Black History Culture : Biafra

Discussion in 'Black History - Culture - Panafricanism' started by cherryblossom, May 30, 2012.

  1. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    Thursday, 13 January, 2000, 07:04 GMT
    Biafra: Thirty years on


    [​IMG]The Ibo took up arms after years of ethnic friction


    By Nigeria correspondent Barnaby Philips

    It is 30 years since the end of one of post-independence Africa's first and most bloody wars.
    The Nigerian civil war not only came close to tearing Africa's most populous country apart, it also provoked passions in many other parts of the world, particularly in Britain, the former colonial power.
    Nigeria became independent in 1960. Like most ex-colonies in the continent, its boundaries had been defined quite arbitrarily to demarcate where the competing claims of the imperial powers collided.
    Consequently Nigeria was composed of semi-autonomous Muslim feudal states in the desert north, and once-powerful Christian and animist kingdoms in the south and east, which was where the country's only significant source of income - oil - was exploited.
    Ethnic split
    At independence, Nigeria had a federal constitution comprising three regions defined by the principal ethnic groups in the country - the Hausa and Fulani in the north, Yoruba in the south-west, and Ibo in the south-east.



    [​IMG]The fighting led to famine and chaos



    But as the military took over in the mid-1960s, and the economic situation worsened, ethnic tensions broke out.
    Up to 30,000 Ibos were killed in fighting with Hausas, and around 1million refugees fled to their Ibo homeland in the east.

    On 30 May, 1967, the head of the Eastern Region, Colonel Emeka Ojukwu, unilaterally declared the independent Republic of Biafra.

    After initial military gains, the Biafran forces were pushed back.

    ...cont....http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/596712.stm
     
  2. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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  3. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    The Nigerian Civil War, Causes, Strategies, And Lessons Learnt

    By Major Abubakar A. Atofarati: CSC 1992
    Student: US Marine Command & Staff College(Academic Year 1991/92)

    1. Outline.
    2. Introduction.
    3. Executive Summary.
    4. Background History of Nigeria.
    5. History of the Nigerian Army before 1966.
    6. The War - Planning Strategies.
    7. The Clash of Arms.
    8. Lessons Learnt.
    9. Conclusion.
    10. Bibliography.

    OUTLINE
    The Nigerian Civil War was fought to reintegrate and reunify the country. This paper will focus on the causes of the war, strategies employed by the belligerents in the conflict, and the lessons learnt.

    INTRODUCTION
    The Federation of Nigeria, as it is known today, has never really been one homogeneous country, for it's widely differing peoples and tribes. This obvious fact notwithstanding, the former colonial master decided to keep the country one in order to effectively control her vital resources for their economic interests. Thus, for administrative convenience the Northern and Southern Nigeria were amalgamated in 1914. Thereafter the only thing this people had in common was the name of their country since each side had different administrative set - up.This alone was an insufficient basis for true unity. Under normal circumstances the amagalmation ought to have brought the various peoples together and provided a firm basis for the arduous task of establishing closer cultural, social, religious, and linguistic ties vital for true unity among the people. There was division, hatred, unhealthy rivalry, and pronounced disparity in development.

    The growth of nationalism in the society and the subsequent emergence of political parties were based on ethnic/tribal rather than national interests, and therefore had no unifying effect on the peoples against the colonial master. Rather, it was the people themselves who were the victims of the political struggles which were supposed to be aimed at removing foreign domination. At independence Nigeria became a Federation and remained one country. Soon afterwards the battle to consolidate the legacy of political and military dominance of a section of Nigeria over the rest of the Federation began with increased intensity. It is this struggle that eventually degenerated into coup, counter coup and a bloody civil war.

    CONTINUED HERE: http://www.africamasterweb.com/BiafranWarCauses.html
     
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