Black Money Business Jobs : African-Americans and Communism

Discussion in 'Black Money Business Jobs' started by Shikamaru, Jul 1, 2012.

  1. Shikamaru

    Shikamaru Well-Known Member MEMBER

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  2. Shikamaru

    Shikamaru Well-Known Member MEMBER

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    Communism

    Socialism

     
  3. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    Briggs, Cyril (1888-1966)

    Cyril Briggs was a pioneering civil rights activist, journalist, black nationalist, and member of the American Communist Party. Born in 1888 on the Eastern Caribbean island of Nevis, Briggs immigrated to New York City in 1905 and joined a burgeoning community of radical West Indian intellectuals in Harlem.

    In 1912 be was hired at the New York Amsterdam News where he voiced support for World War I and Woodrow Wilson's anti colonial doctrine of self-determination, which he saw as validating his own radical vision of African American self-rule. Further radicalized in the wake of World War I and the Russian Revolution, Briggs started publishing his own periodical, the Crusader, in September 1918 and one month later founded the African Blood Brotherhood (ABB). Incorporating Marxist class-consciousness under the banner of "Africa for Africans," the Crusader and the ABB became vehicles for Briggs' distinctive merger of interracial revolutionary socialism with black nationalism and anti colonialism.

    In 1921 Briggs formally joined the nascent American Communist Party (CP). As the ABB increasingly merged ideologically and organizationally with the CP, Briggs, along with fellow Harlem radicals Otto Huiswood and Claude McKay, became a critical bridge between black communities and the Communist movement, an association that would grow in both numbers and significance over the next two decades. Briggs' conversion to revolutionary socialism drew him into a public feud with Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association in the early 1920s. Briggs castigated Garvey's brand of black nationalism for its capitalist overtones and ultimately cooperated with federal authorities investigating Garvey for mail fraud. Briggs' influence in Party circles declined rapidly in mid decade as the CP shifted its focus away from the community based revolutionary nationalism of the ABB and toward the labor movement and the newly formed American Negro Labor Congress.


    Despite a brief resurgence in 1929, when he assumed a major role in directing the Party's campaign against vestiges of racial chauvinism within Party ranks, Briggs was increasingly marginalized and accused of sectarianism. Briggs' removal from the editorship of the League of Struggle for Negro Rights' Harlem Liberator in 1933 and the Party's ideological turn toward the Popular Front in the mid 1930s effectively signaled the end of his influence in radical politics.

    http://www.blackpast.org/?q=aah/briggs-cyril-1888-1966


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    Cyrill Briggs and Charlene Mitchell, 1960
    Image Ownership: Public Domain

     
  4. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    National Negro Congress (1935 - 1940's)

    http://www.blackpast.org/?q=aah/national-negro-congress

    Embodying the Communist Party's turn from Third Period sectarianism to Popular Front coalition building, the National Negro Congress (NNC) was the culmination of the Party's Depression-era effort to unite black and white workers and intellectuals in the fight for racial justice, and marked the apex of Party prestige in African American communities.

    The NNC grew out of discussions initiated by Communist delegates to the Joint Committee on National Recovery's (JCNR) conference in May 1935 on the economic status of African Americans under the New Deal. John P. Davis and Communist Party leader James Ford stressed the need to consolidate the strength of disparate organizations dedicated to fighting racial discrimination. The JCNR conference concluded by forming a committee of sixty prominent activists charged with organizing a National Negro Congress the following year.

    The result was an unprecedented confluence of civic, civil rights, labor, and religious groups from across the nation. In February 1936 over 800 delegates representing 551 organizations and over 3 million constituents congregated in Chicago for the first NNC convention. A. Philip Randolph was elected President and Davis was elected as National Secretary. In keeping with their Popular Front orientation, Communists did not attempt to hide their affiliation but consciously deferred to non-Communist delegates. Despite lingering suspicion of Communist involvement, NNC delegates were able to agree on a broad program emphasizing the rights of African Americans to fair employment and housing, union membership and educational opportunities, an end to police brutality and lynching, and international and interracial solidarity against fascism. Over the next few years, local NNC chapters in Harlem, Chicago, and elsewhere became locus points for broad-based community activism against racial discrimination.

    The Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 signaled the beginning of the end for the NNC. The Communist Party's shift away from the Popular Front in the wake of the Pact alienated non-Communist NNC affiliates and their constituents around the country. A. Philip Randolph resigned in protest after the 1940 convention and was succeeded as president by John P. Davis. The Cold War further undermined support for the Communist Party in black communities and crippled the NNC as a movement vehicle.

     
  5. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    F.B.I. Records: The Vault
    Langston Hughes (1902-1967) was an American poet, playwright, novelist, and columnist. Mr. Hughes was investigated on account of his ties to communist related groups. The files in release are between 1941 and 1953.

    CONTINUED: http://vault.fbi.gov/langston-hughes

     
  6. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    Richard Wright: 1908- 1960

    "Lynching is a terror that has many forms; there is lynching of men's spirits as well as their bodies, and spiritual lynching occurs every day for the Negro in the South."


    Richard Wright was born in Roxie, Mississippi. His grandparents had been slaves and his father had abandoned his family when he was six. His mother worked as a cook to support the family. They suffered from extreme poverty, especially after his mother became sick. Wright wanted to write from a very young age and he was overjoyed when, at the age of 16, a local newspaper printed one of the first stories that he wrote. Although no one in his family encouraged his dream, he refused to give it up. He worked at a number of jobs in the South but was unable to accept the prejudices and insults of Jim Crow. He kept reading and thinking about becoming a writer.

    In 1927, he left Memphis, Tennessee to migrate to Chicago. There, after working in unskilled jobs, he was given an opportunity to write.

    He joined the John Reed Club in Chicago, an organization set up by the Communist Party to recruit writers into its ranks. Wright joined the Party, and in 1937 he went to New York to write for the Daily Worker, the Party's newspaper. His first book, UNCLE TOM'S CHILDREN (1938), was greeted with critical praise. His next work, NATIVE SON (1940), the story of a black man who inadvertently kills a white woman, made him famous. The book was a best-seller and was staged successfully as a play on Broadway (1941) by the great director Orson Welles. Wright himself played Bigger Thomas, the book's main character, in a motion-picture version made in Argentina in 1951.

    In 1944 he left the Communist Party because of political and personal differences. His next book, BLACK BOY, told the wrenching story of his childhood and youth in the South, detailing the extreme poverty in which he lived, his experience of racism and white violence, and his growing awareness of literature. His books made Wright the voice for an entire generation of black Americans. After World War II, Wright settled in Paris; among his political works of that period was WHITE MAN, LISTEN! (1957). Toward the end of his life, Wright had become very much involved in the Pan-African movement. He also was engaged in a literary quarrel with a new generation of black writers including James Baldwin. Wright's autobiographical AMERICAN HUNGER, which recounts experiences with the Communist Party after moving to the North, was published after his death in 1977.
    http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_people_wright.html
    --Richard Wormser
     
  7. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    “You Are the Un-Americans, and You Ought to be Ashamed of Yourselves”: Paul Robeson Appears Before HUAC


    Many African-American witnesses subpoenaed to testify at the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) hearings in the 1950s were asked to denounce Paul Robeson (1888–1976) in order to obtain future employment. Robeson, an All-American football player and recipient of a Phi Beta Kappa key at Rutgers, received a law degree at Columbia. He became an internationally acclaimed concert performer and actor as well as a persuasive political speaker. In 1949, Robeson was the subject of controversy after newspapers reports of public statements that African Americans would not fight in “an imperialist war.” In 1950, his passport was revoked. Several years later, Robeson refused to sign an affidavit stating that he was not a Communist and initiated an unsuccessful lawsuit. In the following testimony to a HUAC hearing, ostensibly convened to gain information regarding his passport suit, Robeson refused to answer questions concerning his political activities and lectured bigoted Committee members Gordon H. Scherer and Chairman Francis E.Walter about African-American history and civil rights. In 1958, the Supreme Court ruled that a citizen’s right to travel could not be taken away without due process and Robeson’ passport was returned.​


    Testimony of Paul Robeson before the House Committee on Un-American Activities, June 12, 1956

    COMPLETE HERE: http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6440
     
  8. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    New York Times on the Web

    November 23, 1961

    Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois Joins Communist Party at 93
    By PETER KIHSS

    Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois, one of the nation's best-known Negro historians and sociologists, has joined the Communist party at the age of 93, the party announced yesterday.
    The announcement came at a time when the party faced penalties of $10,000 a day for failing to register under the 1950 Internal-Security Act. The deadline was last Monday midnight.
    If its officers do not register by Nov. 30 and members then fail to register by Dec. 20, each individual becomes liable to a similar fine and five years' imprisonment for each day of noncompliance.

    A co-founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Dr. Du Bois long ago split with that organization. Since 1948 he has been associated with a number of left-wing causes.

    His Leftist Ties
    From 1949 to 1955 he was vice chairman of the now-defunct Council on African Affairs, cited by the Attorney General as subversive and Communist. In 1951, as chairman of the Peace Information Center here, he was acquitted of a charge of failing to register as a foreign agent. In 1959 he received a Soviet Lenin Prize "for strengthening peace."

    A Communist party spokesman said Dr. Du Bois had sent his application to join on Oct. 1 from his Brooklyn home. Since then he has been in Ghana, the spokesman said, as head of a Ghana secretariat planning a new Negro encyclopedia.

    In the application Dr. Du Bois wrote that he had been "long and slow" in deciding to apply for part membership, "but at last my mind is settled." He said he had joined the Socialist party in 1911, but had resigned to support Woodrow Wilson for President.
    For the next twenty years, he said, he attacked the Democrats, Republicans and Socialists. He said he had "praised the racial attitudes of the Communists but opposed their tactics in the case of the Scottsboro boys and their advocacy of a Negro state." In 1926, he said, he began a "new effort," visiting Communist lands.

    Dr. Du Bois said he had concluded that "capitalism cannot reform itself; it is doomed to self-destruction."

    "No universal selfishness can bring social good to all," he said. "Communism -- the effort to give all men what they need and to ask of each the best they can contribute -- this is the only way of human life.

    "These aims are not crimes. They are practiced increasingly over the world. No nation can call itself free which does not allow its citizens to work for these ends."

    COMPLETE ARTICLE HERE: http://www.nytimes.com/books/00/11/05/specials/dubois-communist.html
     
  9. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    W.E.B. Dubois: Feb. 23, 1868- Aug. 27, 1963......

    McCarthyism

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    Du Bois (center) and other defendants from the Peace Information Center prepare for their trial in 1951.[221]

    During the 1950s, the U.S. government's anti-communist McCarthyism campaign targeted Du Bois because of his socialist leanings.[222] Historian Manning Marable characterizes the government's treatment of Du Bois as "ruthless repression" and a "political assassination".[223]
    The FBI began to compile a file on Du Bois in 1942,[224] but the most aggressive government attack against Du Bois occurred in the early 1950s, as a consequence of Du Bois's opposition to nuclear weapons. In 1950 Du Bois became chairman of the newly createdPeace Information Center (PIC), which worked to publicize the Stockholm Peace Appeal in the United States.[225] The primary purpose of the appeal was to gather signatures on a petition, asking governments around the world to ban all nuclear weapons.[226] The U.S. Justice department alleged that the PIC was acting as an agent of a foreign state, and thus required the PIC to register with the federal government.[217] Du Bois and other PIC leaders refused, and they were indicted for failure to register.[227] After the indictment, some of Du Bois's associates distanced themselves from him, and the NAACP refused to issue a statement of support; but many labor figures and leftists – including Langston Hughes – supported Du Bois.[228] After a trial in 1951, with defense attorney Vito Marcantonio arguing the case, the case was dismissed.[229] Even though Du Bois was not convicted, the government confiscated Du Bois's passport and withheld it for eight years.[230]
    Communism

    Du Bois was bitterly disappointed that many of his colleagues – particularly the NAACP – did not support him during his 1951 PIC trial, whereas working class whites and blacks supported him enthusiastically.[231][232] After the trial, Du Bois lived in Manhattan, writing and speaking, and continuing to associate primarily with leftist acquaintances.[231] His primary concern was world peace, and he railed against military actions, such as the Korean War, which he viewed as efforts by imperialist whites to maintain colored people in a submissive state.[233]
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    Du Bois meets with Mao Zedong in China in 1959.

    In 1950, at the age of 82, Du Bois ran for U.S. Senator from New York on the American Labor Partyticket and received about 200,000 votes, or 4% of the statewide total.[234] Du Bois continued to believe that capitalism was the primary culprit responsible for the subjugation of colored people around the world, and therefore – although he recognized the faults of the Soviet Union – he continued to uphold communism as a possible solution to racial problems.[235] In the words of biographer David Lewis, Du Bois did not endorse communism for its own sake, but did so because "the enemies of his enemies were his friends."[235] The same ambiguity characterized Du Bois's opinions of Joseph Stalin: in 1940 he wrote disdainfully of the "Tyrant Stalin",[236] but when Stalin died in 1953, Du Bois wrote a eulogy characterizing Stalin as "simple, calm and courageous", and lauding him for being the "first [to] set Russia on the road to conquer race prejudice and make one nation out of its 140 groups without destroying their individuality".[237]
    The U.S. government prevented Du Bois from attending the 1955 Bandung conference in Indonesia.[238] The conference was the culmination of 40 years of Du Bois's dreams – a meeting of 29 nations from Africa and Asia, many recently independent, representing most of the world's colored peoples.[238] The conference celebrated their independence, as the nations began to assert their power as non-aligned nations during the cold war.[238] In 1958, Du Bois regained his passport, and with his second wife, Shirley Graham Du Bois, he traveled around the world, visiting Russia and China.[239] In both countries he was celebrated and given guided tours of the best aspects of communism.[239] Du Bois was blind to the defects of his host nations – even though he toured China during the tragic Great Leap Forward – and he later wrote approvingly of the conditions in both countries.[240] He was 90 years old.
    Du Bois became incensed in 1961 when the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the 1950 McCarran Act, a key piece of McCarthyism legislation which required communists to register with the government.[241] To demonstrate his outrage, he joined the Communist party in October 1961, at the age of 93.[241] Around that time, he wrote: "I believe in communism. I mean by communism, a planned way of life in the production of wealth and work designed for building a state whose object is the highest welfare of its people and not merely the profit of a part."[242]

    continued:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._E._B._Du_Bois#McCarthyism
     
  10. cherryblossom

    cherryblossom Banned MEMBER

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    Scottsboro Boys, Trial and Defense Campaign (1931–1937)

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    Scottsboro Boys and Attorney Samuel Leibowitz
    Image Ownership: Public Domain

    ........
    The American Communist Party (CP), in this period at the height of its organizing focus in the American South against racism and economic exploitation, immediately took the case on, and largely through activist efforts, sparked a mass defense movement. The CP brought in their legal arm, the International Labor Defense (ILD) to represent the nine. After two trials in which an all-white jury, fueled by a biased Alabama press, convicted the nine, the ILD and the CP began a national protest campaign to overturn the conviction, marked by numerous street marches, national and international speaking tours, and popular songs. Because of their principled leadership in the campaign, the CP gained much widespread respect among African Americans and civil rights activists. When they traveled to Washington, D.C. to demonstrate, the CP stopped at segregated restaurants to stage sit-ins against discrimination, helping to turn the campaign into a trial of the system of segregation and racism in America, presaging the sit-in tactics of the 1960s civil rights movement.

    Although initially hostile to the Communists and wary of being involved in the touchy issue of black men raping white women, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) ultimately joined with the CP and other civil rights organizations to form the Scottsboro Defense Committee. Eventually, one of the white women, Ruby Bates, came forward to repudiate her testimony, acknowledging that she and Price had been pressured into falsely accusing the Scottsboro Boys, and she became part of the campaign to save their lives.

    The case went to the United States Supreme Court in 1937, and the lives of the nine were saved, though it was almost twenty years before the last defendant was freed from prison. The trial of the Scottsboro Boys is perhaps one of the proudest moments of American radicalism, in which a mass movement of blacks and whites—led by Communists and radicals—successfully beat the Jim Crow legal system.

    http://www.blackpast.org/?q=aah/scottsboro-boys-trial-and-defense-campaign-1931-1937
     
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