http://www.connerprairie.org/HistoryOnline/colon.html This article gives some historical background to the "Back to Africa" movement in the context of 'African Colonization Society'. Historically, "Pan Africanists" have viewed this early history as a development in the ideology of Pan-Africanism but let's take a closer look at how this idea of "African Colonization" actually developed. "But the most famous and important proponenet was the American Colonization Society. Organized in 1816, its purpose was aptly evoked by its name. The organization's official title was the American Society for Colonizing the Free People of Color in the United States. One of the founding fathers of the society was Rev. Robert Finley. Finley was instrumental in getting such luminaries as Francis Scott Key, Henry Clay, and Andrew Jackson to lend their names to the movement. The Society's first President was Bushrod Washington, nephew of the great man himself." There are a few thing here that I find the need to meditate upon. "Organized in 1816" "American Society for COLONIZING the FREE PEOPLE of COLOR in the United States." Well, for one I have to VISUALIZE "Free People of Color" in the United States in 1816. Does this sound like a "Pan Africanist" movement to you? It actually was a PLAN to COLONIZE FREE BLACKS residing in New Orleans/Louisiana and the "Diaspora". And it's intent was to dispose of these FREE BLACKS to open up settlement for european immigrants. But it also Pre-dated the Belgian Conference and the "Scramble for Africa". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scramble_for_Africa Scramble for Africa - Wikipedia en.wikipedia.org A close examination of these facts reveals that the united states interests in africa, thanks to the American Colonization Society, and others, was well established before 1888. Liberia and Sierra Leone became "colonization" schemes, sometimes with the assistance of Black "leaders", and as a base for american imperialism in Africa. And it was this early american initiative which gave it an early advantage over other european powers because it did not require a mass settlement of "white folks". They already had a ready supply of Black military personnel dating back to the war for "independence".