Black History Culture : African Slave Revolts: What They Don't Teach You

Discussion in 'Black History - Culture - Panafricanism' started by Chinelo, Feb 14, 2010.

  1. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

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    "Resistance, revolt, and eventual social transformation is born out of an oppressed peoples awareness of themselves and the knowledge that their `collective soul' is under attack by their oppressors. To the degree that this cultural cohesiveness persist determines the degree to which the oppressed group will go in order to assure its survival." - Muhammad Shareef

    **********

    I found it interesting in studying the real history of the wicked trans atlantic slave trade, that there was always some mullatto or dumbed down african, a 'house negro', that stagnated or 'snitched' out the attempt or success of the particular revolt or revolution that was created by our people, wherever they were being enslaved and oppressed by the pale skin.....

    Just as today you have the 21st century mullato faction within the community, or the plain old dumbed down brother or sister that refuse or are ignorant to usurp the status quo oppression taking place to the african, and recycling the slave minded........

    This is what they're not teaching your children in the destructive slave recycled public educational systems of the west, nor in the curriculums of these pale skins so-called universities of higher education....smh....what they teach you is how to BE A SLAVE.....
     
  2. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

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    San Miguel de Gualdape 1526

    According to Aptheker, and others, the first documented enslaved African rebellion in the Western Hemisphere, was at the Spanish settlement of San Miguel de Gualdape where enslaved Africans rebelled against their conditions in the fall of 1526. The prime source of this information is ~The Spanish Settlements Within the Present Limits of the United States, 1513-1561~ by Woodbury Lowery.

    Mexico 1547

    The first documented enslave African rebellion in Mexico, occurred in 1537; this was followed by the establishment of various runaway enslave African's settlements called "palenques.".

    Brazil 1600s

    In Brasil, in a sugar cane region near the Atlantic ocean known as Pernambuco, a group of 40 enslave Africans rebelled against their master. They killed all the white employees and burned the houses and plantation. They headed to a very hostile area in the mountains, known as Palmares, because of its abundance of palm trees. In this place an African community was born which lasted for over 100 years. It was divided into eleven fortified sites. There, a population estimated to be about 20 000 free Africans created a new religion and a common language to bring together at least six different African cultures. It is argued that they organized the first socialist society in world. They also mobilized an army that could take over Pernambuco, if they wanted to.

    They defeated seven attacks from Brazilian military forces and from a Dutch army that had invaded and occupied that region for some years. They ignored a proposal of peace and freedon for all, from the king of Portugal. Zumbi of Palmares, today a hero for Brazilian Africans, was the name of an young acolyte who grew up and became the greatest leader of this African community. Also in this community the first forms of Capoeira which is a deadly martial art, were developed.


    Mexico 1608

    In Mexico, Spaniards negotiated the establishment of a free black community with Yagna, a runaway rebel enslave African. Today, that community in Veracruz bears its founder's name.
     
  3. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

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    Brazil 1630

    In Brazil, many enslave Africans with assistance from Palmares an escape enslave African community in the mountains, left the plantations and fought the Portuguese and Dutch Armies. This fighting continued up until 1644. It is important to point out that the Dutch and Portuguese Armies were formed by very experienced and well-armed soldiers. But the Africans developed a system of fighting called "jungle war" or ambush. Capoeira which is a deadly martial art, was the key element in the unexpected attacks. With fast and tricky movements the African caused considerable damage to the white men. Capoeira became their weapon, their symbol of freedom.

    St. Kitts Nevis 1639

    On the island St. Kitts, in November 1639, more than sixty enslaved Africans from the Capisterre region, angered by the brutal treatment meted out to them by their owners, left their plantations and found refuge on the slopes of Mount Misery. They took with them their women and children. The runaways built a formidable camp upon the mountainside. It was protected by a precipice on one side and could only be approached by a narrow pass. From this position they carried out raids on the plantations. To put an end to their activities, Governor De Poincy raised a company of five hundred armed men. The stronghold was stormed by the soldiers and the uprising was crushed without much difficulty as the runaways were poorly armed and too few in number to offer much resistance. Most of them were killed in skirmishes. Some of the runaways were burnt alive, while the rest were captured, quartered, and their limbs exposed on stakes to serve as a warning to those who might be tempted to rebel.

    However, one of their leaders, a gigantic man, escaped and continued to elude capture for three years and was able to carry on a one-man reign of terror from the forests of Mount Misery. He served as a rallying point for other discontented enslaved Africans and was kept well informed of what was going on in the settlements. However, he continued to live apart from his fellow runaways, fearing that one of them might betray him in order to gain favour with the planters. His success in evading capture inspired many to think that he was aided by supernatural powers.

    Realising the danger that this situation caused to the French settlement on the island, De Poincy sent some half a dozen soldiers to track him down and capture him. The mission was kept secret to prevent the slaves from giving him advance notice of what was to come. The soldiers pursued him and once they had him in their sights they blazed away at him. None of their muskets would go off and the infuriated African sword in hand, charged them. The men fled and he was able to gain a musket and a hat. Again the rumor spread that the runaway possessed magical powers that protected him from fire arms.

    Quickly the French Governor sent out another squad to seize him. Again the African was found and surrounded, again shots were fired and again he was not hit. However, the sergeant who must have kept his nerve more than his subordinates, shot him through the head. His body was quartered and the limbs hung in the most public places.
     
  4. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

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    Virginia, USA 1663

    First serious enslave African conspiracy in Colonial America, Sept. 13. Servant betrayed plot of enslave Africans in Gloucester County, Va.

    Virginia, USA 1672

    Fugitive Africans in small armed bands raided nearby towns hoping to convince others to join them. The Assembly urged their capture dead or alive, saying "very dangerous consequences may arise if other Negroes fly forth and join them."

    New York, USA 1712

    Enslave Africans revolt, New York, April 7. A group of slaves plotting rebellion bound themselves to secrecy by "sucking ye blood of each Others hand." Several months later, they set fire to a building and attacked approaching whites, killing nine. Eventually, 70 Negroes were taken. Six were pardoned and 27 condemned, one being hung alive in chains so, stated the Governor" ... there has been the most exemplary punishment inflicted that could be possibly thought of ..."

    Surinam 1700s

    After a half century of guerrilla warfare against colonial and European troops, the Maroons of Surinam who were escaped enslaved Africans, signed treaties with the Dutch colonial government in the 1760s, enabling them to live a virtually independent existence. Their population was estimated to be between 25,000 and 47,000 during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

    Jamaica 1720

    Nanny of the Maroons stands out in history as the only female among Jamaica’s national heroes. She possessed that fierce fighting spirit generally associated with the courage of men.

    In fact, Nanny is described as a fearless Asante warrior who used militarist techniques to fool and beguile the English. Nanny was a leader of the Maroons at the beginning of the 18th. Century. She was known by both the Maroons and the British settlers as an outstanding military leader who became, in her lifetime and after, a symbol of unity and strength for her people during times of crisis. She was particularly important to them in the fierce fight with the British during the First Maroon War from 1720 to 1739. Although she has been immortalized in songs and legends, certain facts about Nanny (or "Granny Nanny", as she was affectionately known) have also been documented.

    Both legends and documents refer to her as having exceptional leadership qualities. She was a small wiry woman with piercing eyes. Her influence over the Maroons was so strong that it seemed to be supernatural and was said to be connected to her powers of obeah. She was particularly skilled in organising the guerrilla warfare carried out by the Eastern Maroons to keep away the British troops who attempted to penetrate the mountains to overpower them.
     
  5. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

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    Her cleverness in planning guerrilla warfare confused the British and their accounts of the fights reflect the surprise and fears which the Maroon traps caused among them. Beside inspiring her people to ward off troops, Nanny was also a type of chieftainess or wise woman of the village, who passed down legends and encouraged the continuation of customs, music and songs that had come with the people from Africa, and that instilled in them confidence and pride. Her spirit of freedom was so great that in 1739, when Quao signed the second Treaty (The first was signed by Cudjoe for the Leeward Maroons a few months earlier) with the British, it is reported that Nanny was very angry and in disagreement with the
    principle of peace with the British which she knew meant another form of subjugation. There are many legends about Nanny among the Maroons.

    Some even claim that there were several women who were leaders of the Maroons during this period of
    history. But all the legends and documents refer to Nanny of the First Maroon War as the most outstanding of them all, leading her people with courage and inspiring them to struggle to maintain that spirit of freedom, that life of independence, which was their rightful inheritance. Like the heroes of the pre Independence era, Nanny too met her untimely death at the instigation of the English sometime around 1734. Yet, the spirit of Nanny of the Maroons remains today as a symbol of that indomitable desire that will never yield to captivity.

    Virginia, USA 1730

    Enslave African conspiracy discovered in Norfolk and Princess Anne counties, Va.

    St. Johns, USV I1733

    Nov. 23 2002 marked the 267 years since the slave revolt took place on St. John. What led up to it? Who were these enslaved Africans who took on many plantation owners as well as other Danish officials and the whites ruling class? These are some of the issues that were never addressed when we were in school.
     
  6. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

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    One of the most successful slave rebellions in the long history of self-determination in the Caribbean took place then on the Danish-controlled island of St. John.

    It was 3 a.m. on Nov. 23, 1733, a group of enslaved Africans broken into their "master's" house, a Mr. Soetman's, stripping him of his cloth and forced him to dance and sing. They ran a sword through his body and cut off his head and washed themselves in his blood. Following the execution, they killed his stepdaughter Hissing, a 13 year old, and left her body on top of him.

    About 4 a.m. that same morning, a group of 14 enslaved Africans marched through the gates of Fortsberg at Coral Bay, St. John. They slaughtered five soldiers at the fort.

    The revolt spread, particularly on the northwest side of the island, and some 300 enslave Africans were on the war path, going from estate to estate. The rebellion continued until June of 1734. However, many historians have the tendency to overlook the real cause that led up to this bloody revolt. They have polished the history to the point that you may think the enslaved and brutalized Africans were just bloodthirsty.

    The enslaved Africans who initiated the revolt were known as the "Akan" or "Aminas." They originally were from the Gold Coast of West Africa, including Ghana.

    In the 1730s enslaved Africans were brought to St. John and St. Thomas to work on the plantations; many slaves escaped into the forest of the island. This was a cause of major concern for planters, who owned the slaves, and of the Danish government.

    Gov. Philip Gardelin issued an 18-article code to control enslaved Africans on the islands from running away. First, enslaved Africans were not considered human beings in the Danish West Indies. They were property, to buy and to sell. The document stated that any runaways would be subjected to torture with a red-hot iron. They could also lose a leg or ear. The leaders of runaway slaves would be tortured and hung.

    Additional punishment included whippings and branding. Slaves failing to report what they knew of runaways would be branded in their forehead and would get 100 lashes. A slave found guilty of conspiracy would lose his/her legs unless the owners requested a lighter sentence.
     
  7. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

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    Cowardly slaves that "ratted" on other slaves received awards from the Danish authorities. The code also stated that any slaves who didn't show deference to white people would lose their right hand; or hanging for a slaves who struck or threatened to strike a white person. In other words, enslaved Africans in the Danish colonials had no rights. The female slaves were raped and sexually exploited. The "owners" of slaves had the right to do as they pleased with their "property."

    Thousands of enslaved African wo-men were raped, killed and abused. In fact, the majority of slaves who ran away- known as the maroons - were female slaves.

    Another reason leading up to the slave revolt on St. John was the natural disasters. Before the upraising of slaves on St. John in November of 1733, there were long periods of drought; followed in July by a devastating hurricane that destroyed crops, buildings and shipments.

    That same year, another hurricane hit the island. After that, a plague of insects destroyed many of the products of the islands and slaves teetered on famine. We today would say, "All hell breaks lose." Well, that's exactly what happened in 1733. The enslaved Africans of the Akan tribe believed in the "migration of souls." When they die, they believed that they would go into a better world.

    For this and other reason the slaves of St. John took things into their own hands. The Danish government got help from the French island of Martinique to hunt down slaves and killed them. Some slaves escaped by jumping over a cliff known as Ram Head.

    Each year - for the pass 18 years - a group of Virgin Islanders, as well as individuals from other Caribbean is-lands, hike to Ram Head to pay their respect to those who fought for freedom - all our freedom.
     
  8. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

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    South Carolina, USA 1739

    Enslaved Africans revolt, Stono, S.C., Sept 9. Twenty-five Whites killed before the insurrection was put down.

    New York, USA 1741

    Series of suspicious fires and reports of enslaved Africans conspiracy led to general hysteria in New York City, March and April. Thirty-one enslaved Africans were executed.

    Guyana 1763

    The Berbice enslaved Africans Rebellion broke out (at the time when Berbice was a separate Dutch colony). The revolt is the result of the cruelty with which the Dutch plantation owners have been treating the enslaved Africans.

    The enslaved Africans led by Cuffy (Kofi) held the county of Berbice for almost one year. The revolution began at plantation Magdalenenburg which is up the Canje River. The population on the plantation was approximately 3,833 Africans, 346 Europeans and 244 Amerindian (Native) labourers. Within one month the Africans were in control of almost all the plantations in Berbice. Some of the Dutch soldiers fled others were killed by the Africans. The Africans were eventually defeated because they entered into negotiations with the Europeans who assured them that they were negotiating in good faith.

    The Europeans were actually waiting for the arrival of reinforcements. When the shiploads of reinforcement arrived, the Europeans being the majority and better armed, were then able to defeat the Africans. Almost a year after the revolution began Cuffy killed himself rather than be taken captive by the Europeans. Today Cuffy is a National Hero of Guyana.

    Montserrat 1768

    The Irish presence in Montserrat dates back to the 1630s, when the first pioneers -- Roman Catholics -- sailed over from St. Kitts because of friction with British Protestant settlers there.

    The Irish planters brought Enslaved Africans to work their sugar cane fields. Soon the enslaved Africans outnumbered them 3-to-1 and began rebelling. In 1768, the enslaved Africans planned an island-wide attack on St. Patrick's Day, when the planters would be celebrating. Servants were instructed to grab all the weapons they could find inside the Government House while field slaves stormed the building with rocks, farm tools, clubs and homemade swords. But someone leaked the plan, and debate over who's to blame still continues. Local authorities punished the enslaved Africans severely, hanging nine. Today people mix their annual celebration of shamrocks and green beer with memories of an aborted enslaved African revolt against Irish planters.

    The result is a Caribbean amalgam of colonial culture and African pride -- a week long fete with islanders dancing Irish jigs one night, then mocking their one-time masters the next by cracking whips and masquerading in tall hats like bishops' miters. "We are celebrating the rise of the African freedom fighters said historian Howard Fergus.

    Massachusetts, USA 1773

    In Massachusetts enslaved Africans petitioned the legislature for freedom, Jan. 6. There is a record of 8 petitions during Revolutionary War period.

    Belize 1773

    On the Belize River in Belize, enslaved Africans took over five plantations and killed six white men. There were about fifty armed Africans with sixteen Musquets, Cutlasses, etc. involved in this rebellion.
     
  9. Blaklioness

    Blaklioness Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Keep bringing it...keep bringing it. It's crucial for stories of resistance as opposed to compliance be brought to the fore. We need to see 'living' examples of how to succeed....it's an absolutely necessary part of the healing process. Thanks!
     
  10. Chinelo

    Chinelo Third Eye Is Always Open MEMBER

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    Haiti 1791

    Haitian Revolution began with the revolt of enslaved Africans in the northern province, Aug 22. An estimated 350,000 people died in this revolution before Haiti was declared a free republic on January 1, 1804. This was the most significant rebellion during the MAAFA.

    Curacao 1795

    In August 1795, there was a major enslaved African rebellion for two weeks on the island of Curacao, led by Tula and Bastiaan Karpata. Influenced by the revolution in Haiti, they gained weapons, attacked plantations and freed other enslaved Africans. They were caught and executed the following month. Curacao's enslaved Africans were not emancipated until 1863. They still commemorate the uprising on August 17.

    Richmond, USA 1800

    Gabriel Prosser plotted and was betrayed. Storms forced suspension of attack on Richmond, Va., by Prosser and some 1,000 enslaved Africans on Aug. 30. This conspiracy was betrayed by two enslave Africans. Prosser and fifteen of his followers were hanged on Oct 7.

    Lousiana, USA 1811

    In january of 1811, a powerful uprising of enslaved Africans took place in the area of New orlean, Lousiana. On january 8, 1811 over 500 enslaved Africans, led by a laborer named Charles on the Deslonde plantation (some 26miles upriver form New Orleans) downed there tools and grabed a few weapons. They then proceeded to march on the city. Their goal was to capture the city and free all the enslaved Africans in the lower Mississippi valley. As they moved down the river, they pushed back the enslavers and their flunkeys, killing many and burning several plantations.

    There rallying cries were, "On to New Orleans!" and "freedom or death!" They got to within 10 miles of the city, where they were attacked by U.S. government troops. Casualties well taken on both sides. This was the largest enslaved Africans revolt in the United States.

    Florida, USA 1816

    300 enslaved Africans and about 20 Indian allies held Fort Blount on Apalachicola Bay, Fla., for several days before it was attacked by U.S. Troops.

    Barbados 1816

    On the island of Barbados an enslaved African by the name of Bussa, led a revolt over the British rulers. His bravery and commitment against the evil of slavery is commemorated today with a statue in his honor

    Belize 1820

    In May the enslaved Africans of the Belize and Sibun rivers a region in Belize, revolted after very harsh treatment. This revolt was led by two enslaved Africans name Will and Sharper. This revolt lasted for about one month.

    South Carolina, USA 1822

    Denmark Vesey plotted and was betrayed.'House slave' betrayed Denmark Vesey conspiracy, May 30. Vesey conspiracy, one of the most elaborate enslaved African plots on record, involved thousands of Africans in Charleston, S.C., and its vicinity. Authorities arrested 131 Africans. Thirty-seven were hanged. Vesey and five of his aides were hanged at Blake's Landing, Charleston, S.C., July 2.

    Guyana 1823

    There was an enslaved African rebellion on the East Coast of the Demerara in the country of Guyana.
     
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