Omowale Jabali : A Survey of Major Religious Sites in Ancient Egypt and Nubia

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  1. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Kom Abu Billo is located on the western edge of the Delta, approximately 70 km northwest of Cairo, along the route where the Wadi el Natrun [an ancient source of natron] approaches the Rosetta branch of the Nile. In pharaonic times it was known as Mefkat, which is the Kemetic word for both turquoise and an epithet of Het-Hert as Nebet Mefkat, or "Mistress of Turquoise." During the Greco-Roman period the site was called "Terenuthis," deriving from the Kemetic ta rennouti ("Land of the Netjert Renenutet.") In Coptic it was known as "Terenouti," and its modern name of Tarrana derives from this. Kom Abu Billo refers specifically to the part of the site where the Greco-Roman cemetery is found, and this name probably derives from the Greek god Apollo, who had a temple at the northern edge of the site.
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    Ptolemy I Offering to Het-Hert, relief from Kom Abu Billo


    The Temple of Het-Hert was discovered in 1897 by F.L. Griffith, but most of the excavation work was done from 1969 to 1974, when the construction of the Nasser Canal necessitated a salvage project of the site. It has not been possible to determine the complete plan of the temple, but some blocks with beautifully executed low raised relief have been found. These were produced during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter (305-282 C.E.) and completed by Ptolemy II Philadephus (285-246 C.E.). A cattle cemetery associated with the worship of Het-Hert has been found in the vicinity. Faience statues and statuettes inscribed with hieroglyphs have also been found of Yinepu (Anubis), Aset (Isis), Taweret and Bes at this site.
    The large cemetery of Kom Abu Bilo contains tombs dating from the 6th Dynasty of the Old Kingdom to the 4th century C.E. of the Coptic Period. The mud-brick tombs have superstructures which are rectangular or square and with barrel vaulted roofs or truncated pyramid shapes. New Kingdom ceramic coffins with large, often grosteque, faces modeled on the lids have been found there, in addition to a special type of stela made during the first four centuries of the Common Era. These un-Egyptian style stela, called "Terenuthis stelae," depict the deceased standing with upraised arms between two columns with Greek pediments or reclining on a couch, and have a text in demotic or Greek below. Offerings consisting of lettuce, grapes, and wine were placed on offering tables in the tombs, and lamps were lit and music was played. Hunting and fishing were common occupations of the people who lived here, but there were also many vintners, potters, jewelers, and other craftsmen.
    Many ceramic lamps have been found with designs of olive branches, Nile fish, and the frog goddess Heket. In addition, gold and silver rings, bracelets, gold earrings, necklaces, hair clips, ivory combs, and amulets have also been discovered. Pottery painted in different colors and dating from the end of the pharaonic period through the Coptic period, plus amphorae, have also been excavated from the area.
    http://www.hethert.org/komabu.html
     
  2. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Kom el-Hisn is one of the most ancient and important towns in the western Delta region of the Nile. In antiquity it was situated near a branch of the Nile which has since shifted eastward, and it was also near the desert edge on the route to the Libyan frontier. The name in Arabic means "Hill of the Fort," and this probably refers to the rectangular mudbrick temple enclosure of the ancient temple of Het-Hert, much of which still remained a century ago. Sadly, a great deal of the site has been converted to agricultural fields, with local farmers having removed most of the large earthen temple walls. The little which is left of the Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom community there is also falling prey to agricultural expansion.
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    The remains of the temple of Het-Hert/Sekhmet at Imau

    The ancient site was called Imu, or "imAw," meaning the plural of a type of tree in the Kemetic language, and in texts we find it mentioned since the 5th dynasty. From the Late Period, it is referred to as "pr-nbt-imau" or Domain of the Mistress of Imau. Inscriptions from the Middle Kingdom note that Het-Hert (as well as Her other side, Sekhmet) was the principal deity worshipped here, and the head of a statue of King Amenemhet II contains an inscription denoting him as "beloved of Het-Hert, Mistress of Imau." Both Het-Hert and Sekhmet were denoted as "Mistress of Imau." More information about Het-Hert's worship here comes from the grave of Khesuwer, also from the Middle Kingdom. He was a priest of Het-Hert and Supervisor of the Priests and of the temple precinct. His designation as Chief of the Harim and Chief of the Maidens probably denotes a position as supervisor of the women who were in the service of Het-Hert. During the 19th Dynasty, Ramesses II renovated the temple of Het-Hert, and in the 22nd Dynasty, Sheshonq III expanded it.

    http://www.hethert.org/kom.html
     
  3. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Naucratis or Naukratis, (Greek: Ναύκρατις), loosely translated as "(the city that wields) power over ships" (Piemro in Egyptian, now Kom Gieif), was a city of Ancient Egypt, on the Canopic branch of the Nile river, 45 mi (72 km) SE of the open sea and the later capital of Ptolemaic Egypt, Alexandria. It was the first and, for much of its early history, the only permanent Greek colony in Egypt; acting as a symbiotic nexus for the interchange of Greek and Egyptian art and culture.
    The modern site of the city has become an archaeological find of the highest significance and the source of not only many beautiful objects of art now gracing the museums of the world but also an important source of some of the earliest Greek writing in existence, provided by the inscriptions on its pottery.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naucratis
     
  4. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Alexandria (Arabic: الإسكندرية‎ Al Iskandariyya, Coptic: Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ Rakotə, Greek: Αλεξάνδρεια Alexándria, Koine Greek: Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ κατ' Αἴγυπτον IPA: [ɑlɛˈksɑndɾiɑ e kɑt ˈɛʝypton] "Alexandria in Egypt", Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه [eskendeˈrejːæ]) is the second-largest city of Egypt, with a population of 4.1 million, extending about 32 km (20 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country; it is also the largest city lying directly on the Mediterranean coast. It is Egypt's largest seaport, serving approximately 80% of Egypt's imports and exports. Alexandria is also an important tourist resort. It is home to the Bibliotheca Alexandrina (the new Library of Alexandria). It is an important industrial centre because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez.
    Alexandria was founded around a small pharaonic town c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great. It remained Egypt's capital for nearly a thousand years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat (Fustat was later absorbed into Cairo). Alexandria was known because of its Lighthouse of Alexandria (Pharos), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; its library (the largest library in the ancient world); and the Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa, one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages. Ongoing maritime archaeology in the harbor of Alexandria, which began in 1994, is revealing details of Alexandria both before the arrival of Alexander, when a city named Rhacotis existed there, and during the Ptolemaic dynasty.
    From the late 19th century, Alexandria became a major centre of the international shipping industry and one of the most important trading centres in the world, both because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, and the lucrative trade in Egyptian cotton.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandria
     
  5. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Tanis (San El-Hagar)
    by Jimmy Dunn



    [​IMG]

    Whether Tanis is considered to be the most important archaeological site in Egypt's northern Delta or not, it is almost certainly one of the largest and most impressive. Nevertheless, it is characterized by an eclectic reuse of materials that were usurped from other locations and earlier reigns. Tanis was actually its Greek name. We are told that its ancient Egyptian name was Djanet. Tanis was built upon the Nile distributary known as Bahr Saft, which is now only a small silted up stream that dispatches into Lake Manzalla.

    [​IMG]

    Napoleon Bonaparte had the site surveyed in the late 1700s, but afterwards, in the early 1800s, most of the work at Tanis was concerned with the collection of statuary. Jean-Jacques Rifaud took two large pink granite sphinxes to Paris, where they became a part of the Louvre collection. Other statues were taken to Saint Petersburg and Berlin. Henry Salt and Bernardino Drovetti found eleven statues, some of which were also sent to the Louvre, but also to Berlin and Alexandria, though those sent to Alexandria are now lost.

    [​IMG]

    Auguste Mariette was the first to really excavate the site between1860 and 1864. It was he who discovered the famous Four Hundred Year Stela, as well as several royal statues, many of which were dated to the Middle Kingdom. However, he mistakenly identified it as the ancient Hyksos capital of Avaris (Tell el-Dab'a). He also thought that it might have been Ramesses II's residence city of Piramesse (Pi-Ramesses).

    Mariette was followed by Flinders Petrie, who excavated here between 1883-86. Petrie made a detailed plan of the temple precinct, copied inscriptions and excavated exploratory trenches. Roman era papyrus discovered by Petrie are now in the British Museum.

    [​IMG]

    Pierre Montet, excavated at Tanis between 1921 and 1951, and the site is still being excavated by the French today. It was Montet who conclusively proved that Tanis could not have been Avaris (Tell el-Dab'a) or Piramesse. Montet also discovered royal tombs of the 21st and 22nd Dynasties at Tanis in 1939, but his discovery resulted in little recognition because of the outbreak of World War II. The tombs were all subterranean and built from mud-brick and reused stone blocks, many of which were inscribed. Four of the tombs belonged to Psusennes I (1039-991 BC), Amenemope (993-984 BC), Osorkon II (874-850 BC) and Sheshonq III (825-733 BC). The occupants of the other two tombs are unknown. However, the hawk-headed silver coffin of Sheshonq II was also found in Psusennes' tomb, as well as the coffin and sarcophagus of Amenemope. The sarcophagus of Takelot II (850-825 BC) was found in the tomb of Osorkon II. The artifacts from the Tanis necropolis are the most important source of knowledge covering royal funerary goods of the Third Intermediate Period.
    http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tanis.htm
     
  6. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Buto/Tell el-Fara´in




    4000 years of landscape and settlement history in the western Nile Delta (Egypt)

    Location



    31° 12' 50.6628" N, 30° 46' 41.4732" E

    See map: Geonavigation31.21407330.778187Buto/Tell el-Fara´in

    [​IMG]Fig. 2: Topographical plan of Buto. © DAI​
    [​IMG]Fig. 1: Ruins of mudbrick buildings on the northern mound of Buto. © DAI​
    The settlement of Buto (modern Tell el-Fara‘in) is situated in the flood plain of the north-western Nile Delta, c. 40km south of the modern shore line of the Mediterranean. The site covers an area of approximately 1km2. It is topographically divided into a northern and a southern Kôm (mound) with mud-brick ruins rising 15m above the cultivation, and a temple area surrounded by a huge enclosure wall.

    Background


    Although Buto seems to be quite well attested in written sources, until recently, only little was known of the archaeology of the site. English excavations at the beginning of the 20th century and in the 1960s revealed mainly Ptolemaic/Roman and Saite remains. Since the 1980s, the work of the DAI focused on the early history of the site which reaches back to the first half of the 4th millennium.
    [​IMG]Fig. 4: The Ptolemaic double well system in the temples of Buto after the English excavation. © DAI​
    [​IMG]Fig. 3: Labels from the late predynastic king's tomb U-j in Abydos. These labels made of cattle ribs were attached to grave goods and described their origin. © DAI​
    Since the late New Kingdom, the city was known under the name of Per-Wadjet, i.e. “House of the (Goddess) Wadjet” (Uto), from which the Greek name Buto derives. Considering the modern topographical appearance of the site, Buto was identified by W.M.F. Petrie with the twin cities of Pe and Dep, attested already on Early Dynastic seals and seal impressions. Buto is assumed to have been the archaic capital of Lower Egypt, which played an important role throughout the pharaonic period, as a counterpart to Hierakonpolis in Upper Egypt, both in religious belief and in cultic life. Another name connected with Buto is Djebaut, mainly known from Old Kingdom sources. Earliest evidence for this name, written with the heron on the roof of a building, occurs on small bone labels from the late Predynastic (Naqada IIIA1) tomb U-j at Abydos (fig.3).
    Today Buto appears as impressive mounds of ruins which are mostly of Ptolemaic/Roman date. Although Buto seems to be quite well attested in written sources, until recently, only little was known of the archaeology of the site.
    The first archaeological excavations were carried out by C.T. Currelly in 1904 and by V. Seton-Williams and D. Charlesworth 1965-1967 on behalf of the Egypt Exploration Society. The work exposed mainly Ptolemaic/Roman and Saite remains in the temple area and elsewhere (fig.4). Since the 1980’s, the excavations in the temple area have been continued by the Supreme Council of Antiquities and the Universities of Alexandria and Tanta. In the course of this work, several fragments of New Kingdom statues and inscribed blocks came to light – among others also a decree from Thutmose III.
    [​IMG]Fig.6 These small cups were produced in Levantine tradition usind a turning device – the contemporaneous Egyptian pottery (cf. Fig. 5) is made by hand. © DAI​
    [​IMG]Fig.5 The vessels from predynastic Buto are very similar to the pottery assamblage of the settlement of Maadi © DAI​
    During the early 1980s, W. Kaiser initiated the investigations of the German Archaeological Institute at Buto with the objective to clarify the early history of the site during the 4th and early 3rd millenniums. The archaeological work directed by Th. von der Way was complemented by geomorphological investigations and environmental studies focusing on the development of the landscape in the western Nile Delta carried out in cooperation with the University of Marburg (J. Wunderlich). By means of drillings the existence of early settlement layers was confirmed which were subsequently excavated. This was the first time that settlement remains of the chalcolithic Lower Egyptian culture of the 4th millennium - until then known only from Maadi - came to light in the Nile Delta proper.
    From 1993-1998, the work was continued by D. Faltings (in one campaign together with M. Ziermann).
    The earliest settlement consisted of simple huts of wattle-and-daub. The material culture is very similar to that of Maadi (fig.5), the economic basis being husbandry. During the oldest occupation phase, most likely also “Canaanites” were living at Buto manufacturing pottery from local Nile silt in the technological tradition of the chalcolithic southern Levant (fig.6). As opposed to Maadi, the settlement was not abandoned in the middle of the 4th millennium, but continued into the Early Dynastic period (and the Old Kingdom). This made it possible for the material culture to follow the gradual increase of Upper Egypt’s influence during the second half of the 4th millennium and therefore to gain information on the process of the emergence of the Egyptian state.
    Early Dynastic layers yielded evidence for the existence of an administrative building complex of which parts were excavated.

    Objectives

    Beside the questions of the early history of the site, during recent years the later development of the settlement and its topography, especially its interlocking with environmental conditions and the reconstruction of the ancient landscape, has become a focal point of interest.
    Since 2002, in cooperation with the DAI, a project of the University of Poitiers conducted by Pascale Ballet is investigating industrial activities and functional aspects in Buto during the Ptolemaic and Roman period.
    http://www.dainst.org/en/project/buto?ft=all
     
  7. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Behbeit el-Hagar


    Behbeit el-Hagar, a village just a few kilometres to the north of Samannud (Sebennytos) in the central Delta, marks the site of an important, though now destroyed temple, thought to have been known to the Greeks as The Iseum. The temple was probably linked to the town and temple of Sebennytos, home of the Dynasty XXX kings towards the end of the Late Period, as well as to the nearby Nome capital of Busiris.
    The modern village derives its name from the ancient ‘Per-Hebit’, meaning ‘The domain of the Festive Goddess’ and the temple, ‘Hebit’, seems to refer to a festival pavillion dedicated to the goddess Isis and the funerary rites with which she was associated. The site covers an area of about 7.6 hectares and is surrounded by cultivation on all sides. Ruins of a massive mudbrick enclosure wall constructed around the perimeter of the temple can still be seen on the northern and southern sides, but inside the enclosure only a tumbled mass of granite blocks lying on the surface remain to define the position of the temple, an area measuring around 80m by 55m. The great attraction to visitors of the site today is in the very finely carved reliefs on the broken granite blocks, much more delicate in style than the Ptolemaic reliefs in temples of Upper Egypt.
    Little is known of the early history of the site, though textural evidence suggests that there may have been a structure here from the late Saite Period. The names of the builders of the early Ptolemaic temple recovered from extant blocks, begin with Nectanebo II Senedjemibre of Dynasty XXX. Although his name does not appear on inscriptions from the temple, Nectanebo I Kheperkare is named in an inscription on a statue of Harsiesis (Vizier of Nectanebo II), which mentions work carried out on a waterway close to the site by the earlier ruler.
    Nectanebo II seems to have built a ‘Chapel of Osiris-Hemag’ on the northern edge of the later structure. This aspect of the god Osiris, crowned with the Atef plumes, was also associated with Nectanebo I, who was given the epithet ‘Beloved of Osiris-Hemag’ on the Harsiesis statue. Nectanebo II was probably also responsible for the construction of a dromos, lined with sphinxes, in the centre of the later main entrance.
    The main part of the temple was either constructed or at least decorated by Ptolemy II Philadelphus, whose names appear in inscriptions on blocks from the façade of a Sanctuary of Isis. On the façade the King is depicted being introduced to various gods by Isis who is named as ‘Isis the Great, the Divine Mother’ next to the King’s own cartouches and a huge lintel decorated with a winged disc described the dedication of the façade. There is evidence of a columned hall behind the Isis façade, but the remains of red granite columns were scattered over the site and many were later re-used. The Isis sanctuary was the largest element of the temple and the goddess is portrayed on blocks, together with her son Horus, in many aspects of kingship. The Sanctuary was surrounded by chapels on the northern, eastern and southern sides, while the roof appears to have contained more chapels associated with the rejuvenation and worship of aspects of Osiris.
    Ptolemy III Euergetes I probably constructed the main entrance to the temple and a dedicatory inscription containing cartouches of the ruler and his wife and sister Queen Berenice II can be seen on blocks of the northern wing which has toppled backwards. The entrance façade seems to have been dedicated to Osiris-Andjety by the King and to Isis by the Queen.
    It is not clear when the temple collapsed. Its destruction may have been due to an earthquake in ancient times or some other cause, and much of the stone was subsequently quarried away. One of the blocks was re-used in an important Temple of Isis and Serapis founded in Rome during the 1st century AD which establishes a latest date for an extant monument at Behbeit el-Hagar.
    No methodical excavation has yet been undertaken at Behbeit. It was visited and described by early travellers in the 18th century and some of the inscriptions copied during the 19th century and by Montet, Naville and others in the mid-20th century. In 1991, French Egyptologist Christine Favard-Meeks, published a proposed reconstruction and plan of the site based on inscriptions of the surface blocks.
    http://egyptsites.wordpress.com/2009/03/03/behbeit-el-hagar/
     
  8. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Tell Atrib (Athribis)

    This site is located just to the northeast of the modern town of Benha on the Damietta branch of the Nile, about 48 miles north of Cairo. It is the site of ancient Hut-hery-ib, called Athribis by the Greeks. Today, it is called Kom Sidi Youssuf. It was the capital of this nome (10th), and the city's history dates back into the Old Kingdom period. A number of kings built here, including Amenhotep III, who's northernmost building project was a temple in the city. It is now completely gone, but the remains of a number of temples has been located. Several of these date to the Graeco-Roman period, and another dates to the reign of the King Amasis, of Egypt's Late Period. Unfortunately, the ruins are too destroyed to even allow a full reconstruction. Most of the minor monuments found here can be dated to the 25th through 30th Dynasties, with none being earlier than the 12th Dynasty. There is also an extensive Graeco-Roman cemetery. Some 26th to 30th Dynasties silver ingots and jewelry that were found at the Athribis site that are now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

    [​IMG]

    Unfortunately, considerable excavation work needs to be done in the location quickly, for the area is slowly sinking even has modern apartment buildings are being built atop it. It is the Polish-Egyptian Archaeological Mission that is carrying out this work.

    There work has been concentrated in the northwestern part of the Ptolemaic quarter, where the remains of workshops and a bath compound had been found. In the area extending west and southwest of the baths, three different Ptolemaic strata could be distinguished. The majority of the ceramic material found here was produced by local workshops. The vessels demonstrate a continuation of ancient Egyptian traditions or an imitation of Greek patterns, or a combination of both. Such mixed traditions are also visible in the terracotta figurines found in the Ptolemaic strata. Various furnaces and stoves were unearthed, and workshops for the production of faience vessels and the sculpting of limestone votive objects could be identified. The excavations of the Mid-Ptolemaic baths were continued as well.

    http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/niledeltaruins.htm
     
  9. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    The Jewish Temple in the Land of Onias at Leontopolis in Egypt

    Near to the ancient ruins of the royal residence of the Pharaoh Shoshenq I, the first ruler of the 22nd dynasty in 952 BCE, a temple to the God of Israel was built. This Pharaoh Shoshenq I many archeologists believe was the biblical Pharaoh Shishak that invaded Jerusalem and looted the Temple of Solomon of many of his splendid furnishings after the death of King Solomon.

    [​IMG]Now eight hundred years later, the great, great, great grandfather of the High Priest Yeshua III, moved his entire family to Egypt for he and his family had been denied the hereditarial divinely appointed right of assuming the position of the high priest of Israel. Onias III, the great grandson of Simon I the Just (Tzaddik), was the last legitimate non-Hellenist high priest, that was the documented descendant of the High Priest of the Israelites, Aaron, through the lineage of Zadok.

    It was the year 164 BCE and Onias V (not Menelaus as Onias IV) became the first high priest that was denied the office of the high priest by an outside imperial ruler. It was Lysias, the Imperial Vice-Regent for the Syrian king, Antiochus V Eupator (164-162 BCE) that deprived Onias V this esteemed post. He gave the role of the high priest to Alcimus(163-159 BCE), a descendant of Eniachim, the brother of Jozadak, the exiled priest in Babylon and father of Yehoshua II, (Jesus II), the first high priest of the Temple of Zerubabbel. We ask, what was the problem? Eniachim was the brother to Jozadak the high priest and therefore he was not the oldest son and legitimate heir to the throne of the high priest. The high priest designate, Onias V, escaped from Jerusalem and took his family to Egypt. For the first time in Hebrew history, a foreign ruler had intervened in the hereditarial succession of the high priest of Israel, and denied the accession of the Onias V, to rule in his father, Onias III’s place.

    There upon an island in the marshy Delta of the Nile River, the high priest designate, Onias V placed the mark where the Temple of the Lord would be built that would rival the temple in Jerusalem. It was here wherethe Nile River meets the Egyptian Delta and spreads like a mighty fan northward before entering the Mediterranean Sea, Onias V settled his family in the Nome or District of Heliopolis. Nearby were the ruins of the ancient Egyptian Temple of Bubastis where they began to build their temple.

    The ancient Egyptian Temple of Bubastis was a sacred and ancient temple even in the days of 163 BCE. It was dedicatedto the 2000 year old cult of the feline goddess, Bastet, called the Lady of the East It was Herodotus who wrote:

    Herodotus“Other temples are greater and more costly, but none more pleasing to the eye then this.” (Herodotus, Histories Book II, Chapter 137)

    The famous temple of Bubastis dedicated to the cat goddess, Bast, rose like a tower in the midst of an island that was separate from the rest of the surrounding landscape by canals that flowed to it from the greater Nile River. Rather than being a hidden temple, the Temple of Babastis was recessed so that the nearby city could look down upon the temple and watch the sacred rituals that were being [​IMG]performed inside.


    [​IMG]Build in the shape of a square, the red granite walls are still seen today in their ruined state. Within was a sacred grove that was the only grove of tall trees that has been found within an Egyptian temple. There, the shrine of Bastet was held surrounded by the most amazing thing, a temple full of cats. There the cats were carried around in sacred baskets and fed in a ritualistic manner. The Spring festival in April or May of the cat goddess Bast was one of the most famous in Egypt. Let us read how Herodotus describes this sacred festival to the cat goddess of Egypt.

    The University of Bologna and the use of 3D Computerized Tomography (CT) digital radiographs of a Cat-Shaped Coffin with its cat mummy inside

    Herodotus "When the people are on their way to Bubastis, they go by river, a great number in every boat, men and women together. Some of the women make a noise with rattles, others play flutes all the way, while the rest of the women, and the men, sing and clap their hands.

    As they travel by river to Bubastis, whenever they come near any other town they bring their boat near the bank; then some of the women do as I have said, while some shout mockery of the women of the town; others dance, and others stand up and lift their skirts. They do this whenever they come alongside any riverside town. But when they have reached Bubastis, they make a festival with great sacrifices, and more wine is drunk at this feast than in the whole year besides. It is customary for men and women (but not children) to assemble there to the number of seven hundred thousand, as the people of the place say."

    It would be our supposition that the Temple of Bubastis was an ancient temple in the days of 163 BCE, but that may be true. Did the Jewish priests know exactly where the origins of this temple began for the height of the Bubastite period was the 22nd dynasty of Egypt. We have noted that the dynasty Egyptologists have designated this period as the dynasty ofPharaoh Shoshenq I, of the 22nd Dynasty of Egypt, the era of the biblical Shishak who invaded and conquered Jerusalem after the death of King Solomon and looted the Temple of Solomon of its treasures. Was this where the wealth of Solomon’s Temple was used in the building of the Temple of Bubastite after the year of 952 BCE?

    [​IMG]Cat Mummies in Honor of Bastet on display at the British Museum.


    During the Bubastite period, the popular religious ritual was the mummification of cats. Surrounding the entire region were vast cat cemeteries and the popular cat amulet was very prevalent in this era. According to the histories, the evidence of domesticated cats in Egypt has been discovered to be as old as 4000 years ago. Then in the ancient burial chambers, Egyptologist Alain Pierre Zivie discovered a network of tombs that contained rows and stacks of cat mummies. According also to Egyptologists, the Bubastis the temple ritual of worshipping the cat goddess was alive well as late as 640 CE.

    There on the island, in the beautiful island-delta region of Egypt, a high tower rose like a temple with the same dimensions but smaller and less ornate than the Temple in Jerusalem. Many writers have written how it was different in style to the Temple of Zerubabbel in Jerusalem. Yet, it was the archeologist,Ernest Martin, who also argued that the Temple of Herod was also built like a tower.

    [​IMG]It was here, where the High PriestOnias Vand his entourage of priests performed the ritual sacrificial services according to the laws of Torah. The kohens or Levitical priests would be presided over by the authorized family of high priests from the House of Zadok, the high priest of King David. This region of Egypt came to be known as the Land of Onias, in Greek, Egyptian, Jewish and Roman sources.

    The Temple of Bubastis in the Delta region of Leontopolis, Egypt.

    It was Onias III who wrote a letter, whether real or spurious, seeking royal permission to build a temple, from the Egyptian brother and sister, king-queen, Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II.

    Ptolemy V Epiphanes (204-180 BCE)
    Married, Cleopatra I, daughter of the Seleucid king, Antiochus III, three children;
    1. Ptolemy VI Philometor;
    2. Ptolemy VIII, and;
    3. Cleopatra II, a daughter who was in royal marriages with her two brothers.

    There was a reason for this action of Onias V, the son of the High Priest, Onias III, for in the aftermath of the attempted ransacking the treasury of the Jewish temple byHeliodorus, representing the Syrian Emperor Seleucus IV Pilopator, and the later “abomination of desolation by Syrian ruler, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, Antiochus later invaded into Egypt. In that military battle Antiochus IV lost to the Egyptian [​IMG]rulers, who were part Grecian, the brother and sister king-queen, Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II.

    Onias V knew that Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II were not friends of the Syrian king, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who had desecrated the Temple of Zerubabbel. They no doubt looked more favorably upon the Jewish people.


    Flavius Josephus“When Onias saw that Judea was oppressed by the Macedonians (Antiochus Epiphanes IV) and their kings out of a desire to purchase to himself a memorial and eternal fame, he resolved to send to king Ptolemy and queen Cleopatra, to ask leave of them that he might build a temple in Egypt like that at Jerusalem, and might ordain Levites and priests out of their own stock. The chief reason why he was desirous so to do, was, that he relied upon the prophet Isaiah, who lived above six hundred years before, and foretold that there certainly was to be a temple built to the Almighty God in Egypt by a man that was as Jew.” (Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, XIII, iii, 1)

    Josephus was emphatic that it was the prophecy of Isaiah that inspired Onias V, and that Onias V was person to fulfill this oracle of the Lord.

    Isaiah 19:19-20“In that day there will be analtarto the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar to the Lord at its border. And it will be for a sign and for a witness to the Lord of hosts in the land of Egypt: for they will cry to the Lord because of the oppressors, and He will send them aSavior and a Mighty One, and He will be known to Egypt, and the Egyptian will know the Lord in that day.

    For the next three generations, the descendants of Onias V, the high priest at the Jewish Temple at Leontopolis presided over the temple services. There in the tower-like temple that was built to imitate the temple in Jerusalem, the large population of Jews in Alexandria, Egypt went to worship. This Jewish temple did not have a menorah (candelabrum), but instead a large hanging lamp). It had a courtyard that was surrounded by a fortress like brick wall with stone gates. There this family of priests of the House of Zadok would dwell, until they were recalled back to Jerusalem.

    http://www.biblesearchers.com/yahshua/davidian/dynasty4.shtml
     
  10. Omowale Jabali

    Omowale Jabali The Cosmic Journeyman PREMIUM MEMBER

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    Samannud
    Central Delta town is located on the Damietta branch of the Nile about 6 km to the east of el-Mahalla el-Khubra. The town better known by its Greek name, Sebennytos, as being the home of the Egyptian historian Manetho. In his history Manetho described Sebennytos as being the town from which Nectanebo I Kheperkara (30th Dynasty) launched his offensive against the Persian invaders of the Delta.
    [​IMG]Located on the Damietta branch of the Nile in the Egyptian Delta, the modern town of Samannud, a cotton marketing centre, is 6km east of el-Mahalla el-Kubra, and is the site of ancient Tjebnutjer (coptic Djebenoute or Djemnouti), which the Greeks called Sebennytos. It was the capital of Egypt's 12th Lower nome. Manetho, perhaps the greatest of the native Egyptian historians, was from this region, and claims that it was the home of the 30th Dynasty kings.
    There are remains, though mostly only a mound, of a temple dedicated to the local god, Onuris-Shu (Anhur-Shu) who was a hunter and sky-god. It was probably at this temple that Manetho served as a priest. It is located on the western side of the modern town. There are scattered granite blocks from the site inscribed with the names of Nectanebo II, Alexander IV, Philip Arrhidaeus and Ptolemy II, with none of the inscriptions appearing to predate the 30th Dynasty. Some items found here are said to have come from neighbouring towns, including an Old Kingdom false door, an altar of Amenemhat I, a statue dated to Psammetichus I, a fragment of a shrine of Nephrites and a sculpture dating to the reign of Nectanebo I.
    [​IMG]The ancient Egyptian town was capital of the 12th Lower Egyptian Nome during the Late Period. There are few remains of Sebennytos today, although a mound still marks the site of the town and covers the remains of a temple begun by Nectanebo I - an important shrine dedicated to the sky-god Onuris-Shu who was identified with the Greek war-god Ares during the Ptolemaic Period. The cult of Onuris was first attested in the Thinite Nome near Abydos, from the Old Kingdom and Onuris-Shu and his consort Mehyt had cult centres at both Samannud and This.

    The temple at Sebennytos was decorated by Nectanebo II Senedjemibre, the last true Egyptian ruler until modern times, with later inscriptions of Philip Arrhidaeus, Alexander IV and Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Although the temple was documented as still being in existence during the 15th century AD, it was dismantled shortly afterwards, leaving only a scattered collection of granite, limestone and basalt blocks as the only visible remains to mark its presence.

    Edward Naville visited the site in 1887 and published a series of line drawings illustrating some of the reliefs found on blocks there. Many of the decorated blocks were removed to museums around the world, some remaining inscribed blocks as well as other architectural fragments have recently been put on display in an open-air storage magazine at the site by the Supreme Council of Antiquities.

    http://www.ancient-egypt.co.uk/people/pages/samannud.htm
     
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