite of recent trends. In guaranteeing the most basic right of all, that of material existence, it would bring a host of side benefits, as many studies show. In the case of work, for example, it could have a major positive impact, not only in this regard but also in other spheres.

    With her momentous climate change alert This Changes Everything, Naomi Klein pulls together elements of science, politics, geopolitics, economics, the "stupid growth" and "stupid profits" of capitalism, "extractivism", patriarchy, psychology, ethics and activism, inter alia, which shape the future of the planet.

    She concludes that there is an urgent need for valuing work that we currently don't value and specifically mentions Basic Income, saying, "there has to be a stronger social safety net because when people don't have options, they're going to make bad choices". For Klein, the "universal" sense of Basic Income is that it could help to transform the way we treat and think about our whole (social and physical) environment.

    After years of having relatively few supporters, the idea of Basic Income is now spreading around the world. In Spain - probably " the place on Earth where the debate around Basic Income is most advanced" - after five years of public spending cuts, depressed demand, record unemployment, burgeoning poverty, and a growing public debt now at around 100% of GDP, and after twenty years of discussion in universities, grassroots movements and social networks, Basic Income is finally going mainstream.

    Although the new game-changing left-wing political party Podemos has temporarily retreated from its initial Basic Income proposal in favour of "full employment" (more fitting, perhaps, for the welfare states of the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s), many party members are Basic Income stalwarts. Other political organisations now proposing it include Equo, Pirata and Bildu (a coalition in the Basque Country) and, in Galicia, Anova, while still more small parties have projects which, while not strictly a Basic Income, come close.

    A recent number of the Basic Income Earth Network newsletter gives an idea of the worldwide spread of different versions of Basic Income. In Greece the new ruling party Syriza has declared its aim to establish "a closer link between pension contribution and income... and provide targeted assistance to employees between 50 and 65, including through a Guaranteed Basic Income scheme so as to eliminate the social and political pressure of early retirement which over-burdens the pension funds".

    In Finland, 65.5% of 1,642 (out of nearly 2,000) candidates for the parliamentary elections on 19 April publicly support the policy. Cyprus has passed a new law giving low income families a Guaranteed Minimum Income of €480 a month.

    In 2013, a grassroots movement in Switzerland called for a Basic Income of 2,500 Swiss francs per month and received over 100,000 signatures needed to force a referendum on the proposal. Ninety per cent of the members of Hungary's Green-Left party Párbeszéd Magyarországért ("Dialogue for Hungary") have voted for a Basic Income to which all citizens would be entitled, €80 per month for children, €160 for adults and €240 for young mothers.

    The poverty line in Hungary is estimated at around €200 for a single adult. In Portugal, where Basic Income is relatively unknown and misunderstood, the political party LIVRE has included Basic Income in its draft political programme for the autumn elections this year. Now recognising that inequality and social justice are also "green" issues, the fast-growing Green Party of England and Wales has announced that a Basic Income will be included in its manifesto.

    Outside Europe, Basic Income is gaining support in other industrialised countries including the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Japan. Alaska is an outstanding example because since 1982 it has had its own particular form of Basic Income, an unconditional annual dividend paid on an individual basis to all people who have lived there for at least twelve months (except those convicted of felony in the past year). The Alaska Permanent Fund (APF), consisting of 25% of the proceeds of the state's mineral (oil and gas) sales or royalties, foots the bill.

    The annual payout is based on a five-year average of APF earnings and has varied from $331.29 in 1984 to $3,269 in 2008. Although this "Basic Income" doesn't entail tax reform, its benefits are undeniable. Alaska features among the states with the lowest poverty rates in the United States and is one of the least unequal. In 2009, the dividend added US$900 million to Alaskans' purchasing power, the equivalent of 10,000 new jobs.

    The idea of Basic Income has taken root in the countries of the South as an anti-poverty measure, for example in Brazil, Namibia and South Africa. Brazil is the world's first country to have adopted a law (2003) calling for gradual introduction of a Basic Income.

    In South Africa, trade unions, churches and many NGOs are calling for it and, in Namibia, the Basic Income Grant Coalition (headed by the Council of Churches, National Union of Namibian Workers, Namibian NGO Forum, National Youth Council and the Namibian Network of AIDS Service Organisations) conducted a two-year pilot project (2007-2009) in Otjivero-Omitara, a low-income rural area, where 930 inhabitants received a monthly payment of 100 Namibian dollars each (US$12.4).

    The payment was small but the results were surprising: numbers of underweight children went from 42% to 10%; school dropout rates fell from 40% to almost 0%; the number of small businesses increased, as did the purchasing power of the inhabitants, thereby creating a market for the new products.

    However, the Namibian government has thus far balked at introducing a national Basic Income.

    In Mexico City a pension paid as a right to all people (some 410,000) of 68 years and over has also paid social dividends: increased autonomy and freedom of the aged, more respect in the family milieu, greater public visibility, improved self esteem, better nutrition and health, and a decrease in social inequality.

    In 2010, a partial Basic Income was introduced in India in a UNICEF-supported pilot scheme conducted by the trade union Self-Employed Women's Association ( SEWA). For one year, 6,000 individuals in rural areas of Madhya Pradesh received an unconditional payment, working out at about US$24 per month for the average family. The project ended with improved nutrition, health, education, housing and infrastructure, economic activity and, especially, educational attainment.

    Other initiatives, related to Basic Income to the extent that they are "free money programmes" have given one-off payments to homeless people in London, to the poor inhabitants of a village in the west of Kenya, and to girls and women in Malawi.

    All of them show clear correlations between free money and lower crime rates, reduced inequality, less malnutrition, lower infant mortality and teenage pregnancy rates, less truancy, better school completion rates, greater economic growth and higher emancipation rates.

    Then there is the interesting case of Cherokee, North Carolina (population 8,000) where the Eastern Band of the Cherokee Nation owns the casino. In 1996, the tribal council voted to distribute half the casino's profits evenly among its approximately 15,000 members so as to give the community a share in the gambling wealth. The payouts have risen from $500 to about $10,000 per person per year.

    Jane Costello, a Duke University researcher who has been studying the effects of these payments on 1,420 Cherokee-area children over the last twenty years, comparing the lives of poor children who got the payments with those who didn't, found that, some years on, those getting the payments were one grade ahead in school compared with those who didn't, overall mental health improved, and behavioural problems in this group decreased by 40% and crime rates by 22%.

    The "partial" Basic Income programmes and one-off "free money" initiatives are instructive because they demonstrate that small unconditional payments can make great differences in social and mental health. If a one-off non-universal payment can have such positive effects, what could a "true" Basic Income do?


    But what is a Basic Income?

    There is some confusion here because what is often thought to be "Basic Income" takes many forms and different names.

    Spain, for example, has a "renda garantida de ciutadania" in the Statute of Catalonia, while in other Autonomous Regions it appears as a "salario social" or "renta mínima de inserción". However, these are all conditioned subsidies for people below a certain income threshold.

    Podemos came up with an impeccably defined Basic Income in the heady days of its win at the European elections but then opted out, while the smaller parties, Bildu, Anova and Equo, have programmed a Basic Income close to the definition used by the Spanish Red Renta Basica (Basic Income Network). This coincides with that adopted in November 2007 by the Universal Declaration of Emergent Human Rights, approved at the Universal Forum of Cultures in Monterrey. Basic Income is enshrined as a human right in Article 1 (3):

    The right to a basic income or universal citizen's income that guarantees to every human being, independently of age, gender, sexual orientation, civil or employment status, the right to live in material conditions of dignity. To this end, a regular cash payment, financed by tax reforms and covered by the state budget, and sufficient to cover his or her basic needs, is recognised as a right of citizenship of every member-resident of the society, whatever his or her other sources of income may be.

    Rather than holding out a right to having certain minimal vital needs covered in cases of poverty or some catastrophe, Article 1 (3) enshrines Basic Income as a right, an ongoing guarantee to every single individual of being able "to live in material conditions of dignity". No one would be excluded by poverty from engaging in social life and exercising her or his rights and duties as a citizen. It conceives of this right on a universal scale, for rich and poor, developed or developing countries alike.

    A guaranteed basic income, above the poverty line, for everybody, would offer a much firmer, autonomous base of existence to (theoretically) all of the world's citizens. The economic independence furnished by a basic income, paid not to households but to individuals, would establish a kind of domestic "counter-power" that could strengthen the bargaining position of women, especially those dependent on the husband or male head of the family, or low earners in exploitative, part time or discontinuous employment.

    Many farmers in poor countries and workers in developed countries are struggling to survive. In capitalist economies, unemployment is comparable with the landlessness of small farmers in agrarian societies because both economies are characterised by dispossession of land and other means of production. The dispossessed must then sell their labour, usually in crushing conditions, in order to subsist.

    One of the basic features of today's economic functioning is the great power of capital to bring the working population to heel. Underlying this disciplinary capacity is the existence of a large, jobless part of the population.

    When the possibility of dismissal looms ever-larger, the working population must accept increasingly worse conditions from bosses having the whip hand. In a situation close to full employment, when this existed, the power of employers was diminished.

    A Basic Income would represent an effective tool for countering the disciplinary power of capital and would make leaving the job market a viable option. Although it may seem paradoxical at first sight, many unions (with a few honorable exceptions) have failed to understand the enormous capacity of Basic Income for undermining the discipline that capital can and does impose in a situation of widespread unemployment.

    In poor countries this possibility of non-dominated organisation of labour power could bring into being alternative networks of production while also protecting traditional ways of life. For example, a group of small farmers could buy a tractor to increase food production, and a truck to take their produce to a market.

    This would expand productive networks and encourage sustainable community development, which would then give villagers more effective leverage in claiming essential or improved infrastructure, for example schools, clinics, roads and bridges.

    In a post-conflict situation, a Basic Income would also have beneficial effects by enabling a return to traditional forms of community-based production and, thus reintegrating people, would help to defuse the potential for violence that flares up periodically and dramatically especially among uprooted young people who have no opportunities to work, or because evident signs of increasing social inequality in a traumatised society are a permanent flashpoint for a generalised feeling of injustice. Food security is vitally important.

    Such a basic matter as a well-balanced diet could be greatly favoured, for example, if people could transport vegetables to the coast and fish to inland villages. This alone could make a notable difference in the overall health of the population. Economic development is better achieved by breaking ties of dependency and promoting robust productive initiatives at both individual and group levels, projects that are conceived and planned within the society as opposed to the often drastically inappropriate schemes that are imposed from outside aid agencies.

    A Basic Income is not difficult to finance, as a recent exhaustive study for Catalonia has shown. Another study recently carried out for the Kingdom of Spain as a whole, based on a sample of almost two million income tax declarations, showed that a Basic Income at the poverty threshold of €7,500 per year (and a fifth of that to under-eighteens) could be financed without touching any social service and, moreover, saving a lot in administrative costs and welfare payments of lesser sums, which would be abolished.

    A person getting a pension of €1,500 per month would receive the same (€650 as Basic Income and €850 as a pension) but the person now receiving benefits or a pension of €400 would receive €650, more than 60% extra. These two studies are based on a system of progressive income tax redistribution in which the richest 20% would finance the Basic Income, which they would also receive. The lower-income 70% of the population would gain; a neat reverse of the present situation. Introducing a Basic Income is not an economic problem but a political one.

    Each zone and country is different, but financing should basically entail changing budgetary priorities, reform of taxation systems or increasing VAT and excise duties on luxury goods, cars, alcohol or tobacco, and financial transaction taxes, for example. This achieves a substantial reduction in inequality of income distribution and greater simplicity and internal coherence in taxation and welfare systems.

    Basic Income isn't a panacea that would solve all the world's social and economic problems, but it would mean wider-spread opportunities for people to participate in productive activities, enhanced social inclusion within stronger communities, greater political and social participation, and a major reduction of poverty and poverty-related problems.

    It is not an isolated economic policy but part of an overall project in the domain of political economy, aiming to guarantee and fortify the material existence of the whole population. It is an institutionally guaranteed and inclusive form of property that might also be seen as a kind of indemnification of past and present wrongs because it calls upon the more privileged citizens to contribute towards achieving the right of existence for everyone.

    Herein resides the political obstacle to Basic Income.

    Daniel Raventós is a lecturer in Economics at the University of Barcelona and author inter alia of Basic Income: The Material Conditions of Freedom (Pluto Press, 2007). He is on the editorial board of the international political review Sin Permiso

    Julie Wark is an advisory board member of the international political review Sin Permiso. Her last book is The Human Rights Manifesto (Zero Books, 2013).
     
  2. Orisons

    Orisons Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    I truly didn’t know that Daniel Raventós publisher (Pluto Press) were still going as they published the book [The Creation of World Poverty by Teresa Hayter] that first awakened me [circa 1980] to both TRUE African History and the manner in which the current status quo’s POWER ELITE is STILL very very intently focused on totally enslaving the whole human family this time [10 times more efficiently than the irons that were utilized on my enslaved African ancestors, and their siblings and comrades who were tortured, mutilated and murdered for either refusing to BOW/BE BROKEN or to traumatize the rest of us into total subservience], aren’t they?

    Teresa Hayter’s manifesto/mantra was “Socialism or Barbarism” but didn’t the information that her book provided very spectacularly highlight that barbarism was winning as most prominently illustrated by Salvatore Allende and his regime being removed from power and executed in Chile within 3 weeks of Nationalizing the USA’s Annaconda Copper who for an investment of $50 million had extracted $2000 million of copper over a 50 year span; and isn’t that process ongoing TODAY as highlighted by the 7 months of NATO bombardment that facilitated the murder of Muammar Gaddafi and the total destruction of his regime in Libya in 2011 [to derail his self funded African Central Bank underwritten by 200 tons of gold, African Federation Agenda]?

    Additionally, why would the Western Europeans/whites generally, the ruling elites of the USA, UK, Belgium, Germany, Holland, Italy, France, Spain, and Portugal specifically change the formula/format [White Supremacist Racist oppression of the rest of Humanity] that has made the people from this planet’s poorest continent with the least natural resources [Europe] easily the wealthiest people in the world, TODAY?

    Russell Brand, George Galloway and many of the more rationally SANE whites worldwide truly don’t seem to know [whereas other prominent people don’t want to KNOW] why the current POWER ELITE are so consistently maliciously EVIL; whereas isn’t the crux of the problem the fact that no European nation’s elite/ruling class has EVER aspired to equably distribute wealth to their own people who THEY previously owned as serfs/slaves, with only the shortages of labour created by the BLACK DEATH forcing their ancestors to even start paying their own lower echelons wages [which is why THEY would NEVER be even a little bit interested in BASIC INCOME, they only want SLAVES]?

    With that so malignant hoarding mentality such an integral part of both their individual and collective ethos/asili isn't this BASIC INCOME initiative being overly optimistic with regard to these maliciously elitist PARASITES EVER wanting to GROW UP, create balanced sustainable societies in Europe among themselves, as opposed to sharing this planet's abundant resources with non-whites/the rest of Humanity despite the fact that there are more than enough resources/free energy technology on this planet for a genuinely Utopian idyll to manifest in Europe and worldwide [as underlined by the Chinese managing to feed themselves/create both a fiscal surplus and growing economy] for everyone?

    How many European or Africans monarchs have ever conquered as many countries/ethnic groups as Genghis Khan and the Mongol horde [apart from when the sun didn’t set on the British Empire], aren't virtually all of those countries Genghis conquered still independent sovereign nations with their own culture still speaking their own languages as viable countries/nations, TODAY?

    When is that EVER likely to be the case for the indigenous peoples of the Americas and Australasia who actually managed to survive [not be totally exterminated like the Mohicans, the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean and Tasmania, but have been relegated into a minority powerless underclass in their homelands as exemplified by the so wretched condition of the Native Americans in the Americas, and the Aboriginals and Maoris of Australasia] the ongoing European onslaught that has transformed all of their territories into countries [especially the USA, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Chile, Australia, New Zealand] controlled by white elites speaking European languages as standard [hardly Christianity’s finest hour hence their ongoing fear of Muslims aping their style in the 21st century]?

    Isn’t the only thing that saved the tropical regions of Africa from the level of European infestation that Southern Africa and Kenya was so completely CRUSHED by, is still struggling to recover from, the fact that back then Whites had severe problems coping with the climate, or Africans would also have been as completely swamped by both European masses/elites as the Americas and Australasia have been, still ARE TODAY?

    Aren’t political ideologies very passé/DEAD in the 21st century or haven’t you ALL noticed/noted the manner in which allegedly communist China is currently the most efficiently CAPITALIST economy in the world [despite having a slowing economic growth rate of 8% as opposed to the difficulty the USA/UK most of the West are having getting their economic growth up to even anywhere near 1%] with the UK and USA’s so inept execution of capitalism creating record breaking fiscal deficits between imports to exports with the USA actually STILL owing China trillions of dollars TODAY [what would the so completely elitist Rednecks be saying if China was the country with consistently increasing fiscal deficits]?

    What about the so pragmatic manner in which as opposed to executing capitalism in Hong Kong when they regained political control in 1997, China’s Communist party/Government have subsequently utilized it as an economic template for their Super Cities on the mainland [hence the so phenomenal growth since then which has eased the so huge burden of feeding 1400 million people; placed China on the cusp of becoming the No.1 financial Super Power of the 21st century] apart from retaining state ownership/control of the banks?

    Japan’s capitalism distributes wealth/behaves with far more social responsibility than most European countries, with India close to matching China’s economic growth utilizing a far more rampant free market/world’s most populous democracy model; along with Russia’s oligarchs steadily being either reeled in or crushed by Vladimir Putin, does the political ideology really matter in the 21st century, as South Korea vies with Japan for the most technologically advanced country on the planet position, along with Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines attempting to fully industrialize/join the party too [move their countries forward intelligently]?

    In fact isn’t it truly bizarre that China is so efficiently locked in to capitalism [who would have envisioned that scenario even 20 years ago] that they have no vested interest in undermining any of the industrialized countries of the West in general, the USA specifically as China’s growth has been based on the goods exported to the rest of the World, which along with the USA owing them trillions of dollars underlines the economic grief for China if the trillions of dollars China has stockpiled, became worthless [why they are fanning out worldwide utilizing those dollars to acquire strategically vital assets/can/are literally buying as opposed to militarily subjugating Africa TODAY]?

    Even more profoundly baffling is our ongoing acceptance/truly devout support as people of African ethnicity of the current status quo or are you all truly unaware of the fact that ALL over the World including Africa, Europeans still LEGALLY own allegedly; all the land and resources they acquired during the looting, pillaging, RAPE of this planet in general, of OUR continent [Africa] in particular that Colonialism and Apartheid sanctioned as the norm [in fact aren’t THEY making the same play again with their WAR ON TERROR] as opposed to the longest list of unacknowledged unpunished Human Rights violations/CRIMES in human history?


    Isn’t ANYONE who genuinely believes they are not programmed
    graphically illustrating that their programming is COMPLETE?
     
    Last edited: Mar 28, 2015
  3. Orisons

    Orisons Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Hasn’t the trickle-down economics as opposed to being the WAY FORWARD [touted by the political parties here in the UK with the upcoming General Election in May 2015] been a consistently spectacular FAIL with regard to creating sustainable economic growth [as opposed to very very efficiently pressing more and more people into the USA's underclass] with the UK and USA’s so consistently inept execution of capitalism/letting the Free Market reign creating record breaking fiscal deficits between imports to exports, with the USA actually STILL owing China trillions of dollars TODAY [what would these so very elitist CLOWNS be saying if China as opposed to the USA was the country in consistent record breaking fiscal deficit/debt for over 14 years now]?

    Even more bizarre is our ongoing acceptance/truly devout support as people of African ethnicity of the current status quo or are you all truly unaware of the fact that ALL over the World including Africa, Europeans still LEGALLY own allegedly; all the land and resources they acquired during the looting, pillaging, RAPE of this planet in general, of OUR continent [Africa] in particular that Colonialism and Apartheid sanctioned as the norm [in fact aren’t THEY making the same play again with their WAR ON TERROR] as opposed to the longest list of unacknowledged/with no formal apology/reparations to date, unpunished Human Rights violations/CRIMES in human history?

    However, isn't our biggest challenge in the 21st century creating and then adequately protecting/ keeping alive our more brilliant/dedicated and rationally focused on our collective advancement leaders like Dr Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, Patrice Lumumba, Steve Biko, Thomas Sakarna, Samora Machel, Muammar Gaddafi [whereas CLOWNS and puppets like Mobutu, Zuma, Blaise Campaiore etc are constantly protected, aren't they] or are you going to be the first to be specific as to which African leader has actually achieved more for Africa over the last 500 years than Muammar Gaddafi [a Semite/Arab]?

    Don’t we have ready-made templates as currently exemplified by the Greenwood, Archer and Pine community of Tulsa, Oklahoma circa 1920, what Thomas Sakarna achieved in Burkino Faso, Gaddafi making Libya Africa’s only welfare state, and China [I visited Beijing in 2012 a very impressive/ frightening experience] and India currently being the fastest growingeconomies on the planet, as well as Cuba's achievements of the last 40 years despite STILL being under siege from the fascist wing of the USA's POWER ELITE which ALWAYS controls their government [regardless of which party is in power]?

    While visiting Cuba in 2002 I witnessed first hand their achievements of the last 55 years despite being constantly under siege [from the fascist wing of the USA's elite, which is literally going from strength to strength as illustrated by Bush’s fraudulent election victories], whereas what has really changed/ improved even during Obama’s second term [Obamacare is garbage/as medical care in the West is just another business focused on huge profits as opposed the populace’s health] as he literally has no option other than to utilize his considerable intellect/sharp wits to try to put a positive spin on the dictates of the same NEO-CON NUTCASES that were pulling his predecessor G.W. Bush Jr’s strings?

    The increasing collaboration Cuba and Venezuela/Hugo Chavez’s replacement Nicholas Maduro [with Venezuela recently labelled as an "Enemy" of the USA due to Obama having to do exactly what the NEO- CON NUTCASES tell him to do] along with Bolivia and other countries in the region is the best news this region has had; isn’t it, because since the scuppering by that Jamaican buffoon Buste Mante of Eric Williams initiative/thrust [Trinidad has a huge steel mill/rational base for industrialization of the region] to form a federation of the West Indies in the late 1960's the non-whites in general, the peoples of African ethnicity in the Caribbean and the South American Diaspora in particular have all been going backwards fast [into murderous chaos], haven't they?


    Isn’t ANYONE who genuinely believes they are not programmed
    graphically illustrating that their programming is COMPLETE?
     
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