Omowale Jabali : An Examination of Source Materials

Discussion in 'Omowale Jabali' started by Omowale Jabali, Feb 11, 2011.

  1. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    The purpose of this thread is to examine source materials, and their origination and relative correspondences, as references utilized in the research conducted by myself over the past 20 years while writing a forthcoming text titled "The Bible With Complexion." What this thread will do is discuss some of the source materials and how they were used not only in the structuring of the Biblical framework but their relationship to ancient Egyptian literature specifically, and its related content.

    The first consideration naturally is the Book of Genesis. One author (Roberts) states the following:

    "Although Moses has traditionally been considered the author of Genesis, modern scholars generally agree that the book is a composite of at least three different literary strands: J (10th century BC), E (9th century), and P (5th century). The interpretation of the book has led to many controversies. One of the most difficult problems has been distinguishing historical fact from symbolic narration intended to convey a religious message."

    http://mb-soft.com/believe/txs/genesis.htm

    This necessitates an examination of these three strands, which at the earliest date to the 10th century BC.
     
  2. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Roberts also states the following, concerning the Biblical "Moses".

    "Consider the practical issues of that ancient time. At Moses' time (apparently around 1300 BC), there were actually not yet even any organized written languages yet! (Actual written languages would develop around 100 to 300 years later. Only symbol systems such as Egyptian hieroglyphics yet existed, and they were not languages at all. Worse, they were not capable of expressing sophisticated concepts such as the Sabbath. It would likely take hundreds of picture symbols to express the single sentence, Honor the Sabbath. ) It would be hard to imagine Moses taking the time to carve thousands of picture symbols into blocks of stone, along the lines of the heiroglyphics that existed at that time. So, for very practical reasons, it seems almost certain that (a) Moses was certainly the "author" of the First Five Books of the Bible, but that (b) he did not actually write them down. After all, he was leading a group of people across a desert and in even more dire situations, and had many more urgent things to be dealing with that carving symbols into stones! (And then carrying large numbers of such stones with them through the desert!)

    So it seems almost certain that Moses (physically) did NOT write down those texts, but instead passed them along orally, in the same way that countless societies before and since have done. By around 1000 BC, written language had developed in the region, including Ancient Hebrew or Paleo-Hebrew, and it seems clear that people thought it important to then write down, in a permanent form, the words of Moses. Over the 300-year period between Moses and them (around 15 generations of people) many people had had to memorize and repeat, exactly, all the thousands of words of Moses to the next generation. They were certainly extremely good at preserving those "oral traditions" but human beings are not perfect. And so it seems very reasonable to me that (at least) two SLIGHTLY different oral traditions of Moses' words could easily have existed by fifteen generations later in 1000 BC."
     
  3. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    If it is true that Paleo-Hebrew written language developed around 1000 BC, this means the development occured during the ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period, specifically after the collapse of the last Ramessids, about the time of the rule of Smedes (ruled 1069- 1043BC), a vizier of Lower Egypt, who set up his capital in the Delta city of Tanis. Upper Egypt was ruled from Thebes, where Herihor, who combined the offices of high priest of Amun and vizier of Upper Egypt, was placed as effective king.

    Unity was briefly restored when his grandson Pinudjem I, who at first reigned as high priest, formally assumed the kingship and ruled at Tanis (1054-1042BC).
     
  4. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    It is my "hypothesis" that the earliest Biblical sources were created during the Egyptian 25th dynasty, begining during the reign of Shoshenq, a Libyan by descent. He was the leader of the Libyan community that had first come to Egypt partly as slave-prisoners from the armies defeated by Rameses III, partly as mercenaries hired by the Egyptians. His power centre was Herakleopolis, in Middle Egypt, between Thebes and the Delta, and he found it easy to extend his power northwards, eventually making his capital at Bubastis.

    It has generally been theorized that the Libyan related "Hyksos" invasion during the 18th dynasty gave rise to "Hebrew Pharaohs" during the same dynastic era who are equated with "Aaron", "Moses", "Joseph", etc but there is not a shred of evidence substantiating any of these assertions as fact. It was duing the 21-25th dynasty that these Lybian descendents of the "Hyksos", based also at Avaris, spread their oral history as consequence of Shoshenq raiding the Kingdom of Judah and sacking Jerusalem.

    Therefore, the "Hyksos" invasion of the 18th dynasty actually was documented during the 21-25th.
     
  5. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    It was specifically during the period of Shoshenq's invasion of Judah that we have the earliest source development known as the JAHWIST.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yahwist

    The Jahwist, also referred to as the Jehovist, Yahwist, or simply as J, is one of the four major sources of the Torah postulated by the Documentary Hypothesis (DH). It is the oldest source, whose narratives make up half of Genesis and the first half of Exodus, plus fragments of Numbers. J describes a human-like God, called Yahweh (or rather YHWH) throughout, and has a special interest in the territory of the Kingdom of Judah and individuals connected with its history. J is believed to have been composed in c 950 BC (thus being the most ancient part) and later incorporated into the Torah (c 400 BC).

    The Yahwist author of Genesis was first identified in 1753 by the French physician, Jean Astruc (1684–1766) in his Conjectures sur les mémoires originaux dont il paraît que Moïse s'est servi pour composer le livre de la Genèse ("Conjectures on the Original Memoirs Apparently Used by Moses to Compose the Book of Genesis"). The term became "Jahwist" in later German scholarship, in accordance with the German transcription of the name Yahweh.

    Julius Wellhausen (1844–1918) incorporated the hypothesis of the Jahwist source into his Documentary Hypothesis, which became a foundation of higher criticism.
     
  6. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Relative to the purpose of the text I am authoring (TBWC), of particular focus are the genealogies mentioned in Genesis.

    As the wikipedia article states,

    While most genealogies throughout Genesis are usually attributed to P, some appear within the writings of J. In Genesis 4 and Genesis 10 the succession of Adam to Enosh is presented within a "segmented" genealogy; that is, it covers a number of different lines descended from one ancestor with certain characters expounded upon.
     
  7. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    To understand the historical background against the literary developments which occured during this period, here is some information regarding Shoshenq, the Biblical Shishak.

    Shishak had provided refuge to Jeroboam during the later years of Solomon's reign, and upon Solomon's death, Jeroboam became king of the tribes in the north, which became the Kingdom of Israel. In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign (commonly dated between 926 and 917 BC), Shishak swept through the kingdom of Judah with a powerful army, in support of his ally. According to 2 Chronicles 12:3, he was supported by the Lubim (Libyans), the Sukkiim, and the Ku****es" ("Ethiopians" in the Septuagint). According to the biblical story Shishak captured Jerusalem, where he pillaged the temple and the royal palace, and carried away the "shields of gold" which Solomon had made.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shishaq
     
  8. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    In the very early years after the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs, on chronological, historical, and linguistic grounds, nearly all Egyptologists identified Shishak with Shoshenq I. This position was maintained by most scholars ever since, and is still the majority position. The fact that Shoshenq I left behind "explicit records of a campaign into Canaan (scenes; a long list of Canaanite place-names from the Negev to Galilee; stelae), including a stela [found] at Megiddo" supports the traditional interpretation.
     
  9. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    The following will give a clearer indication as to exactly how the Yahwists, during the reign of King Solomon were able to incorporate much of the ancient Egyptian sacred texts, and their own royal lineages/genealogies, and interwove them into their own.

    "There is no direct mention of the name of the pharaoh's daughter whom Solomon wed, presumably in quest of peaceful relations with Egypt. The Yikhus Letter of the Sans Hassidim has her as Nicaule, AKA Tashere, daughter of Shoshenq I. Until now this identification has been held suspect for chronological reasons, in short, it doesn't agree with the biblical timeline. We will see this problem evaporate in a moment. Later on, Nicaule's daughter by Solomon, Basemath, wife of Ahimaaz, will bear Ana who will later marry King Abijah and who in turn will bear Asa, which finally places a descendant of Shoshenq on the throne of Judah and cements the two royal families till they cease to rule their selective kingdoms."

    http://neros.lordbalto.com/ChapterOne.htm

    It is at this point, almost right from the start, that problems with Biblical chronology occur, as the author explains.

    "The problem here is that we are very near the point where the biblical timeline ceases to be inflated by a factor of two and returns to the real world where people live to be 60 and very fortunate women, one might say "blessed," have children when they are 45. Further, Shishak's attack on the biblical Jerusalem in the fifth year of Rehoboam does not fit with his attack in 925. By our reconstruction, Jerusalem would have fallen to Shoshenq in 922. This is only a problem, however, if we allow another problem with the alignment of Shoshenq and Shishak to stand. For the fact is that the stele at Karnak that describes the so-called Palestine Campaign of Shoshenq in his 21st regnal year does not list Jerusalem. Let me say that again. Jerusalem, supposedly the very crown of Jewish civilization in the 10th Century BC, the one city actually mentioned in the scriptures as a target of Shishak, where he purportedly made off with the Temple furniture, is not listed by Shoshenq. This is peculiar. The obvious explanation, as determined by the archaeologists, is that Jerusalem didn't exist as anything larger than a small village in the 10th Century BC, so that the entire incident of Shishak's attack must have been cut and stitched from the actual account of the invasion of Israel by Shoshenq and the dating of this nonevent is therefore suspect."
     
  10. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Archaeological Evidence (1)

    Relief and Stelae of Pharaoh Shoshenq I: Rehoboam’s Tribute, c. 925 BCE
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    First explicit correspondence to a Biblical story

    (also called the Bubasite or Bubastite Portal)


    Date: c. 925 BCE

    Current Location: Relief: Amun Temple Karnak, Egypt; Megiddo stele fragment: Oriental Institute, Chicago.

    http://cojs.org/cojswiki/Relief_and_Stelae_of_Pharaoh_Shoshenq_I:_Rehoboam’s_Tribute,_c._925_BCE

    http://dlib.etc.ucla.edu/projects/Karnak/feature/BubastitePortal
     
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