Pert Em Heru / Kemetian Texts : Can Budge Be Trusted ?

Discussion in 'Pert Em Heru / Kemetian Texts Study Group' started by Destee, Sep 23, 2006.

  1. Destee

    Destee destee.com STAFF

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    Sir Ernest Alfred Thompson Wallis Budge - (July 27, 1857–November 23, 1934) - was an English Egyptologist, Orientalist, and Philologist who worked for the British Museum and published numerous works on the ancient Near East.

    Early life

    E.A. Wallis Budge was born in Bodmin, Cornwall to Mary Ann Budge, a young woman whose father was a waiter in a Bodmin hotel. Budge's father has never been identified. Budge left Cornwall as a young man, and eventually came to live with his grandmother and aunt in London.

    Budge became interested in languages before he was ten years old, but given that he left school at the age of twelve in 1869 to work as a clerk at the firm of W.H. Smith, he mostly studied Hebrew and Syriac with a volunteer tutor. Budge became interested in learning Assyrian in 1872, when he also began to spend time in the British Museum. Budge was introduced to the Keeper of Oriental Antiquities, Samuel Birch, and his assistant, the Assyriologist George Smith, and Smith helped Budge occasionally with his Assyrian, whereas Birch allowed the young man to study cuneiform tablets in his office and obtained books for him to read from the British Library.

    From 1869 to 1878 Budge spent whatever free time he had from his job at W.H. Smith studying Assyrian, and he often went to St. Paul's Cathedral over his lunch break to study during these years. When the organist of St. Paul's, John Stainer, noticed Budge's hard work, he decided to help the boy to realize his dream of working in a profession that would allow him to study Assyrian, and Stainer contacted Budge's employer, the Conservative Member of Parliament W.H. Smith, as well as the former Liberal Prime Minister W.E. Gladstone, and asked them to help his young friend. Both Smith and Gladstone agreed to help Stainer to raise money for Budge to attend Cambridge University, where Budge studied Semitic languages, including Hebrew, Syriac, Ethiopic and Arabic from 1878 to 1883, continuing to study Assyrian on his own. Budge worked closely during these years with the famous scholar of Semitic languages William Wright, among others.


    Career at the British Museum

    Budge entered the British Museum in the re-named Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities in 1883, and though he was initially appointed to the Assyrian section, he soon transferred to the Egyptian section, where he began to study the ancient Egyptian language with Samuel Birch until the latter's death in 1885. Budge continued to study ancient Egyptian with the new Keeper, Peter le Page Renouf, until Renouf's retirement in 1891. In the meantime, Budge was deputed by the British Museum to excavate British Museum sites and establish ties with antiquities dealers in Egypt and Iraq, to both of which countries he travelled between 1886 and 1891. Budge returned from these missions to Egypt and Iraq with enormous collections of cuneiform tablets, Syriac, Coptic and Greek manuscripts, as well as significant collections of hieroglyphic papyri. Perhaps his most famous acquisitions from this time were the beautiful Papyrus of Ani, a fragment of a lost work by Aristotle, and the Tell al-Amarna tablets. Budge's prolific and well-planned acquisitions gave the British Museum arguably the best Ancient Near East collections in the world, and the Assyriologist Archibald Sayce remarked to Budge in 1900, ". . . What a revolution you have effected in the Oriental Department of the Museum! It is now a veritable history of civilization in a series of object lessons . . ."

    Budge became Assistant Keeper in his department after Renouf retired in 1891, and was confirmed as Keeper in 1894, a position in which he remained until 1924, specializing in Egyptology. Budge and the other collectors for the museums of Europe regarded having the best collection of Egyptian and Assyrian antiquities in the world as a matter of national pride, and there was tremendous competition for Egyptian and Iraqi antiquities. They smuggled antiquities in diplomatic pouches, bribed customs officials, or simply went to friends or countrymen in the Service of Antiquities to ask them to pass their cases unopened. Budge was no more scrupulous than the others, but his exaggarated reputation for wrong-doing is more the result of the attacks by his professional enemies, such as Flinders Petrie and his many followers, than it is anything else.


    Literary and social career

    Budge was also a prolific author, and he is especially remembered today for his works on Egyptian religion and his now-dated hieroglyphic primers. Budge's works on Egyptian religion were unique in that he maintained that the religion of Osiris had emerged from an indigenous African people, a position which Petrie and others regarded as impossible, insisting that the entirety of Egyptian culture had been imported by Aryan invaders. His works were widely read by the educated public and among those seeking comparative ethnological data, including James Frazer, who incorporated some of Budge's ideas on Osiris into his ever-growing work The Golden Bough. Budge was somewhat interested in paranormal matters, and many people who were involved with the occult and spiritualism after losing their faith in Christianity were dedicated to Budge's works, particularly his translation of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, which was very important to such writers as the poet William Butler Yeats and James Joyce. His works on Egyptian religion have remained consistently in print since they entered the public domain, and this is most likely because Budge was, himself, a proponent of the liberalization of Christianity and devoted to comparative religions, and his works often appeal to those who are similarly motivated.

    Budge was a member of the literary and open-minded Savile Club in London, proposed by his friend H. Rider Haggard in 1889, and accepted in 1891. He was a much sought-after dinner guest in London, his humourous stories and anecdotes being famous in his circle, and it is hardly surprising that the low-born Budge was fascinated not only by the company of literary men, but also by that of the aristocracy. He sedulously sought the company of the well-born, many of whom he seems to have met when they brought to the British Museum the scarabs and statuettes they had purchased while on holiday in Egypt. Budge never lacked for an invitation to a country house in the summer or to a fashionable townhouse during the London season.

    Budge seems to have felt that he had something to prove to his contemporaries, for he published works at an alarming rate, often sacrificing attention to detail to quantity of publications, and though his books are widely available to the public, his work is widely considered today as unreliable, and usually misleading. Budge was knighted for his distinguished contributions to Egyptology and the British Museum in 1920, also the year he published his sprawling autobiography, By Nile and Tigris. He retired from the British Museum in 1924, and lived on until 1934, continuing to publish book after book up until the completion of his last work, From Fetish to God in Ancient Egypt (1934). In his will, Budge established the Lady Budge Research Fellowships at Cambridge and Oxford Universities, which continue to this day to support young Egyptologists.

    The British Museum has published an official statement about Budge's works on their website, which can be read by clicking the external link below. The statement indicates that old rivalries die hard in the British Museum, and the presence of a number of old works by Flinders Petrie on the list of recommended readings might well suggest a source for the continuing hostility to Budge.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._A._Wallis_Budge

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  2. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Can Budge be trusted?

    Since he is dead I will say no.

    However, Budge, along with Gerald Massey, wrote very extensively in developing a branch of study known as "Egyptology". I am sure that many "Black-centered" ideologists have rejected his work but there are few Black/African researchers who have written more sextnsively than Budge. I particularly find interesting his book entitled "Egyptian Magic".

    Budge had his racial, religious and ideological bias but he was one of the view scholars who extensively studied the "Pyramid Texts" and sought to objectively document his findings. Like many researchers, Budge's works are filled with assumptionsand speculation but I do not find this to be any different than most "Black" historians who also have their subjective bias.
     
  3. Destee

    Destee destee.com STAFF

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    He's a known thief (of our people) ... and i've always heard ... if a person will steal, they'll lie.

    Actually it goes ... if a person will lie, they'll steal ... whch makes our depending on him (or those like him) worse.

    Who is this man, that he should be an authority on our Ancestor's thoughts ... and we believe what he tells us?

    Again, we're primarily depending on white people, to give us our own people's truth.

    Are we going from the frying pan, to the fire?

    :heart:

    Destee
     
  4. Destee

    Destee destee.com STAFF

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    What does living or dead have to do with trusting someone's work? If he were alive, you'd trust him?

    I'll take the subjective bias of a Black historian, over a white historian's racial, religious, and ideological bias any day.

    Perhaps the reason why there aren't any Black/African researchers who have written more on the subject than he has, is because he was given access first, many years before they granted us titles like African/Black Researcher Anthropologist.

    In addition, few of us have had access to our own Ancestor's tombs, prior to their pillaging, plundering, and stealing.

    At this point, we don't have a lot of choice, regarding accepting what they present as our Ancestor's whole truth.

    :heart:

    Destee
     
  5. Moorfius

    Moorfius Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Good Question*

    Hotep

    Even though he is who he is...we can use what he exposes untill we learn to "Read, Write, Understand and Master" the "Real"...Medu Neteru our selves...until then we are at the lack of mercy in the case of our collective, historical enemies to have mercy on us...if that is what we choose for our self. Budge has the most masterful renditions of any europian who brought our Ancestors sacrit writings to Amerikkka for us to see and read to wake up our minds to transend what he called translation...read between the lines...People Know your Self*

    Ase`

    Note: The so-called "Roseta-Stone" was never compleatly translated. If you are sincere about Medu Neteru...why not go to a True scorce ware the subject is crystle clear. http://www.theearthcenter.com/
     
  6. I-khan

    I-khan Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    I agree with all of the above..but I would also like to add this in.

    In terms of do re-search (ie to search again) and reading the works of different scholars ('black'/afrikan or 'white'/european or otherwise) I would suggest that we do not take their word as the gospel truth and such because of a few reasons being that:

    1)One of the reasons they let their works be known is because they want other people to know and to become interested to come to their own conclusions.


    2)They themselves are people so they may find something they do not like and will omit it, OR, they can actually impede the progress of a particular movement/organization b/c of who they are really working for (like W.E.B. Dubois did with the pan-afrikan congress:http://www.destee.com/forums/showthread.php?t=43492)

    I say just take his data for what it is worth....just data...and let us see what we can draw from it besides what he wants to show us.
     
  7. Destee

    Destee destee.com STAFF

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    Everything we have been told of our Beloved Africa, from white people, has for the most part been a lie.

    How are you determining that he has "the most masterful renditions" ... when we have never seen the original, and can't read it?

    :heart:

    Destee
     
  8. Destee

    Destee destee.com STAFF

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    Yes Brother I-Khan ... that is the key ... we must look way beyond what they say and show us.

    :heart:

    Destee
     
  9. emanuel goodman

    emanuel goodman Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    correct!

    I agree with you sir. it is up to us to mainfest our own hidden intelligence (the amen). It is also very important to read several different authors on one subject in order to try to obtain a holistic pictured based mainly on his story or he said she said blah blah blah:bullseye:
     
  10. river

    river Watch Her Flow MEMBER

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    This is why I was so happy when brotha Sam mentioned that Muata Ashby has a translation.

    The best we can do is compare apples to oranges with no access to the trees from which they came.

    The beauty of fruit is that it contains seed which can take its own root and grow into a tree.

    Let's not devalue our ability to take what was and create what can be.
     
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